natural power

ZephIR® laser anemometer

lidar wind profiler for
reliable, accurate, bankable wind data
up to 200m from...
deployed with:
                        measure wind with                              ZephIR®
                        We P...
Natural Power ZephIR

                                                             Natural Power ZephIR
“ZephIR is approved to be added to the ReRL

ZephIR evaluated at Risø’s høvsøre test, 2009
beNefIts of
                       ZephIR LIdAR                                                                           ...
INdustRy ACCePted                                                                                                         ...
system softWARe
                       ZephIR Waltz™ & ZephIR tempo™                                                      ...
PoWeR soLutIoNs                                                                                                           ...
NAtuRAL PoWeR’s methodoLogy
                       IN ComPLex teRRAIN                                                     ...
Image courtesy and copyright of CENER
“ZephIR has achieved 95% data availability

                       CAse study 2 : North America                           ...
“ZephIR gives us better confidence than ever before

                       CAse study 3 : New Zealand                    ...
Image courtesy and copyright of Risø DTU
ControlZephIR™ - WoRLd fIRsts                                                                                             ...
Natural Power Zeph Ir Brochure Ecopy
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Natural Power Zeph Ir Brochure Ecopy


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ZephIR laser anemometer / wind lidar

We pioneered the use of wind lidar in the industry some eight years ago. With more than two a hundred and fifty ZephIR deployments globally we remain the market leader.

ZephIR wind lidar has successfully operated through Canadian winters and Australian summers. Customers have financed projects using ZephIR data. Banks’ Engineers recommend ZephIR onshore and offshore to both complement and replace traditional masts. This is how we do it:

* 10m to 200m wind profile - speed, direction, turbulence
* Speed accuracy* < 0.5%
* Direction accuracy* < 0.5°
* 50 data points per second
* - 25°C to + 40°C operation (extendable operating range)
* 100W average power draw**
* + 5 years experience in the field
* Industry approved calibration
* Accepted by Banks’ Engineers
* One-man portable pods

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Natural Power Zeph Ir Brochure Ecopy

  1. 1. natural power ZephIR® laser anemometer lidar wind profiler for reliable, accurate, bankable wind data up to 200m from ground level clever ™
  2. 2. deployed with: measure wind with ZephIR® We PIoNeeRed the use of LIdAR IN the WINd INdustRy some eIght yeARs Ago. WIth moRe thAN 200 ZephIR dePLoymeNts gLobALLy We RemAIN the mARket LeAdeR. ZephIR has successfully operated through Canadian winters and Australian summers. Customers have financed projects using ZephIR data. Banks’ Engineers recommend ZephIR onshore and offshore to both complement and replace traditional masts. This is how we do it: • 10m to 200m wind profile - speed, direction, turbulence • speed accuracy* < 0.5% • direction accuracy* < 0.5° Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR • 50 data points per second • - 25°C to + 40°C operation (extendable operating range) • 100W average power draw** • + 5 years experience in the field • Industry approved validation • Accepted by banks’ engineers • one-man portable pods So what can we do to reduce your project risk and uncertainty? measure the wind up to 200 m etres c e from ten groun s en d s level .. . . . . . . . rea d t hi in t h e t ime it takes to * as measured against a calibrated moving target ** in standard dry climates (-13°C to +25°C)
  3. 3. Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR ZephIR has been used on more than 200 deployments and has operated in 23 countries worldwide
  4. 4. “ZephIR is approved to be added to the ReRL suite of wind speed measurement devices“ ZephIR APPLICAtIoNs - University of Massachusetts (UMASS) IN the WINd INdustRy “during the offshore assessment campaign the ACCuRAte PRedICtIoN of eNeRgy yIeLds Is fuNdAmeNtAL to the ZephIR came up with a remarkable data suCCess of WINd fARm PRojeCts. yIeLd PRedICtIoN ACCuRACy INCReAses availability, clearly being better than the by CoLLeCtINg hIgh quALIty WINd dAtA fRom NumeRous PoINts demanded 95%... ZephIR should now be thRoughout A WINd fARm ANd At APPRoPRIAte heIghts INCLudINg the thought of as a powerful tool to aid in the fuLL RotoR sWeeP. thIs deNsIty of dAtA CoLLeCtIoN Is dIffICuLt ANd understanding of flow conditions on sites exPeNsIve to AChIeve WIth tRAdItIoNAL ANemometRy mAsts ALoNe. being investigated“ - Germanischer Lloyd WINDTEST Based at ground level, ZephIR provides complete wind resource measurement including horizontal Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR and vertical wind speed, wind direction and turbulence at any height up to 200 metres without the need for a mast. ZephIR requires no planning permits and removes the need to work at height, “the ZephIR technology has provided Naikun mitigating associated