Why Differentiate?A Look at the Pros, the Cons, & the Philosophy Behind
Objectives:Articulate the philosophy behind differentiationState the arguments for differentiating instruction in the classroomCiteresearch demonstrating the success of differentiationExplain the criticisms of and challenges of differentiating instruction
Things to Note about thisSession: This session was created in direct response to survey comments received in October… ◦ Responses requested more information about the philosophy behind DI ◦ Responses questioned what research supports DI ◦ Responses questioned whether cons had been considered
Things to Note about thisSession: This is not a differentiated session. ◦ We will not be modeling differentiated instruction in this session. ◦ Differentiated Instruction should be used when it makes sense . It does not make sense all of the time. To achieve our objectives, direct instruction (a more formal presentation) makes more sense for communicating general information.
Things to Note about thisSession: Pair/Group work that occurs in this session is based on intentional pairings. ◦ The purpose of these pairings is to expose participants to: People outside of their department/division It is our hope that these pairing will lead to exposure to new perspectives and ideas
Differentiated Instruction is…“A systematic approach toplanning curriculum and It is notinstruction for academically WHAT wediverse learners” that teach,provides students of it isdifferent abilities, interests, HOWor learning needs equally we teach.appropriate ways to learn(Tomlinson & Strickland, 2005).
Howard Gardner states…“ The biggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as if they were variants of the same individual and thus feel justified in teaching them all the same way.”
Differentiated Instruction is… “Good Teaching” ◦ “It’s whatever conscientious teachers do to increase students’ learning over that which could otherwise be achieved by a one-size-fits-all approach.”
ACTIVITY 1 With your partner: Please examine 1) Read each situation. the following 2) Consider the examples taken instructional choice from Rick made by the teacher in each example of Wormeli’s Differentiated article, Teaching in Instruction. the Middle. 3) Determine if the Differentiated choice made by the Instruction: Setting teacher in each the Pedagogy example was Straight (2011). reasonable. 4) Share your opinion
Were the Instructional Choicesmade in each scenarioappropriate/reasonable?
Differentiated Instruction is… Responsive Teaching ◦ “We respond to what we perceive students need in order to learn, and if that differs from child to child, we adjust instruction accordingly rather than leaving them floundering.” ( Wormeli, 2011.)
Differentiated Instruction is… A Mindset ◦ Based on the belief that students can and will grow ◦ Growth will occur if lessons are structured to “meet each student’s learning needs and maximize each student’s learning capacity.”( Tomlinson & Strickland, 2005.)
Differentiated Instruction… “relates more to addressing students’ different phasesof learning from novice to capable to proficient rather than merely providing different activities to different groups or students”(Hattie, 2012) Lessons should be structured so “all students are working at or “+1” from where they start” (Strickland, 2012)
ResearchDifferentiated Since it is a systemInstruction is a comprised of many“systematic parts, the researchapproach to must be examined inplanning light of its parts…curriculum and -Differentiation is notinstruction for a strategy by itself oracademically a programdiverse learners” … (Strickland, 2012)
John Hattie (2009) Published Visible Learning in 2009 ◦ A synthesis of 800 meta-analyses (relating to 50,000 studies and 200+ million students) Meta-analysis = “effects in each study are converted to a common measure (an effect size), such that the overall effects could be quantified, interpreted, and compared” ◦ Aimed at determining what influences achievement (Miller, 2010; Strickland, 2012)
John Hattie (2009) Examines 138 Effect size of 1.0 influences on =approx. 3 years of advancing achievement or student 45% improvement achievement Effect size of .4 or higher = desirable Puts results of EFFECT IMPACT thousands of SIZE research studies on a continuum of -.3 - 0.0 Negative effect sizes .1 - .3 Low ◦ Range of effect .3 - .6 Medium sizes= -.34 to 1.44 .7 – 1.4 High (Miller, 2010; Strickland, 2012)
John Hattie (2009) Let’s Have Them Exciting Among the The Winners WinnersEffective classroom Challenging goals Not labeling Formativemanagement (.52) (.56) students (.60) assessment feedback (.90)Small Group Peer tutoring (.55) Using varied Teacher clarityLearning w/ teaching strategies (.75)appropriate (.60)materials and tasks(.49)Student Cooperative vs. Collaborative vs. Reciprocalengagement (.49) competitive individualistic Teaching (.74) learning (.54) learning (.59)Motivation (student Classroom Effective Feedbackhas appropriate cohesion (.53) (.73)skills/feels incharge of learning)(.50)Reducing anxiety Models of quality Teacher-student(.40) student work (.57) (Hattie, 2009; Strickland, relationships (.72)
Carol Dweck (2000) Carol Dweck found that many students see their intelligence as fixed ◦ Hattie found students’ self-reporting grades to have an effect size of 1.44 Evidence that students predict their performance (accurately & low) on their past achievement ◦ Hattie found that there is a strong correlation between self-efficacy & achievement Achievement is likely to increase when students: Invoke learning Accept feedback Set challenging goals Compare themselves to subject specific criteria (not other kids) Self-regulate and exert control over their own learning (Hattie, 2009; Miller, 2010)
Fixed vs. Growth Mindset FIXED MINDSET GROWTH MINDSET•“Success comes from •“Success comes frombeing smart effort•Genetics& environment •With hard work, anddetermine what we can appropriate support, mostdo in life students can do most things•Some kids are smart andsome aren’t •Intelligence can be cultivated•Teachers cannot overridestudent profiles- You can’t •Teachers can overridechange someone’s student profiles by settingintelligence” high goals, providing high support, ensuring student focus- finding what makes (Strickland, 2012) school work for a student”
