JavaScript Libraries (@Media)
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JavaScript Libraries (@Media)

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@Media (June 2008).

@Media (June 2008).

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JavaScript Libraries (@Media) JavaScript Libraries (@Media) Presentation Transcript

  • JavaScript Libraries John Resig - May 2008 http://ejohn.org/ http://twitter.com/jeresig/
  • Question: How do you want to write JavaScript?
  • 1) Plug-and-Play • Drop in a “calendar widget” or “tabbed navigation” • Little, to no, JavaScript experience required. • Just customize some options and go. • No flexibility.
  • 2) Some Assembly Required • Write common utilities • Click a link, load a page via Ajax • Build a dynamic menu • Creating interactive forms • Use pre-made code to distance yourself from browser bugs. • Flexible, until you hit a browser bug.
  • 3) Down-and-Dirty • Write all JavaScript code from scratch • Deal, directly, with browser bugs • Quirksmode is your lifeline • Excessively flexible, to the point of hinderance.
  • What we’ve just seen... • Widgets • Libraries • Raw JavaScript
  • What we’ve just seen... • Widgets • Libraries • Raw JavaScript
  • Why use a library? • Makes JavaScript bearable • Gets the job done fast • Simplifies cross-browser support • Sort of like C stdlib - no one just codes all of C by hand
  • What kind of libraries exist? Open Source Commercial Atlas Client/ AjaxCFC Backbase for Server Qcodo Struts Prototype Browser jQuery Backbase Only Yahoo UI SmartClient Dojo
  • What kind of libraries exist? Open Source Commercial Atlas Client/ AjaxCFC Backbase for Server Qcodo Struts Prototype Browser jQuery Backbase Only Yahoo UI SmartClient Dojo
  • Open Source Libraries Browser Only Client/Server Scriptaculous Task AjaxCFC moo.fx Specific Qcodo Open Rico Prototype General jQuery Ruby on Rails Purpose Yahoo UI CakePHP Dojo
  • Open Source Libraries Browser Only Client/Server Scriptaculous Task AjaxCFC moo.fx Specific Qcodo Open Rico Prototype General jQuery Ruby on Rails Purpose Yahoo UI CakePHP Dojo
  • Why these libraries?
  • Developer Survey jQuery Prototype Yahoo UI Dojo 14% 32% 22% 32% http://ajaxian.com/archives/nitobi-survey-results-on-ajax- development
  • Google Trends jQuery Prototype Dojo Yahoo UI http://google.com/trends?q=prototype+javascript%2C+jquery+javascript%2C+yui+javascript%2C+dojo+javascript&ctab=0&geo=all&date=all&sort=0
  • Others • Only so much time in a day! • MooTools • ExtJS • Ajax.NET
  • The Libraries
  • Prototype
  • Prototype: Overview • Started early 2005 by Sam Stephenson • Incredibly popular, tied with Ruby on Rails’ popularity • Development backed by 37 Signals
  • Prototype: Focus • Improving the usability of the JavaScript language • Big emphasis on adding in ‘missing’ JavaScript features • Clean structure, clean objects and ‘classes’
  • Prototype: Details • Code quality is fantastic, great features • All animations (and interactions) are in Scriptaculous • Updated frequently • Looking at Prototype 1.6.0.2
  • jQuery
  • jQuery: Overview • Released January 2006 by John Resig • Rapid rise in popularity • Many developers across the globe
  • jQuery: Focus • Improving the interaction between JavaScript and HTML • Finding elements then performing actions • Highly-effective, short, code
  • jQuery: Details • Core features are limited to DOM, Events, Effects, Ajax • Other features can be added in via plugins • Looking at jQuery 1.2.6
  • Yahoo! UI
  • YUI: Overview • Released Feb 2006 by Yahoo! • Maintained and financed internally • Attempt to standardize internal JavaScript • Say ‘hi’ to Nate Koechley!
  • YUI: Focus • Exposing, and solving, common methodologies • Looking for common idioms (Drag-and- Drop, Calendar, Auto-Complete) • Looking at Yahoo UI 2.5.1
  • Dojo
  • Dojo: Overview • Started early 2005 by Alex Russell + Co. • Large development community • Lots of corporate backing (IBM, AOL) • Big code base, tons of features
  • Dojo: Focus • Building complete web applications • A package heirarchy, e.g.: dojo.addClass( ... ) • Focus has transcended into widgets (Dijit) • Huge number of features • Today we’re looking at Dojo 1.1.1
  • What should a library have?
  • Code Base • Core Functionality • DOM • Events • Ajax • Animations • User Interface Widgets
  • Development • Good Architecture • Open Licensing • Wide Browser Support • Small File Size
  • Project • Development Team (Open, Funded) • Code in SVN / Bug Tracker • Good Unit Test Coverage
  • Documentation • Full API Coverage • Plenty of Tutorials • Some Books • Wide variety of Demos
  • Community • Active Mailing List / Forum • Support and Training • Popularity
  • Most Important Question: • Does the JavaScript library help me to write JavaScript. • The style of the library and its API is very core to this. • Can really only be determined through sitting down and playing with a library.
