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JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
JavaScript Library Overview
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JavaScript Library Overview

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Talk I gave at Ajax Experience '08.

Talk I gave at Ajax Experience '08.

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  • Fantastic slides. Thanks,
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  • Actually Dojo has 'Selectables' --- it is a part of the DnD package, but can be used standalone. It is hard to DnD without multiple selection. ;-) You can play with it in Dojo tests: http://archive.dojotoolkit.org/nightly/dojotoolkit/dojo/tests/dnd/test_selector.html and http://archive.dojotoolkit.org/nightly/dojotoolkit/dojo/tests/dnd/test_selector_markup.html.
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Transcript

  • 1. JavaScript Libraries John Resig - October 2008 http://ejohn.org/ http://twitter.com/jeresig/
  • 2. Question: How do you want to write JavaScript?
  • 3. 1) Plug-and-Play • Drop in a “calendar widget” or “tabbed navigation” • Little, to no, JavaScript experience required. • Just customize some options and go. • No flexibility.
  • 4. 2) Some Assembly Required • Write common utilities • Click a link, load a page via Ajax • Build a dynamic menu • Creating interactive forms • Use pre-made code to distance yourself from browser bugs. • Flexible, until you hit a browser bug.
  • 5. 3) Down-and-Dirty • Write all JavaScript code from scratch • Deal, directly, with browser bugs • Quirksmode.org is your lifeline • Excessively flexible, to the point of hinderance.
  • 6. What we’ve just seen... • Widgets • Libraries • Raw JavaScript
  • 7. What we’ve just seen... • Widgets • Libraries • Raw JavaScript
  • 8. Why use a library? • Makes JavaScript bearable • Gets the job done fast • Simplifies cross-browser support • Sort of like C stdlib - no one just codes all of C by hand
  • 9. What kind of libraries exist? Open Source Commercial Atlas Client/ AjaxCFC Backbase for Server Qcodo Struts Prototype, jQuery, Browser Backbase Yahoo UI, Dojo, Only SmartClient Mootools
  • 10. What kind of libraries exist? Open Source Commercial Atlas Client/ AjaxCFC Backbase for Server Qcodo Struts Prototype, jQuery, Browser Backbase Yahoo UI, Dojo, Only SmartClient Mootools
  • 11. Open Source Libraries Browser Only Client/Server Scriptaculous Task AjaxCFC moo.fx Specific Qcodo Open Rico Prototype, jQuery, General Ruby on Rails Yahoo UI, Dojo, Purpose CakePHP Mootools
  • 12. Open Source Libraries Browser Only Client/Server Scriptaculous Task AjaxCFC moo.fx Specific Qcodo Open Rico Prototype, jQuery, General Ruby on Rails Yahoo UI, Dojo, Purpose CakePHP Mootools
  • 13. Why these libraries?
  • 14. March Developer Survey jQuery Prototype Yahoo UI Dojo Mootools Other 18% 34% 18% 8% 8% 13% http://ajaxian.com/archives/nitobi-survey-results-on-ajax- development
  • 15. Google Trends jQuery Prototype Mootools Dojo Yahoo UI http://google.com/trends?q=prototype+javascript%2C+jquery+javascript%2C+yui+javascript%2C+dojo+javascript&ctab=0&geo=all&date=all&sort=0
  • 16. Not Included • (Besides obvious time constraints.) • ExtJS - Closed development • ASP.NET Ajax - Mostly .NET developers • GWT - Strictly limited to Java developers
  • 17. The Libraries
  • 18. Prototype
  • 19. Prototype: Overview • Started March 2005 by Sam Stephenson • Incredibly popular, tied with Ruby on Rails’ popularity • Development backed by 37 Signals
  • 20. Prototype: Focus • Improving the usability of the JavaScript language • Big emphasis on adding in ‘missing’ JavaScript features • Clean structure, clean objects and ‘classes’
  • 21. Prototype: Details • Code quality is fantastic, great features • All animations (and interactions) are in Scriptaculous • Looking at Prototype 1.6.0.2 • 1.6.0.3/1.6.1 release upcoming
  • 22. jQuery
