ANALYTICAL SKILLS - FALLACY OF IRRELEVANCE

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ANALYTICAL SKILLS - FALLACY OF IRRELEVANCE

  1. 1. G15T1AMELIA KOH RUI ENBERNARD LIP WEI XIANCAREL CHUA BOON YUENGERALD TAN JIAMINJEREMY ZHONG JIAHAOANALYTICAL SKILLS
  2. 2. AGENDADEFINITION OF FALLACYFormalInformal3 FALLACIES OFIRRELEVANCEAPPEAL TO PITYAPPEAL TO POPULARITYARGUMENT AGAINST THE PERSONREAL-LIFE SCENARIO
  3. 3. 3 FALLACIES OFIRRELEVANCEDefinitionStructureTextbook ExampleOur ExamplesExamples thatSEEM LIKE Fallaciesbut... are NOT
  4. 4. DEFINITION OF FALLACYA FALLACY IS ARGUMENT BASED ONINVALID OR FALSE REASONINGFORMAL FALLACYINFORMAL FALLACY
  5. 5. FORMAL FALLACYArgumentthat contains aMISTAKEin REASONINGbecause of itsSTRUCTURE
  6. 6. STRUCTURE ONLYFORMAL FALLACY
  7. 7. If you have big juggs,then you are a girl.PQI am a girl. Therefore,I have big juggs.QPQUICK EXAMPLE of FORMAL FALLACY
  8. 8. INFORMAL FALLACYArgumentthat contains aMISTAKEin REASONINGBEYONDItsSTRUCTURECONTENT-SENSITIVEINSPECT CONTENT
  9. 9. FALLACY OF IRRELEVANCEArgues from thepremises that haveNO LOGICALRELEVANCEto theCONCLUSION
  10. 10. APPEAL TOPITY
  11. 11. APPEAL TOPITYFallacy in which someonetries to win supportof an argument by exploiting otherpeoples feelings of pity.
  12. 12. STRUCTURE ofAPPEAL to PITY
  13. 13. STRUCTURE ofAPPEAL to PITY[1] Describe a situation by appealingto people’s emotion to create PITY.(IRRELEVANT)[2] Therefore, we should accept theconclusion.
  14. 14. TEXTBOOK ExampleSurely, I’m not guilty.But if you find me guilty then...my reputation will be ruined,I’ll lose my job and then my kids will starve.Your Honour, I admit I declaredthirteen children as dependents onmy tax return although I have onlytwo.
  15. 15. Example #1Listen Carel… I know you’re angry that ICOMPLETELY IGNORED your phone calls last night.But hey, I made you flowers. Honestly, it wasn’t easyman! It took me 3 days 2 sleepless nights. I wasattacked by King Cobras and even rolled down the hillwhile plucking these beautiful flowers.Look at these wounds here man! But it’s worth itanyway.You should forgive and make love with me now!
  16. 16. Example #2Without these bouncy perky ladies by my side, yourson here couldn’t type a single word.Son: Hey Mum! What’s the big dealabout me WOMANIZING around?!Mum: You have a girlfriend damnit!Son: You see, this $1,000,000project had beenextremely stressful and I haven’t been sleeping for 7 daysalready! Things had been really hard for me. I am not used tothis level of work.
  17. 17. Example #3Hey! Listen up Prof… Ryan Mooneh cried allnight because his pet dog tore up all of hisfavorite P********* Magazines. Can youimagine this happening to you!?Therefore, you should excuse him for coming toAS lesson DEAD DRUNK.
  18. 18. ... If Premises are RELEVANTIt is NOTA Fallacy ...BEWARE!