health & safety issues. with continual wind resource measurement in a very challenging offshore environment. The portability of ZephIR and ease of deployment makes high density data collection a reality with Its reliability and performance has been close 50 measurements per height per second, both horizontally and vertically across the extent of your to 100 per cent and is a valuable asset in the site. ZephIR is used in four phases of a project: development of the Naikun offshore wind project in hecate strait near haida gwaii (the • site prospecting, assessment and turbine micro-siting queen Charlotte Islands)” • Wind flow model verification • Power curve assessment - NaiKun Wind Development Inc. • Permanent wind farm anemometry and operational wind farm analysis ZephIR has been independently tested and validated by respected parties in the wind industry. “We evaluated ZephIR’s performance next to a 100m mast in complex terrain and witnessed extremely high correlations against traditional meteorology, at all heights” - Center for Renewable Energy Sources (CRES)
  5. 5. the PRINCIPLes of LIdAR 200 metres (656 feet) allowing dR mIChAeL hARRIs, seNIoR sCIeNtIst At NAtuRAL PoWeR, measurements across the full wind hAs sPeNt oveR A deCAde WoRkINg IN the fIeLd of LIdAR turbine rotor diameter including hub height and tip height measurements. ReseARCh ANd desIgN. mIChAeL WAs fuNdAmeNtAL IN the desIgN CoNCePt of ZephIR At oNe of euRoPe’s LeAdINg ReseARCh ANd deveLoPmeNt INstItutes. beLoW, he outLINes the PRINCIPLes of LIdAR. “An eye-safe infrared beam illuminates natural aerosols in the atmosphere (such as dust, pollen and water droplets) and a small fraction of the light is Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR back scattered into a receiver. Motion of the target particles along the beam direction leads to a 5 user defined heights configured using the simple ZephIR Waltz™ change in the light’s frequency through Doppler shift which is then accurately measured. software supplied with every system. A conical scan pattern is used to move the beam and intercept the wind at different angles, building up a series of measurements around a disc of air from which the wind speed vector is obtained. ZephIR obtains each measurement in just 20 25 minutes set-up 10 metres (33 feet) allowing for correlations to short masts milliseconds and one second of data can be or historic wind data. Low used to derive the horizontal and vertical wind speed components and wind direction. This can measurements are particularly important offshore when the then be repeated from 10 metres up to a height of 200 metres, at five or more user-defined system is on a raised platform or heights by focussing the transmitted beam.” when an accurate onshore shear measurement is required. Michael is invited to present lidar papers and tuition sessions within a wide range of organisations across Europe and North America. He has conducted fundamental optics research at JILA 2 metres (6 foot 6 inches) ground (Boulder, Colorado) and the University of Essex. level wind measurements plus temperature, barometric pressure and humidity.
  6. 6. ZephIR evaluated at Risø’s høvsøre test, 2009 ZephIR is compared to the fixed anemometry at Risø’s Høvsøre 116m met mast during a test campaign over Winter 2009. ZephIR vs. cup @ 100m ZephIR vs. cup @ 80m 20 18 18 16 16 INdePeNdeNt CoRReLAtIoNs 14 14 12 ZephIR Wind Speed 78m (m/s) ZephIR Wind Speed 98m 12 10 10 8 8 6 y = 0.999x 6 y = 1.000x R² = 0.986 R² = 0.988 Risø evaluation of ZephIR at høvsøre, 2008 4 4 ZephIR is compared to the fixed anemometry at Risø’s Høvsøre 1 16m met mast. Ten minute average wind speeds are 2 2 collected over a 10 week period at 4 heights. This recent study took place during the Spring of 2008. 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Mast Wind Speed 100m Mast Wind Speed 80m (m/s) ZephIR vs. cup @ 60m ZephIR vs. cup @ 40m 18 18 16 16 14 14 12 12 ZephIR Wind Speed 38m (m/s) ZephIR Wind Speed 58m (m/s) Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR 10 10 8 8 6 y = 0.999x 6 y = 0.999x R² = 0.992 4 R² = 0.986 4 2 2 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Mast Wind Speed 40m (m/s) Mast Wind Speed 60m (m/s) germanischer Lloyd WINdtest evaluation of ZephIR offshore at fINo1 research platform, 2006 ZephIR is compared to the fixed anemometry over a six month period. The correlation graphs show the relationship between the wind speed readings from a cup and the corresponding wind speed readings from the ZephIR. Data are plotted against each other and a line of best fit drawn. By forcing this line of best fit through the origin its gradient, y, indicates the mean difference between the two readings. For example, a gradient of 1.01 would indicate a difference of 1%. The R 2 value gives an assessment of how well correlated the two sets of values are. If the cup and the ZephIR always read identically then the R 2 value will be 1, i.e. they are perfectly correlated. At the other extreme, an R 2 value of zero would indicate that the values bear no relationship to each other whatsoever. evaluation of ZephIR at a tall mast in North America, 2009 The identical ZephIR system tested above is also compared to the fixed anemometry at a 193m met mast during a test campaign in Spring, 2009. For the above campaign, the availability was recorded as: • 100% for the overall system availability • 99.6% for the overall data availability