  • 23. jQuery: Overview • Released January 2006 by John Resig • Rapid rise in popularity • Many developers across the globe • Corporate backing (Microsoft, Nokia)
  • 24. jQuery: Focus • Improving the interaction between JavaScript and HTML • Highly-effective, short, code • Looking at jQuery 1.2.6 • 1.3 release upcoming
  • 25. Yahoo! UI
  • 26. YUI: Overview • Released Feb 2006 by Yahoo! • Maintained and financed internally • Attempt to standardize internal JavaScript
  • 27. YUI: Focus • Exposing, and solving, common methodologies • Looking for common idioms (Drag-and- Drop, Calendar, Auto-Complete) • Yahoo UI 2.5.1 is current • Looking at 3.0 today (large overhaul)
  • 28. Dojo
  • 29. Dojo: Overview • Started early 2005 by Alex Russell + Co. • Large development community • Corporate backing (IBM, AOL)
  • 30. Dojo: Focus • Building complete web applications • A package hierarchy, e.g.: dojo.addClass( ... ) • Focus has transcended into widgets (Dijit) • Huge number of features • Today we’re looking at Dojo 1.1.1 • 1.2 coming soon
  • 31. Mootools
  • 32. Mootools: Overview • Released Sept 2006 by Valerio Proietti • A spiritual fork of Prototype that included animations, drag and drop, etc. • (Borrowed concepts like native prototype extension and classical object construction.) • Has evolved dramatically since then
  • 33. Mootools: Focus • A clean classical structure • A more holistic approach to development • Tackle a solid core set of functionality • Include a couple core plugins • Looking at 1.2
  • 34. What should a library have?
  • 35. Code Base • Core Functionality • DOM • Events • Ajax • Animations • User Interface Widgets
  • 36. Development • Good Architecture • Open Licensing • Wide Browser Support • Small File Size
  • 37. Project • Development Team (Open, Funded) • Code in SVN / Bug Tracker • Good Unit Test Coverage
  • 38. Documentation • Full API Coverage • Plenty of Tutorials • Some Books • Wide variety of Demos
  • 39. Community • Active Mailing List / Forum • Support and Training • Popularity
  • 40. Most Important Question: • Does the JavaScript library help me to write JavaScript. • The style of the library and its API is very core to this. • Can really only be determined through sitting down and playing with a library.
  • 41. Code Base • Core Functionality • DOM • Events • Ajax • Animations • User Interface Widgets
  • 42. Core Functionality • Bare minimum needed to make a dynamic “Ajax” web site: • DOM (Traversal and Manipulation) • Events • Ajax • Animations
  • 43. DOM • Traversal • Using CSS selectors to locate elements • Modification • Create/remove/modify elements • Having a DOM builder is important
  • 44. DOM Traversal • Prototype, Mootools: $$(“table > tr”) • jQuery: $(“div > p:nth-child(odd)”) • Dojo: dojo.query(“table tr:nth-child(even)”) • Yahoo UI: Y.get('div p')
  • 45. DOM Modification • Prototype: $(“list”).insert(“<li>Another item</li>”); • jQuery: $(“#li”).append(“<li>An item</li>”); • Mootools: $(“li”).append(new Element(“li”, {html: “An item”}));
  • 46. DOM Manipulation • Dojo: dojo.query(“#li”).addContent(“<li>An item</li>”); • Yahoo UI: Y.get(“#li”).appendChild( Y.create(“<li>An item</li>”));
  • 47. Events • Support for simple event binding/removal • Support for custom events is essential • Prototype: $$(“#button”).invoke(“observe”, ”click”, function(){ alert(“Thanks for the click!”); }); • jQuery: $(“div”).click(function(){ alert(“div clicked”); });
  • 48. Events (cont.) • Yahoo UI: Y.get(“#list”).on(“click”, function(){ alert(“List Clicked”); }); • Dojo: dojo.query(quot;#mylinkquot;).connect(quot;clickquot;, function(){ alert(“Link clicked”); }); • Mootools: $$(quot;#mylinkquot;).addEvent(quot;clickquot;, function(){ alert(“Link clicked”); });
  • 49. Ajax • Request and load remote documents • Prototype: new Ajax.Request(“test.html”, { method: “GET”, onComplete: function(res){ $$(‘#results’).invoke(“update”,( res.responseText ); } }); • jQuery: jQuery.get(“test.html”, function(html){ $(“#results”).html( html ); });