  19. 19. Paul was forced at gunpoint todrink three gallons of stouts tosave his poor old diabetic, crippledand cancerous mother who washeld by the rapist that had a fetishfor old woman.Therefore you should excuse him forcoming to class drunk as a skunk.NON-FALLACY #1
  20. 20. Paul was forced at gunpoint todrink three gallons of stouts tosave his poor old diabetic, crippledand cancerous mother who washeld by the rapist that had a fetishfor old woman.Therefore you should excuse him forcoming to class drunk as a skunk.NON-FALLACY #1RE
  21. 21. Paul was forced at gunpoint todrink three gallons of stouts tosave his poor old diabetic, crippledand cancerous mother who washeld by the rapist that had a fetishfor old woman.Therefore you should excuse him forcoming to class drunk as a skunk.NON-FALLACY #1JUSTIFIEDREASONING
  22. 22. APPEAL TOPOPULARITY
  23. 23. argues that a claimMUST BE TRUEbecause...most people believe in it- OR -because...most people are favorably inclined.APPEAL TOPOPULARITY
  24. 24. STRUCTURE ofAPPEAL to POPULARITY
  25. 25. MOST (or many or all) peoplebelieve X is true.Therefore, X is true.Everyone is doing X, thereforeyou should do X.STRUCTURE ofAPPEAL to POPULARITYBELIEFACTION12
  26. 26. TEXTBOOK ExampleMOST people who followed the recentAmerican Idol TV show voted forKelly Clarkson.Therefore, she must be the best singer.Structure: Everyone is doing X, therefore you should do X.
  27. 27. Example #1MOST MEN that are successful in career has abeautiful and sexy woman with big bouncy jugsrooting for them.Therefore, you should marry a sexy lady withbig bouncy jugs too.Structure: Everyone is doing X,therefore you should do X.
  28. 28. EVERYBODY believes thatGuinness Stout is a GOD-sentdrink from heaven thatsanctifies the soul andelevates one to the seat of god.Therefore, it must be so.Example #2Structure: Everyone isdoing X, therefore youshould do X.
  29. 29. My girlfriend is really beautiful.I so want her to be my wife.Do you know that MOST GUYSwho make 1,000 roses and gave itto their beautiful girlfriendis successful when proposing.Therefore, you should definitely doit too.Okay, I am so going to make 1,000roses and get her as my wife!Example #3Student:Prof:Student:
  30. 30. ... If conclusion is drawn fromthe premises as a RESULT ofor SOCIAL CONVENTIONBEWARE!POPULARITY
  31. 31. Manchester United FC has659 MILLION FANSworldwide, the most of anyfootball club.They must be really popular.POPULARITY
  32. 32. MOST PEOPLEagree that walking upto a random strangerand grabbing theirbuttocks just because...it is warm brown andjuicy is WRONG!SOCIAL CONVENTIONTherefore, you must keep your hands to yourself!
  33. 33. ARGUMENTAGAINST THEPERSON
  34. 34. ARGUMENTAGAINST THEPERSON1Circumstantial23(argumentum ad hominem)You TooABUSIVE(Tu quoque)
  35. 35. Argument Against the PersonSuggests thatthe ARGUER isBIASEDto take a particular position.Therefore, the argument isINVALID!(APPEAL to Motive, PERSONAL INTEREST, Arguments from motives)Circumstantial
  36. 36. STRUCTURE ofArgument Against the PersonCircumstantial
  37. 37. Because of X’s circumstances,X has a motive for arguing Z.Therefore, X’s argument isFAULTY/FALSESTRUCTURE ofAATP (CIRCUMSTANTIAL)
  38. 38. TEXTBOOK ExampleAs a Catholic, what else would youexpect him to say?The POPE has given reasonswhy abortion is wrong...But we can forget all of that.
  39. 39. Ryan claims that we shouldn’tdiscriminate guys with MOOBSbecause some guys are just geneticallyprone to developing them!Well, look at those melons that he has!Surely he’s saying this only because hehas those two huge honkers likeMount Everest and Mount Fuji on hischest! Don’t listen to him!Example #1
  40. 40. Example #2Paul claims thatHOT SEX makes one happyand thateveryone should haveHOT SEX everyday!But he’s such a sexualdeviant!Therefore, we know thatwhat he says most certainlyisn’t true!
  41. 41. Prof Mooney says that we shouldspend more time on AS.We can disregard this as he is anAS prof and he has a biasedinterest in wanting us to focus onhis subject.Example #3
  42. 42. ARGUMENTAGAINST THEPERSON1Circumstantial23(argumentum ad hominem)You TooABUSIVE(Tu quoque)
  43. 43. Argument Against the PersonAttacks the arguer ratherthan the argument itself.(Personal ABUSE, Personal ATTACK, DAMNING the Source)ABUSIVEArguer is bad ≠ His argument is bad.The attack on the person isIRRELEVANTto the argument made.