  7. 7. beNefIts of ZephIR LIdAR CLoud ReCogNItIoN ANd RemovAL Not ALL LIdARs ARe the sAme. ZephIR Is desIgNed ARouNd veRy sImPLe, CLouds CAN be hIghLy sCAtteRINg objeCts WhICh PRovIde A sIgNAL thAt Rugged ANd ReLIAbLe oPtICs, the heARt of WhICh Is A CoNtINuous WAve Is meAsuRed by LIdARs. INCLusIoN of these sIgNALs IN PRoCessed dAtA (CW) LIdAR WhICh PRovIdes CLeAR AdvANtAges oveR otheR LIdAR systems CouLd LeAd to AN oveRALL INCReAse IN the uNCeRtAINty of the WINd sPeed meAsuRed. Sensitivity ZephIR is able to recognise and remove this cloud signal using a patented cloud removal algorithm. This has been extensively tested in a number of locations, and its effectiveness demonstrated by correlation analysis against calibrated ZephIR’s sensitivity remains constant at all heights ensuring high data availability in all conditions. tall masts. The emitted laser beam is focussed at each user configured height - the laser power does not Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR change at each height or with range and so the sensitivity does not degrade. During the wind profile scan, background measurements are taken to quantify the specific cloud return and the cloud effect is then removed from the processed data. In general, Lidars of various types of design will all have difficulty measuring in very low cloud and fog scenarios; the light emitted from the Lidar simply doesn’t reach the height of Sample rate interest due to the density of the atmosphere. Whilst this atmospheric condition mostly occurs during low wind speed ZephIR measures 50 data points every second across a full 360 degree scan providing the high periods, it is essential that these periods be identified. With ZephIR these particular conditions can be ‘seen’ and sample rate advantageous in complex and fast changing air flows. automatically detected and filtered. ZephIR can be configured so that the data output is automatically filtered for such conditions of reduced certainty, ready Accurate measurements to use wind data simply presented to you over the averaging period of your choice. ZephIR provides highly accurate measurements from 200 metres down to just 10 metres from ground level where wind shear typically changes more rapidly with height. totAL dAtA dAtA PoINts heIght y (mean difference) R2 (correlation) PoINts WIth CLoud 1 16m 0.990 0.986 2604 1098 As height increases and wind shear changes less rapidly, ZephIR still provides highly accurate 100m 0.999 0.986 2603 1098 measurements with a probe length of less than 8 metres @ 100 metres height. Similarly, the 80m 1.000 0.988 2601 1094 optics are designed such that at 200 metres, ZephIR delivers excellent results as demonstrated on 60m 0.999 0.992 2597 1093 the previous page. 40m 0.999 0.986 2740 1 92 1 ZephIR’s optical design ensures that at these crucial low heights, probe length (effective sample In order to demonstrate the accurate performance of ZephIR with cloud conditions the above results have been measured. The data set below was taken during periods of both clear (~ 60%) and cloudy (~40%) skies. The number length) can be as small as just 7 cm. of data points taken during cloud has been indicated (cloud was measured using a Ceilometer), demonstrating excellent accuracy in extreme cloud conditions.
  8. 8. INdustRy ACCePted sAfety & eNvIRoNmeNtAL vALIdAtIoN CeRtIfICAtIoNs ALL LIdAR systems Need to be suCCessfuLLy vALIdAted to AN INdustRy LIdAR systems IN the WINd INdustRy must oPeRAte sAfeLy. ZephIR ACCePted stANdARd befoRe CustomeRs CommeNCe dePLoymeNt. hAs uNdeRgoNe RIgoRous sAfety testINg eNsuRINg ANy useR CAN bANks’ eNgINeeR gARRAd hAssAN hAve WoRked WIth us IN defININg effeCtIveLy oPeRAte the system WIth mINImAL tRAININg ANd No sPeCIfIC the PRINCIPLes of ouR vALIdAtIoN PRoCess foR ALL NeW systems. quALIfICAtIoNs oR CeRtIfICAtIoN IN LAseRs. We hAve suCCessfuLLy thIs PRovIdes the tRACeAbILIty WhICh Is A key eLemeNt of foRmAL AdheRed to euRoPeAN sAfety LAWs ANd kePt WIthIN the LoWest LeveL eNeRgy PRedICtIoN RePoRts used by the fINANCIAL CommuNIty. befoRe of LAseR CLAssIfICAtIoN. As A Ce-mARked, CeRtIfIed CLAss 1 LAseR shIPPINg, eACh ZephIR uNdeRgoes seveRAL stAges of RIgoRous CheCks. system, ZephIR CAN be dePLoyed sAfeLy ANyWheRe, by ANy AbLe body. these PRoCesses ARe RePeAted As PARt of the RoutINe mAINteNANCe WheNeveR A uNIt RetuRNs to NAtuRAL PoWeR. Conformité Européenne - the CE mark ZephIR is IP65 rated for resistance to particle and water Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR The CE marking is a mandatory conformity mark on many penetration. Deployments on offshore platforms have The reference system is compared below to the fixed products placed on the single market in the European demonstrated the systems ability to withstand offshore Velocity and Directional Accuracy anemometry at the test site showing strong correlation and a Economic Area (EEA). The CE marking certifies that a product conditions such as sea spray and salt corrosion for prolonged The velocity and directional accuracy are checked in the gradient close to 1: has met EU consumer safety, health and environmental periods of time. laboratory against a calibrated moving target, to an accuracy requirements. of better than 0.5%. The velocity calibration depends only on The tall, round design of ZephIR ensures snow does not build laser wavelength and scanner cone angle, so there is no risk ZephIR is Ce compliant, certified by an independent up during severe weather conditions. The top pod has a very of drift even over an extended period of operation. compliance company who are fully ukAs accredited. small surface area and is angled to reduce the risk of snow gathering and prevent the laser beam being emitted. Velocity resolution of ZephIR is very high and its accuracy is ZephIR achieved full safety compliance for electrical measured to be 0.003m/s against a calibrated moving belt equipment and measurement, standard eN61010- Laser safety target. 