  • 50. Ajax (cont.) • Yahoo UI Y.on(“io:complete”, function(id, data){ Y.get(“#results”).set(“innerHTML”, data.responseText); }); Y.io(“test.html”); • Dojo dojo.xhrGet({ url: quot;test.htmlquot;, load: function(type, data) { dojo.query(“#results”).empty().addContent( data ); } });
  • 51. Ajax (cont.) • Mootools: onComplete: function(t, e, html){ new Request.HTML({ $$(“#results”).html( html ); }}).get('myPage.html');
  • 52. Ajax (cont.) • jQuery and Mootools are capable of doing DOM traversing over XML • jQuery.get(“test.xml”, function(xml){ $(“user”, xml).each(function(){ $(“<li/>”).text( $(this).text() ) .appendTo(“#userlist”); }); });
  • 53. Animations • Simple animations (hide/show/toggle) • Provide elegant transitions • Prototype, using Scriptaculous: $(‘menu’).appear({duration: 0.6}); • jQuery: $(“#menu”).animate({opacity: 1}, 600);
  • 54. Animations (cont.) • Yahoo UI: new Y.Anim({ node: “#list”, duration: 600, { to: {opacity: 1}}}).run(); • Dojo: dojo.query(“#list”).anim({opacity: 1}, 600); • Mootools: new Fx.Tween(“list”, {duration: 600}).start(“opacity”, 0, 1);
  • 55. Core Feature Summary DOM Events Anim. Ajax Prototype X X / X jQuery X X X X Yahoo UI X X X X Dojo X X X X Mootools X X X X
  • 56. User Interface Widgets • Difficult to implement components, made easy • Commonly used, save duplication • Some common components: Drag & Drop, Tree, Grid, Modal Dialog, Tabbed Pane, Menu / Toolbar, Datepicker, Slider
  • 57. User Interface Packages • Only looking at officially-supported code: • Prototype has Scriptaculous • jQuery has jQuery UI • Dojo has Dijit • Mootools includes some in Core • Included in Yahoo UI
  • 58. Drag & Drop • Drag an item from one location and drop in an other • Supported by all libraries
  • 59. Tree • A navigable hierarchy (like a folder/file explorer) • In Dojo and Yahoo UI
  • 60. Grid • An advanced table (resizable, editable, easily navigable) • In Dojo and Yahoo UI
  • 61. Modal Dialog • Display confined content (usually drag & droppable) and confirmation dialogs • In Dojo,Yahoo UI, and jQuery
  • 62. Tabbed Pane • Multiple panes of content navigable by a series of tabs • In Dojo,Yahoo UI, and jQuery
  • 63. Menu / Toolbar • A list of navigable items (with sub-menus) • In Dojo and Yahoo UI
  • 64. Datepicker • An input for selecting a date (or a range of dates) • In Dojo,Yahoo UI, and jQuery
  • 65. Slider • A draggable input for entering a general, numerical, value • In all libraries
  • 66. Tons More! • Color Picker (Dojo,YUI, jQuery) • Layout (Dojo,YUI) • Auto Complete (Dojo, Proto,YUI, jQuery) • Selectables (Dojo, Proto, jQuery) • Accordion (Dojo, jQuery, Mootools) • WYSIWYG (Dojo,YUI)
  • 67. Themeing • A consistent look-and-feel for widgets • jQuery,Yahoo UI, and Dojo provide themeing capabilities • jQuery’s and Yahoo UI’s are documented
  • 68. Accessibility • Taking in to consideration points from ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) • Dojo is taking a solid lead, here • jQuery received funding and is working on ARIA integration to jQuery UI • Yahoo is investigating ARIA
  • 69. Development • Good Architecture • Open Licensing • Wide Browser Support • Small File Size • Speed
  • 70. Architecture • Bottom Up (Prototype, jQuery) vs. Top Down (Dojo,Yahoo UI) • jQuery, Dojo, and Yahoo UI all use a single namespace • Prototype extends native objects (high likelihood of inter-library conflict) • jQuery is extensible with plugins • Dojo uses a package system
  • 71. Licensing • All use liberal licenses • MIT: (“Keep my name on the file”) Prototype, jQuery, Mootools • BSD: (“...and please don’t sue me.”) Yahoo UI, Dojo
  • 72. Browser Support • Everyone supports: IE 6+, Firefox 2+, Safari 3+, Opera 9+ • Note: • Most are in the process of dropping support for Safari 2
  • 73. File Size • Serving your JavaScript minified + Gzipped • Optimal level of compression and speed • Core file size (in KB): 35.00 26.25 17.50 8.75 0 Prototype jQuery Yahoo UI Dojo Mootools