  • Code Base • Core Functionality • DOM • Events • Ajax • Animations • User Interface Widgets
  • Core Functionality • Bare minimum needed to make a dynamic “Ajax” web site: • DOM (Traversal and Manipulation) • Events • Ajax • Animations
  • DOM • Traversal • Using CSS selectors to locate elements • Modification • Create/remove/modify elements • Having a DOM builder is important
  • DOM Traversal • Prototype: $$(“table > tr”) • jQuery: $(“div > p:nth-child(odd)”) • Dojo: dojo.query(“table tr:nth-child(even)”) • Yahoo UI: YAHOO.util.Selector.query('div p')
  • DOM Modification • Prototype: Insertion.Bottom(“list”,”<li>Another item</li>”); • jQuery: $(“#li”).append(“<li>An item</li>”); • Dojo and Yahoo UI have weak support - no DOM building capabilities, basic property modification
  • Events • Support for simple event binding/removal • Support for custom events is essential • Prototype: Event.observe(“button”,”click”, function(){ alert(“Thanks for the click!”); }); • jQuery: $(“div”).click(function(){ alert(“div clicked”); });
  • Events (cont.) • Yahoo UI: YAHOO.util.Event.addEventListener(“list”, “click”, function(){ alert(“List Clicked”); }); • Dojo: dojo.connect(dojo.byId(quot;mylinkquot;), quot;clickquot;, function(){ alert(“Link clicked”); });
  • Custom Events • $(“#list”).bind(“drag”, function(){ $(this).addClass(“dragged”); }); • $(“#test”).trigger(“drag”);
  • Ajax • Request and load remote documents • Prototype: new Ajax.Request(“test.html”, { method: “GET”, onComplete: function(res){ $(‘results’).innerHTML = res.responseText; } }); • jQuery: $(“#results”).load(“test.html”);
  • Ajax (cont.) • Yahoo UI YAHOO.util.Connect.asyncRequest( 'GET', “test.html”, function(data){ YAHOO.util.Dom.id(“results”).innerHTML = data; } ); • Dojo dojo.io.bind({ url: quot;test.htmlquot;, method: quot;getquot;, mimetype: quot;text/htmlquot;, load: function(type, data) { dojo.byId(“results”).innerHTML = data; } });
  • Ajax (cont.) • jQuery is only one capable of doing DOM traversing over XML • jQuery.get(“test.xml”, function(xml){ $(“user”, xml).each(function(){ $(“<li/>”).text( $(this).text() ) .appendTo(“#userlist”); }); });
  • Animations • Simple animations (hide/show/toggle) • Provide elegant transitions • No animations in Prototype Core (see Scriptaculous, instead) • jQuery: $(“#menu”).slideDown(“slow”);
  • Animations (cont.) • Yahoo UI: new YAHOO.util.Anim(“list”, { width: { from: 10, to: 100 } }, 1, YAHOO.util.Easing.easeOut ); • Dojo: dojo.fadeOut({ node: dojo.byId(“list”), duration: 500 });
  • Core Feature Summary DOM Events Anim. Ajax Prototype X X - X jQuery X X X X Yahoo UI / X X X Dojo / X X X
  • User Interface Widgets • Difficult to implement components, made easy • Commonly used, save duplication • Some common components: Drag & Drop, Tree, Grid, Modal Dialog, Tabbed Pane, Menu / Toolbar, Datepicker, Slider
  • User Interface Packages • Only looking at officially-supported code: • Prototype has Scriptaculous • jQuery has jQuery UI • Dojo has Dijit • Included in Yahoo UI
  • Drag & Drop • Drag an item from one location and drop in an other • Supported by all libraries
  • Tree • A navigable hierarchy (like a folder/file explorer) • In Dojo and Yahoo UI
  • Grid • An advanced table (resizable, editable, easily navigable) • In Dojo and Yahoo UI
  • Modal Dialog • Display confined content (usually drag & droppable) and confirmation dialogs • In Dojo,Yahoo UI, and jQuery
  • Tabbed Pane • Multiple panes of content navigable by a series of tabs • In Dojo,Yahoo UI, and jQuery
  • Menu / Toolbar • A list of navigable items (with sub-menus) • In Dojo and Yahoo UI
  • Datepicker • An input for selecting a date (or a range of dates) • In Dojo,Yahoo UI, and jQuery
  • Slider • A draggable input for entering a general, numerical, value • In all libraries
  • Tons More! • Color Picker (Dojo,YUI) • Layout (Dojo,YUI) • Auto Complete (Dojo, Proto,YUI) • Selectables (Proto, jQuery) • Accordion (Dojo, jQuery) • WYSIWYG (Dojo,YUI)
  • Themeing • A consistent look-and-feel for widgets • jQuery,Yahoo UI, and Dojo provide themeing capabilities • jQuery’s and Yahoo UI’s are documented
  • Accessibility • Taking in to consideration points from ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) • Dojo is taking a solid lead, here • jQuery received funding and is working on ARIA integration to jQuery UI • Yahoo is investigating ARIA