1:2001. The operator of a laser system outdoors must comply with the international legislation on laser safety (IEC 60825-1) to Focussing at Height ZephIR has achieved eN61326:1997 for emC emissions ensure protection of workers and the general public. Higher ZephIR focus is calibrated at the factory and its range is set by and susceptibility. class lasers (Class 3R, Class 3B, Class 4) are potentially a closed loop positioning system. hazardous and their use outdoors places a responsibility on Environmental performance the user to minimise any risks. Calibrated Reference Unit A typical new ZephIR system is compared below to the Wind projects are often sited in challenging conditions where Each ZephIR undergoes an outdoor test to measure wind reference system and again shows strong correlation and a equipment is exposed to the elements for extended periods ZephIR has been independently certified as Class 1, the speed side-by-side against a Reference Unit. The Reference gradient close to 1: of time. lowest laser category into which everyday devices such as CD Unit has been checked against a tall mast such as at Risø’s players are placed and poses no hazard to operators. Høvsøre test site; this provides traceability to measurements. ZephIR is constructed using a twin-skin Glass Reinforced Risø are the National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy at the Plastic (Polyvitro infusion composite) with a layer of The international standard defines Class 1 as: Technical University of Denmark - DTU. Xtratherm Polysio (PIR) Foam. This method of fabrication “lasers that are safe under reasonably foreseeable conditions has proved highly successful across the full and extensive of operation, including the use of optical instruments for operating temperature range which has been tested both in intrabeam viewing”. an environmental chamber and in the field during customer deployments.
  9. 9. system softWARe ZephIR Waltz™ & ZephIR tempo™ dAtA doWNLoAd ZephIR Is suPPLIed WIth PRoPRIety softWARe - WALtZ™ ANd temPo™ - thAt oNCe dAtA hAs beeN doWNLoAded to youR ComPuteR It Is A sImPLe CLICk PRovIdes A useR-fRIeNdLy INteRfACe to youR ZephIR vIA A PC. to exPoRt It ALL IN to A .Csv fILe foRmAt foR ANALysIs, oR ImPoRt It dIReCtLy IN to A PRogRAm suCh As WINdogRAPheR. dAtA Is PReseNted IN A foRmAt CoNsIsteNt WIth tRAdItIoNAL ANemometRy, keePINg the PRoCess sImPLe foR WINd eNgINeeRs. ZephIR Waltz Header Descriptions Waltz allows the user to access ZephIR remotely in realtime to The screen shot below is a view of the operational screen and Reference; Each one second measurement has a reference max gust (m/s); Maximum one second wind speed configure heights, play data live and access system updates. highlights the data collected by ZephIR. associated with it. The reference starts at zero and increments measured by the ZephIR in the ten minute average. The screen shot below shows just how simple it is to configure with each reading. Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR the five different heights between 10m and 200m from ZephIR bearing (degrees); Compass bearing of ZephIR ground level. timestamp; The time and date of the reading as a North arrow. numerical format in seconds. met. speed; Horizontal wind speed as measured by the height (m); Current ZephIR measurement height. met. station. horizontal velocity (m/s); Mean horizontal wind speed as Wind vane Reading (degrees); Wind direction as read by measured by the ZephIR at the given height. ZephIR met. mast vertical velocity (m/s); Mean vertical wind speed as temperature (C); Ambient temperature measured by the measured by the ZephIR at the given height. MET station. Wind direction (degrees); Wind direction as measured by Pressure (hPa); Ambient pressure measured by the met. the ZephIR at the given height. station. turbulence Intensity; Mean variation of individual point humidity; Ambient humidity measured by the met. station. measurements from the mean wind speed. This is normalised by the horizontal wind speed. status flags; Internal ZephIR status [Red/Amber/Green]. min gust (m/s); Minimum one second wind speed measured gPs data; GPS location data as set in the configuration. by the ZephIR in the ten minute average. ZephIR Tempo battery status (v); External supply voltage if present, Tempo allows for automated, scheduled data download otherwise internal battery voltage. at a set period. Customers with multiple units are able to automatically, quickly and consistently dial in to units and download all data since the last scheduled download.