  • 74. Speed • Hard to quantify • Currently the only point of comparison is in CSS Selectors • Speed varies across browsers • Competition is strong (much faster than what they use to be) • DOM Modification, Events completely un- compared
  • 75. Project • Development Team (Open, Funded) • Code in SVN / Bug Tracker • Good Unit Test Coverage
  • 76. Development Team • Prototype, jQuery, Mootools, and Dojo all have open development (anyone can contribute) • jQuery,Yahoo UI, and Dojo all have paid, full-time, developers working on the code • All have paid, part-time, developers
  • 77. SVN / Bug Tracker • Prototype, jQuery, Mootools, and Dojo all have code in a public SVN repositories • Yahoo UI’s development is private and is limited to Yahoo employees • They’re working to fix this! • All have a public bug tracker
  • 78. Unit Tests • All libraries have some automated unit tests • jQuery,Yahoo UI, and Dojo all have public unit test URLs • jQuery and Dojo have tests that can run in Rhino • UI Testing: Windmill,Yahoo UI, jQuery UI’s testing framework
  • 79. Documentation • Full API Coverage • Plenty of Tutorials • Some Books • Wide variety of Demos
  • 80. API Documentation • Prototype, jQuery, Mootools, and Yahoo UI all have full coverage • Dojo’s coverage has improved dramatically • jQuery provides runnable examples with each API item
  • 81. Tutorials • All libraries provide some tutorials • jQuery,Yahoo UI, and Dojo have screencasts/presentations • Prototype: 6 • jQuery: 118 (English) • Yahoo UI: 30+ (each component has at least one) • Dojo: 24
  • 82. Books • Prototype: • Prototype and Scriptaculous in Action (Manning) • Prototype and Scriptaculous (Pragmatic) • jQuery: • Learning jQuery (Packt) • jQuery Reference Guide (Packt) • Yahoo UI: • Learning the Yahoo UI Library (Packt)
  • 83. Books (cont.) • Dojo: • Dojo: The Definitive Guide (O’Reilly) • Mastering Dojo (Prag Prog) • Dojo (Developer’s Library) • Practical Dojo Projects (Apress) • Mootools: • Mootools Essentials (Apress)
  • 84. Demos • Yahoo UI provides a considerable number of live demos and examples for all features • jQuery provides live examples and a few demo applications • Mootools provides a large number of demos • Dojo provides demo applications for their widgets
  • 85. Community • Active Mailing List / Forum • Support and Training • Popularity
  • 86. Mailing List / Forum • Prototype, jQuery, Mootools, and Yahoo UI have mailing lists • Prototype: 32 posts/day • jQuery: 116 posts/day • Yahoo UI: 55 posts/day • Mootools: 21 posts/day • Dojo has an active forum • Mootools also has a user-built forum
  • 87. Support and Training • Dojo provides paid support and training (via Sitepen) • jQuery provides paid jQuery UI support and training (via Liferay)
  • 88. Popularity • Who uses what: • Prototype: Apple, ESPN, CNN, Fox News • jQuery: Google, IBM, Microsoft, Nokia • Yahoo:Yahoo, LinkedIn, Target, Slashdot • Dojo: IBM, AOL, Mapquest, Bloglines • Mootools: W3C, CNet,Vimeo, Jeep
  • 89. Common Questions
  • 90. Why don’t the libraries merge? • It’s really hard to have a unified backend • Everyone fixes different bugs • Everyone implements *slightly* different features • A combined library would be massive
  • 91. Can common components be made? • Possibly. • Again hit the problem of finding the correct mix of features and bugs. • Component would have to be very special.
  • 92. Sizzle • Build common features • A common selector engine • Being integrated into: jQuery, Prototype, and MochiKit
  • 93. Why not make a unified API? • A library’s API helps makes it unique • Embody different philosophies • Combining all of them and trying to please everyone creates a unified, boring, mess
  • 94. More Information ... questions? • Prototype: http://prototypejs.org/ • jQuery: http://jquery.com/ • Yahoo UI: http://developer.yahoo.com/yui/ • Dojo: http://dojotoolkit.org/

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