  • Development • Good Architecture • Open Licensing • Wide Browser Support • Small File Size • Speed
  • Architecture • Bottom Up (Prototype, jQuery) vs. Top Down (Dojo,Yahoo UI) • jQuery, Dojo, and Yahoo UI all use a single namespace • Prototype extends native objects (high likelihood of inter-library conflict) • jQuery is extensible with plugins • Dojo uses a package system
  • Licensing • All use liberal licenses • MIT: (“Keep my name on the file”) Prototype, jQuery • BSD: (“...and please don’t sue me.”) Yahoo UI, Dojo
  • Browser Support • Everyone supports: IE 6+, Firefox 2+, Safari 2+, Opera 9+ • Note: • Most are in the process of dropping support for Safari 2
  • File Size • Serving your JavaScript minified + Gzipped • Optimal level of compression and speed • Core file size (in KB): 35.00 26.25 17.50 8.75 0 Prototype jQuery Yahoo UI Dojo
  • Speed • Hard to quantify • Currently the only point of comparison is in CSS Selectors • Speed varies across browsers • Competition is strong (much faster than what they use to be) • DOM Modification, Events completely un- compared
  • Project • Development Team (Open, Funded) • Code in SVN / Bug Tracker • Good Unit Test Coverage
  • Development Team • Prototype, jQuery, and Dojo all have open development (anyone can contribute) • jQuery,Yahoo UI, and Dojo all have paid, full-time, developers working on the code • All have paid, part-time, developers
  • SVN / Bug Tracker • Prototype, jQuery, and Dojo all have code in a public SVN repositories • Yahoo UI’s development is private and is limited to Yahoo employees • They’re working to fix this! • All libraries have a public bug tracker
  • Unit Tests • All libraries have some automated unit tests • jQuery,Yahoo UI, and Dojo all have public unit test URLs • jQuery and Dojo have tests that can run in Rhino
  • Documentation • Full API Coverage • Plenty of Tutorials • Some Books • Wide variety of Demos
  • API Documentation • Prototype, jQuery, and Yahoo UI all have full coverage • jQuery provides runnable examples with each API item • Dojo’s coverage is improving - work in progress (dojocampus.org, etc.)
  • Tutorials • All libraries provide some tutorials • jQuery,Yahoo UI, and Dojo have screencasts/presentations • Prototype: 6 • jQuery: 118 (English) • Yahoo UI: 30+ (each component has at least one) • Dojo: 24
  • Books • Prototype: • Prototype and Scriptaculous in Action (Manning) • Prototype and Scriptaculous (Pragmatic) • jQuery: • Learning jQuery (Packt) • jQuery Reference Guide (Packt) • Yahoo UI: • Learning the Yahoo UI Library (Packt) • Dojo: 3 books coming in 2008
  • Demos • Yahoo UI provides a considerable number of live demos and examples for all features • jQuery provides live examples and a few demo applications • Dojo provides demo applications for their widgets
  • Community • Active Mailing List / Forum • Support and Training • Popularity
  • Mailing List / Forum • Prototype, jQuery, and Yahoo UI have mailing lists • Prototype: 23 posts/day • jQuery: 76 posts/day • Yahoo UI: 56 posts/day • Dojo has an active forum
  • Support and Training • Dojo provides paid support and training (via Sitepen) • jQuery provides paid jQuery UI support and training (via Liferay)
  • Popularity • Who uses what: • Prototype: Apple, ESPN, CNN, Fox News • jQuery: Google, Amazon, Digg, NBC, Intel • Yahoo:Yahoo, LinkedIn, Target, Slashdot • Dojo: IBM, AOL, Mapquest, Bloglines
  • Common Questions
  • Why don’t the libraries merge? • It’s really hard to have a unified backend • Everyone fixes different bugs • Everyone implements *slightly* different features • A combined library would be massive
  • Can common components be made? • Possibly. • Again hit the problem of finding the correct mix of features and bugs. • Component would have to be very special.
  • Why not make a unified API? • A library’s API helps makes it unique • Embody different philosophies • Combing all of them and trying to please everyone creates a unified, boring, mess
  • More Information ... questions? • Prototype: http://prototypejs.org/ • jQuery: http://jquery.com/ • Yahoo UI: http://developer.yahoo.com/yui/ • Dojo: http://dojotoolkit.org/