  10. 10. PoWeR soLutIoNs CommuNICAtIoN oPtIoNs ZephIR RequIRes A CoNstANt 100 WAtt suPPLy duRINg NoRmAL oPeRAtINg Remote seNsINg devICes ARe dePLoyed WoRLdWIde ANd RequIRe fLexIbLe CoNdItIoNs. WhILst mANAgINg A fLeet of ReNtAL systems We hAve CommuNICAtIoNs to seCuReLy ACCess dAtA dIReCtLy fRom youR desk gAINed muCh exPeRIeNCe IN PRovIdINg Remote PoWeR. ACRoss A vARIety of NetWoRks. ZephIR standard power requirements in practice over several winter and summer seasons that Ethernet Communications Service Package To ensure ZephIR only draws the power it needs during operation is possible down to -40°C when an insulation Ethernet is a global networking standard supporting high Natural Power are happy to offer a fully managed service varying operating temperatures, the system is designed to jacket is used and up to +50°C at the other extreme. If speed communications locally, or over distance. The ZephIR package for your communications requirements. Please get automatically control heaters and fans as necessary. Details of ZephIR is exposed to temperatures below -10 degrees Ethernet port can be connected directly to a laptop or in touch to find out more. the power requirements varying conditions are shown below. regularly it is recommended to use an insulating jacket. This into Wifi, the Internet or a corporate network for direct Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR ZephIR is specified to operate between -25°C and +40°C . reduces power draw and provides some protection from the communications with your office. Data Storage ZephIR has been laboratory tested within these ranges but elements. ZephIR writes all data to an integral, removable flash memory operation outside of this range is possible. We have seen GSM card. Customers are able to store 1 months of 3 second 2 The most widely supported mobile phone protocol is GSM. wind data on one card. This onboard storage offers a back- It is used by over 3 billion people across more than 2 2 1 up should the regional communications network have any standard Climate Cold Climate hot Climate (-13°C to +25°C) (-25°C to -13°C) (+25°C to +40°C) countries and territories. Each ZephIR comes with a built in failures during the deployment. GSM modem. This allows communication with the ZephIR Standard draw 100W 1 10W* 100W through the telephone network using a modem. GPRS is Natural Power anemometry services Heaters - 76W - also supported, allowing direct access from internet enabled We are able to provide a fully managed anemometry service Fans - - 18W machines and support for networks where GSM is not for your ZephIR deployments ensuring all wind data is totAL 100W 186W 118W available. downloaded, stored and delivered to you. Our wind engineers currently manage a portfolio of anemometry devices globally * in cold weather the standard draw increases from 100W to 110W due to heaters in the MET station drawing 10W Iridium for project developers and utilities. For ultimate flexibility, the Iridium satellite network provides During extreme cold conditions where the batteries have been completely discharged higher power draw will occur. During wiper activation an additional 10W is required periodically. ZephIR has 12 - 24 hours reserve power provided by internal batteries. truly global communications for your ZephIR. Simply connect the optional Iridium modem to get direct access to your INPUT VOLTAGE RANGE: 27.75v +/- 0.5v device, pole to pole. Satellite Internet Where standard mobile infrastructure fails, satellite internet can be deployed. This method provides a high speed, dedicated link between the ZephIR and the internet using a satellite dish and can be used in locations with line-of-site to geo-synchronous satellites over the equator.
  11. 11. NAtuRAL PoWeR’s methodoLogy IN ComPLex teRRAIN meAsuRINg tuRbuLeNCe tuRbuLeNCe CAN mANIfest ItseLf As gusts, eddIes, ANd fLuCtuAtIoNs IN WINd sPeed. It Is ImPoRtANt IN WINd eNeRgy APPLICAtIoNs to ChARACteRIse the LeveLs of tuRbuLeNCe eNCouNteRed At A sPeCIfIC sIte LoCAtIoN. A CommoNLy-used bAsIC meAsuRe of tuRbuLeNCe Is tuRbuLeNCe INteNsIty (tI). ZePhIR AutomAtICALLy CALCuLAtes ANd Logs the stAte of the ARt IN the APPLICAtIoN of Remote seNsINg ANd Cfd the vALues of tI foR eACh 10-mINute meAsuRemeNt PeRIod. Complex wind farm sites present various challenges which The Natural Power methodology uses a combination of high- ZephIR calculates the turbulence intensity (TI) that a The plot below shows a comparison of standard deviation can often limit the applicability of conventional wind resource density measurement campaigns alongside an advanced CFD conventional cup would have obtained at the same for 10-minute averaged horizontal wind speeds obtained by Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR and energy yield measurement assessment methods, due to flow model (VENTOS®). VENTOS® has been specifically and measurement height by analysing the variation in individual ZephIR and calibrated cup anemometer mounted on 80m the complexity of the flow physics at play and the spatial and intensively validated for application on complex terrain and wind speed values during a 10-minute averaging period. meteorological mast. All sectors are included and no filtering temporal variations in the flow conditions. forested sites. This value of TI is automatically logged in the output data. has been performed. ZephIR was deployed 62m from the The calculation takes into account the difference between mast in flat terrain; the agreement between individual points The effects of this are varied; the typically steep slopes A map is produced showing the area of highest flow point measurements