  44. 44. STRUCTURE ofArgument Against the PersonABUSIVE
  45. 45. There is somethingOBJECTIONABLE about X.Therefore, X’s argument isFAULTY!STRUCTURE ofArgument Against the PersonABUSIVE
  46. 46. TEXTBOOK ExampleSo, his argument that thelegal system is corrupt is nonsense.Paul is acriminal anda wife beater.
  47. 47. Ryan Mooneh looks likea young innocent chapthat takes his workseriously…Therefore, you can’t takehis advice on sex.Example #1
  48. 48. Example #2Therefore, his claim to be aresponsible teacher whocares deeply about hisstudents is poppycock!Ryan drinks beer as if his liver hasbeen touched by the hand of God andis immune to the effects of alcoholpoisoning.
  49. 49. Ryan slouches and I’ve caught himgrinning at those girls’ bountifulbosoms with drool coming out of theside of his mouth – he looks like anabsolute PERVERT!Therefore, he can’t be a goodaccountant and as he claims and heshould be fired!Example #3
  50. 50. ... IF PERSONAL FLAWS of CHARACTERS AReLOGICALLY RELEVANTto the CONCLUSIONBEWARE!... CHARACTER COUNTS!... NOT aFALLACY
  51. 51. Therefore, we shouldn’t listen to his claim tobe a good father and husband.NON-FALLACY ExamplePaul is irresponsible at work andit is well known to his friendsand neighbors that he treats hisfamily with disdain.
  52. 52. ARGUMENTAGAINST THEPERSON1Circumstantial23(argumentum ad hominem)You TooABUSIVE(Tu quoque)
  53. 53. Argument Against the Person(HYPOCRISY, Personal INCONSISTENCY)You TooClaiming that theARGUMENT is FLAWEDby pointing out that the ARGUER isNOT ACTINGCONSISTENTLYwith the claims of the argument
  54. 54. STRUCTURE ofArgument Against the PersonYOU TOO
  55. 55. X Arguesit is WRONG to do ZBut X does Z.Thus X’s argument is faulty (or has afalse conclusion or can be ignored).STRUCTURE ofArgument Against the PersonYOU TOO
  56. 56. Harry: It’s wrong to rush the train doorbecause if everybody did so then therewould be chaos.Larry: Nonsense! You do it ALL THE TIME!TEXTBOOK Example
  57. 57. Example #1Ryan Mooneh says it isWRONG to be boastful yet heraves about his handsomelooks every lesson.Therefore, we know that itIS ALRIGHT to be boastful.
  58. 58. Therefore, we can conclude that what he saysis false after all!Example #2Ryan preaches that physicallooks aren’t all thatimportant.Yet he falls in love on firstsight with every pretty girlhe meets.
  59. 59. REAL-LIFESCENARIO
  60. 60. APPEAL TOPITYAmelia, come back to me!I have a high fever and I searched fivewhole estates to get you this bottle ofherbal drink.I’m such a nice person and that’s whyyou should love me. LOVE MEEHHH
  61. 61. APPEAL TOPOPULARITYWHAT?! Why?!I’m the most popular guy in SMUand everyone loves me.Even more so than that guy over there.And hey, that’s why you should love me!
  62. 62. Argument Against the PersonCircumstantialIs it because of Carel?! Why are youdating Carel?She claims to be really kind and caring.But as someone who’s dating you, ofcourse she would say that lah!!And you kept saying no, NO , NO ,NO.Can’t you say anything other than ‘no’?
  63. 63. Argument Against the PersonABUSIVECarol is such a NERD! Shedefinitely can’t be a goodlover like she claim she is.Come back to me, Amelia!
  64. 64. Argument Against the Person(HYPOCRISY, Personal INCONSISTENCY)You TooCarol is so full of rubbish!You Too!So no. But I am thirsty.Fine. Let’s go drink someguinness stout.
  65. 65. THANK YOU!

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