Mindanao State University Fatima, General Santos City Education 107
Learning Objectives: At the end of thislesson, the students are expected to;• Understand the nature of Instructional Planning, Basis of an effective Instructional Planning.• Determine the different Importance of Instructional Planning.• Enumerate the principles of Instructional Planning.• Define Instructional Planning.
• Planning deals with selecting objectives and actions to achieve them. It requires decision-making; that is, choosing from among alternative future courses of action. Plans provide a rational approach to achieving pre-selected objectives. Planning bridges the gap from where we are now and where we want to be.
Effective planning is based on knowledge of(1)the general goals of the school,(2)the objectives of the course or subject,(3)students’ abilities, aptitudes, needs, and interest,(4)content to be included and appropriate unit into which the subject can be divided, and(5)techniques of short-range instruction or lesson planning.
Teacher planning is a form of decision-making. Planning a course, unit or lesson thatinvolves decision in two areas:(1) subject matter knowledge, concerningorganization and presentation of content,knowledge of student understanding of content,and knowledge of how to teach the content, and(2) action system knowledge, concerning teachingactivities such as diagnosing, grouping, managing,and evaluating students and implementinginstructional activities and learning experience.
• Instructional planning provides an overview of instruction by way of presenting a clean total picture of the lesson for the day or for the entire year.
• Instructional planning makes learning purposeful. The teacher’s clear understanding of the pupils’/students’ behavior will in effect, help increase learners opportunities for learning and reduce to a great extent anxiety and uncertainty.
•Instructional planning enables the teachers to engage in reflective thinking before writing a unit lesson plan.
Other related importance’s of instructional planning are:(1)Provides for logical sequencing and pacing of lessons.(2)Economizes costs-=time and energy.(3)Provides for variety of instructional objectives.(4)Creates the opportunity for higher level of questioning.(5)Guides new and substitute teachers.
(6) Provides direction where the teacher is going and enables him to provide the necessary materials, resources, and activities that will enrich instruction.(7) Correlates instructional events with community resources.(8) Develops a sequence of well-organized learning experiences.(9) Presents a comprehensive and integrated and meaningful content at an appropriate level.(10) Prepares pupils/students for the day’s activities.
A principle is an accepted or professed ruleof action. In instructional planning, there arecertain principles to be observed.(1)To understand to rationale of the course in the context of the goals of the educational institution.(2)To determine what content to incorporate into the course in relation to the set objectives.(3)To clarify thrusts of the course.(4)To decide on the reasonable time frame for the course
5) To identify the important components of the lesson; see if they a) Meet the objectives of the course b)Foster critical or higher-order thinking c)Match pupils’/students’ abilities d)Stimulates pupils’/students’ interest e)Are realistic in terms of the school resources f)Balances in terms if scope and sequence6)To determine the appropriate approach in view of the goals
Planning as a process begins withobjectives and definedstrategies, policies and detailedplan to achieve the desired results.Instructional planning is the ability ofteacher to visualize and forecastinto the future of thewhat, why, and how of theteaching-learning process.
Teachers engage the five levelsof planning: yearly, term, unit,weekly and daily. Planning in eachlevel involves a set of goals, sourcesof information, forms or outlines,and criteria for judging theeffectiveness of planning.
One researcher pointed out the middle-grade teachers rely most heavily on: (1)previous success and failure, (2) district curriculum guides, (3) textbook content, (4) student interest, (5) classroom management factors, (6) school calendar, and (7) prior experience when they plan at the yearly term levels.
At the unit, weekly, and daily levels, they arealmost influenced by: (1)availability of materials, (2) student interest, (3) schedule interactions, (4) school calendar, (5) district curriculum guides, (6) text-book content, (7) classroom management, (8) classroom activity flow, and (9) prior experience.
In planning, teachers useinstructional routines forquestioning, monitoringand managing students, aswell as for coordinatingclassroom activities.
Principles and Methods of Teaching -Francisco M. Zulueta
The end is near,but today it comes’ Presentor: Jerome B. Tanopo firstname.lastname@example.org