obtained from a cup anemometer, and is affected by the separation and differing probe volumes, encountered on complex terrain sites often violate the complexity in terms of turbulence, shear, inflow angle, veer spatially-averaged lidar data where a volume is interrogated. an overall assessment of the site turbulance shows good assumptions on which linearised flow models are based, and deviation from conventional flow modelling results. This ZephIR’s measurements of turbulence have been investigated agreement. notably the assumption that topography is a perturbation identifies areas where flow modelling uncertainty is highest in a number of independent studies against calibrated met to the horizontal flow, rather than a true 3-D effect. An and informs where further measurement campaigns are masts in flat, offshore and complex terrain, and at different * “Investigation of turbulence measurements with a off-horizontal flow can result in measurement errors with best performed in order to deliver an optimised reduction in heights above ground*. continuous wave, conically scanning lidar”, R Wagner, T anemometry. Additionally, forestry cannot be accurately prediction uncertainty. Measurements are then performed at Mikkelsen, M Courtney, Risø-R-1 682(EN), March 2009 modelled using simple methods for a number of reasons. as many locations as deemed necessary, using a combination Regions with significant veer can complicate wake loss of conventional anemometry and ZephIR (a lidar wind and wind prediction calculations. Finally, strong wind speed profiler) as required to obtain an optimum balance between gradients make the energy yield very sensitive to the precise measurement density and increased certainty in the results. location of the measurement systems used. These measured and modelled data sets are then fed into Measuring and predicting wind flows in complex terrain an overall analysis model, with the output of the process requires a methodology that addresses the above challenges. being a set of maps which describe the full set of flow variables across the site, validated by measurements. These Natural Power has developed a best-practice methodology variables include; inflow angle, veer, shear profile across the which combines several leading technologies to reduce rotor disk, mean horizontal velocity and turbulence intensity. and quantify wind resource and energy yield prediction These variables not only serve as turbine micro-siting uncertainties. constraints and to provide an estimate of mean annual wind resource and energy production, but serve as an input to site classification and wind quality analyses, which are increasingly required for engaging with prospective turbine technology suppliers on complex terrain sites.
  12. 12. Image courtesy and copyright of CENER ZephIR - an integrated tool at CeNeR’s CAse study 1 : spain experimental test site in complex terrain National Renewable energy Centre (CeNeR) the PuRPose of the CeNeR WINd eNeRgy dePARtmeNt Is to deveLoP APPLIed ReseARCh ACtIvItIes ANd gIve teChNICAL AdvICe IN the fIeLd of WINd eNeRgy, PRovIdINg A seRvICe foR ALL the seCtoR PLAyeRs, suCh As deveLoPeRs, mANufACtuReRs, CeRtIfICAtIoN AuthoRItIes, fINANCIAL INstItutIoNs, useRs, AssoCIAtIoNs ANd AdmINIstRAtIve bodIes, both At home ANd AbRoAd. the AIm, IN shoRt, Is to ImPRove the effICIeNCy ANd theRefoRe the ComPetItIveNess of AN evoLvINg seCtoR. IN thIs seNse, the CeNeR WINd eNeRgy dePARtmeNt Is WoRkINg oN dIffeReNt ReseARCh PRojeCts, oN Its oWN INItIAtIve ANd IN CooPeRAtIoN WIth Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR teChNoLogICAL CeNtRes, INstItutIoNs ANd ComPANIes. “During 2009 and 2010 the Wind energy Department of CENER is measurement according to IEC 61400-1 and in parallel used the 2-1, developing an experimental test site in complex terrain in the north ZephIR lidar data to provide wind profile information, in order to obtain of Spain, for the testing of multi-megawatt wind turbines, up to 120m a better understanding of the wind conditions across the rotor area, hub height. and study its effect on power production. ZephIR is an integrated tool of this facility, which complements the At the moment, we are using ZephIR to keep on with lidar-related measurements provided by the meteorological masts. In particular, research activities. In particular, within the SafeWind Project (EU ZephIR allows measuring the wind conditions up to heights greater 7th Framework Program), which focuses on extreme events, than hub height. Moreover, the option for mobility that the lidar we are working on the creation of a long-term database of lidar provides, allow us to measure upwind or downwind conditions measurements in complex terrain. One of CENER’s tasks in this when required. ZephIR has been integrated in the experimental project is to investigate the benefits of new measurement techniques site calibration, in order to allow for future use of the lidar as a (remote sensing) for resource assessment and forecasting purposes.” complement to standard-compliant tests and research activities. CENER’s previous experience with ZephIR lidar includes various measurement campaigns, mainly in complex terrain. Most of our activities have been carried out under the framework of the UpWind project (EU 6th Framework Program). The aim of our work has been to contribute to enhance the knowledge on the performance of this technology in complex terrain. Particular cases of study have been the installation of a ZephIR lidar in the proximity of a wind turbine and IEC-compliant meteorological masts, in order to analyse the wind vector at various heights, wind shear and turbulence. During 2009 we carried out a power curve
  13. 13. “ZephIR has achieved 95% data availability CAse study 2 : North America for the past 9 months demonstrating its reliability Naikun Wind development Inc and suitability in such challenging conditions.” IN 2006 NAIkuN begAN WoRkINg WIth NAtuRAL PoWeR oN A NoveL APPRoACh to gAtheRINg WINd dAtA offshoRe foR the heCAte stRAIt WINd fARm PRojeCt off the CoAst of NoRth West bRItIsh CoLumbIA. Not WIshINg to ComPRomIse dAtA ACCuRACy by ReduCINg mAst INstALLAtIoN Costs, NAIkuN Looked At Remote seNsINg teChNoLogIes As A WAy foRWARd. Over the following months NaiKun developed a world-class marine than 50% of all certifications. GL WINDTEST has been providing Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR meteorological station equipped with ZephIR as the sole on-site NaiKun with operational support, data collection from the ZephIR via resource assessment tool to provide a bankable wind regime across SatComms, system integrity checks and the ongoing data analysis in the site, plus a number of other high-tech devices for measuring sea the Hecate Strait wind farm project. current velocities and wave heights, periods and direction. All data is transmitted in real-time to their wind resource managers in Germany, Commenting on the success of the project, Detlef Kindler, Senior and met-ocean managers in Victoria, BC. The data collected will Offshore Project Manager for GL WINDTEST highlighted that “one play an important role in pre-engineering the project and identifying critical performance indicator of such remote solutions optimal siting of wind turbine locations. described here is availability and ensuring continuous data collection. ZephIR has achieved 95% data availability for the “Natural Power’s ZephIR will improve our ability to profile past 9 months demonstrating it’s reliability and suitability in the resource by providing wind measurements within the such challenging conditions.” Kindler also commented that “with entire area of a turbine blade rotation; from base to hub more than 3 years of operating ZephIR’s the system can now height within seconds. traditional anemometers provide be seen not as an emerging technology but as a product and data, but only at one height and cannot capture other wind tool that wind engineers should call upon for wind resource characteristics like this particular LidAR system does,” noted assessment. the Naikun project has clearly demonstrated Peter Hunter, Vice President for Design & Planning at NaiKun that ZephIR can assist developers not only onshore but now Wind Development. “the difference in technology is dramatic, offshore also.” not unlike that between an x-Ray and Ct scan. Instead of a snapshot of the resource, using ZephIR we can gain a multi- dimensional understanding of the wind resource and several characteristics at the project site. the data collected will be used to optimise project design and layout of the wind farm.” ZephIR has now successfully been gathering data on the station for the past 1 months, acting as the sole on-site resource assessment 2 tool. The platform has been managed by GL WINDTEST - the world’s leading certification body in the wind energy field. GL WINDTEST has extensive experience in certifying onshore and offshore wind energy products and projects, responsible for more
  14. 14. “ZephIR gives us better confidence than ever before CAse study 3 : New Zealand that conditions at potential wind farm sites meridian energy Ltd are acceptable.” meRIdIAN eNeRgy geNeRAtes eLeCtRICIty fRom 100% ReNeWAbLe ResouRCes WIth A PoRtfoLIo of hydRo ANd WINd geNeRAtIoN. IN deveLoPINg WINd PRojeCts suCh As West WINd IN WeLLINgtoN ANd te uku NeAR hAmILtoN It WAs CRuCIAL to obtAIN WINd dAtA quICkLy ANd IN dIffICuLt teRRAIN - eReCtINg hub heIght meteoRoLogICAL mAsts WAs Not feAsIbLe IN ALL LoCAtIoNs thAt WeRe IdeNtIfIed As RequIRINg WINd meAsuRemeNts so they begAN LookINg foR A NeW methodoLogy. Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR Meridian purchased one of the first production ZephIR Dougal McQueen, Research Associate at Meridian, has much systems back in 2005 and followed this by purchasing a field deployment experience having operated ZephIR’s for the further second system in 2008. past four years. “It takes me less than an hour to install our ZephIR and begin measurements at height. the Paul Botha, Wind Technical Consultant at Meridian, explains reliability of the units themselves has been good and how ZephIR is used across sites in New Zealand. “our the casing’s composite plastic structure is extremely ZephIR’s are extremely valuable in measuring from tough and well suited to the environment and rugged short masts at around 30m upto hub height at around terrain here in NZ. ZephIR gives us better confidence 90m. short tilt-up masts are cheap to install and than ever before that conditions at potential wind farm ZephIR can be placed next to the mast for periods sites are acceptable.” of approximately 6 weeks to obtain good hub height measurements. We can also use ZephIR for micro-siting around a large site, returning to the mast as a reference point.” In addition, Meridian are able to assess wind flow with ZephIR where access is difficult and terrain conditions mean a guyed mast may not be able to be installed. Botha notes “We measure wind shear across the entire rotor disk notably up to 130m, and can understand other wind characteristics such as inflow angle at turbine locations in complex terrain. We have also used ZephIR to provide a qualitative turbulence intensity assessment, measuring fluctuations in wind direction and eddies.”
  15. 15. Image courtesy and copyright of Risø DTU “since the very first ZephIR unit trialled, the product CAse study 4 : denmark combines revolutionary ideas with high accuracy.” Risø dtu the dANIsh WINd tuRbINe INdustRy hAs A 40% shARe of the gLobAL mARket ANd emPLoys moRe thAN 20,000 PeoPLe, mAkINg It the WoRLd LeAdeR IN WINd PoWeR. some 20% of deNmARk’s domestIC eLeCtRICIty PRoduCtIoN Comes fRom WINd. the deveLoPmeNt of WINd PoWeR IN deNmARk Is ChARACteRIsed by A CLose CoLLAboRAtIoN betWeeN PubLICLy fINANCed ReseARCh ANd INdustRy IN key AReAs suCh As ReseARCh ANd deveLoPmeNt, CeRtIfICAtIoN, testINg, ANd the PRePARAtIoN of stANdARds. RIsø dtu PLAy A PIvotAL RoLe IN PRovIdINg thIs R&d to deNmARk’s gRoWINg WINd INdustRy. Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR In January 2004, Risø DTU took delivery of the first ZephIR “We have been working with Natural Power ever since prototype, and shortly afterwards used it to perform the first the very first ZephIR unit was trialled; from the start lidar comparisons against their tall mast at Høvsøre. Since the product combined revolutionary ideas with high then, Risø have tested over a dozen ZephIR systems for the accuracy, and we have seen this further improved over purposes of: the following years. the ZephIR team at Natural Power has always been open to developing the product, • Independent correlations for customers using ZephIR both in improving its performance and also its use in as the sole source of anemometry on projects novel applications, for example the turbine mounted • Ongoing ZephIR research & development application and ‘Windscanner’. [Windscanner is a system • Development of new products and algorithms combining three steerable ZephIR lidars providing 3-D wind • Traceable calibration for Natural Power’s ZephIR and turbulence measurements - see for reference system more information]. Torben Mikkelsen, Professor in the Wind Energy Division at We very much see lidar as an essential tool for the Risø DTU, commented in 2004 that “Lidar nowadays gives future of both the wind energy research community rapid, reliable and accurate measurements. Notably, and the wind industry.” the technology permits wind yields to be determined at heights significantly above the furthest reach of the - WINd eNeRgy dIvIsIoN, Risø dtu highest wind turbines and offers great deployment flexibility”. The relationship between Risø DTU and Natural Power has flourished with much ongoing work involving the use of ZephIR. One such example is the recent world’s first installation of a lidar in the spinner of a wind turbine - this particular development is detailed on the next pages under ControlZephIR.
  16. 16. ControlZephIR™ - WoRLd fIRsts teChNICAL sPeCIfICAtIoN the INCoRPoRAtIoN of AdvANCed WINd dAtA fRom ZephIR INto tuRbINe PeRfoRmANCe ZephIR CoNtRoL systems offeRs oWNeR / oPeRAtoRs the PossIbILIty of ImPRoved Range (min.) 10 metres Range (max.) 200 metres eNeRgy yIeLd ANd LoAd ReduCtIoN by ComPeNsAtINg the effeCts of yAW Probe length @ 10 m 0.07 metres eRRoRs, gusts ANd stRoNg WINd sheAR. ZephIR WAs the fIRst LIdAR to Probe length @ 100 m 7.70 metres be INstALLed oN AN oPeRAtIoNAL tuRbINe bACk IN 2003. NoW, NAtuRAL Heights measured 5 (user configurable) PoWeR hAve WoRked WIth RIsø dtu to AChIeve the WoRLd’s fIRst LIdAR Sampling rate 50Hz Averaging period 1s upwards (user configurable) meAsuRemeNts fRom A RotAtINg tuRbINe sPINNeR / hub. Scanning cone angle 30° (other angles available) In September 2009 Risø DTU reported their latest results Speed accuracy* < 0.5% Natural Power ZephIR Natural Power ZephIR from a fast data acquisition continuous wave (cw) wind Speed range 1 m/s to 70 m/s lidar - ZephIR - which has been installed and operated in Direction accuracy* < 0.5° the rotating spinner of a large 80 m diameter, 59 m hub height Vestas NM80 wind turbine located at Tjæreborg Enge in western Denmark. To the best of Risø knowledge this oPeRAtIoNs ZephIR achieved a “World first” successful operation of a forward Temp range (min.) -25°C looking wind lidar integrated in the spinner of an operating Temp range (max.) +40°C wind turbine. This new measurement concept has allowed Extendable range achievable an unimpeded view of the approaching wind field, which has been interrogated using several different scan patterns. Power consumption 100 Watts** Information on wind speed, shear and direction has been Power input 28 V extracted and compared to the output from an adjacent met Weight including 1 - 24h 2 1 kg 34 mast. battery back-up ControlZephIR installed - 2009 Torben Mikkelsen, Professor at Risø DTU, reported “our results encourage development and integration of dAtA ZephIR continuous wave wind lidar technologies in the area 10 minute averaging 80K / day of active turbine control and improvement of wind 3 second data 3MB / day turbine performance. during the test period ZephIR has shown excellent reliability and data availability was very high throughout the 4 month measurement sAfety ZephIR period.” Laser classification Class 1 Eye safety standard IEC 60825-1 IP Rating IP65 Compliance Full CE accrediation ZephIR has integral batteries providing 1 - 24 hours back-up power. 2 * as measured against a calibrated moving target ControlZephIR installed - 2003 ** in normal operating conditions (-13°C to +25°C)