Fixed vs. Growth Mindset TEACHERS WITH A TEACHERS WITH A FIXED MINDSET GROWTH MINDSET•Determines student ability & •Focuses on providingteaches accordingly feedback that describes•Makes quick judgments on student growth & is aimed atability w/ little evidence correcting errors•Stresses normative •Withholds judgments & waitsevaluation over growth for improvements•Less likely to plan concrete •Focuses on ensuring thestrategies for student task outcome can beimprovement improved by practice & hard work•May comfort a student fortheir lack of ability •Communicates “start where you are, but don’t stay there.”•Tends not to provide enough Taken from Cindy Strickland’s presentation given at LTHS.time for practice and Strickland, C.A. (2012, November 15). Researchimprovement supporting differentiation. [Presentation at LTHS]. ASCD:
ACTIVITY 2 With your partner: Directions: Please Determine how a teacher with a fixed mindset would consider the respond and record your following scenarios opinion in the relevant from the box. perspective of a Determine how a teacher teacher with a fixed with a growth mindset would respond and record mindset, growth your opinion in the mindset, and your relevant box. own perspective. Determine how you would Read each situation respond (in your own with your partner classroom) and record your opinion in the and:
Growth Mindset is at the heart ofDifferentiation “John Hattie suggests that teachers would have mores success if they addressed students’ low self-efficacy before trying to raise their achievement.” Carol Dweck believes this can be done “by promoting a growth mindset in the classroom.” ◦ Teachers acting as a change-agent (Miller, 2010)
CRITICISMSI. Learning StyleII. “Observed Chaos”III. Catering too much to studentsIV. Implementation Challenges
Learner Profile One of the three Learner Profile = types of observations about a differentiation is student that affects differentiation by his/her learning LEARNER PROFILE including … Family dynamics Can include, but not Health (physical & emotional) limited to, information Technological skills concerning learning Personal interests styles Gender Learning Styles (Wormeli, 2011.)
Critics of Learning Styles Schmoker, Willingham, Hattie, and other psychologists, neuroscientists, and sociologists have questioned research on learning styles They are concerned because they believe: ◦ No agreement on what constitutes a learning style ◦ Few studies about the various learning style models Many studies rely on students self-reporting their style Little validity & reliability amongst most of the learning style instruments Many items on these instruments can be biased ◦ No evidence from neuroscience to validate the concept of a learning style ◦ Use of learning styles to label a student can be limiting (self-fulfilling prophecy) (Tomlinson, 2011)
Critics of Learning Styles “Learning styles are neither the definition nor the primary component of differentiated instruction. Carol Ann Tomlinson wrote in 2010, the goal of differentiation is to “provide options for learning and to help students become aware of what supports their learning at a given time.” (Wormeli, 2011.)
Critics of Learning StylesCaution… They caution: ◦ We should not use invalid and unreliable instruments to permanently categorize a student as having a specific learning style ◦ We should not teach students in only their preferred style ◦ We should expose students to multiple styles and grow their ability to learn in a variety of ways (Wormeli, 2011.)
Considering the criticisms of learningstyles,we should… Understand and explain the term “learning profile” Acknowledge the concerns about learning style & heed the cautions of the critics ◦ Offer a variety of ways to express learning ◦ Teach in a variety of ways ◦ Accept “individuals learn differently in different contexts” ◦ Avoid permanently labeling/categorizing a student by learning style (Tomlinson, 2011)
A Critic of Observed Chaos In 2010, Mike Schmoker criticized Differentiated Instruction , “I saw frustrated teachers trying to provide materials that matched each student‟s or group‟s presumed ability level, interest, preferred „modality‟ and learning style. The attempt often devolved into a frantically assemble collection of worksheets, coloring exercises, and specious „kinesthetic‟
Good InstructionSchmoker believes the Tomlinson argues therefollowing must be present are 4 non-negotiable tofor good instruction: DI:1) Content-rich 1) Challenging and guaranteed curriculum supportive learning2) Reading, writing, and environment discussion in 2) Quality curriculum analytical and (KUD) argumentative modes in all disciplines 3) Formative3) Curriculum-based assessment objective and 4) Adaption of assessment w/ guided practice, check for instruction to the understanding, and formative assessment ongoing adjustment to data so the success instruction of each learner is (
In light of the criticism of“observed chaos,” we should… Adhere to the 5 Principles of Differentiation ◦ Teach a Quality Curriculum ◦ Design Quality Tasks aligned to the same KUD ◦ Cultivate a Respectful Community ◦ Continually Assess Students design activities to propel students ahead from where they are currently ◦ Employ Flexible Grouping Differentiate when it makes sense
Criticism:Catering too Much to Students A concern raised DI is responsive after October’s teaching Institute Day was a DI offers students fear that students options so students would not be can: prepared to succeed ◦ Advocate for on their own (in themselves college) if they were ◦ Learn what works for constantly receiving them differentiated ◦ Build their own learner instruction dexterity ◦ Options ◦ Handle that which is ◦ Their “needs catered not differentiated to” (Wormeli, 2011.)
Implementation Challenges… To differentiate THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND: well, It takes time to learn how towe must continuously differentiate welladjust to what the Differentiated Instruction canstudents are and are be as simple as asking 3not learning…this questions as opposed to 1involves constant It does not have to and shouldadjustment to not always be a long and involved multi-day projectinstructional plans If it is an involved project,but share your plans with your PLC…be prepared to work as a PLC and meet your agreed uponcommon curriculum dates assessmentsare to be given on
Implementation Challenges… Other members THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND: PLC teachers teach the same of my PLC do not Enduring Understanding, Essential wish to Outcomes, and administer the same differentiate common assessments Individual teachers have choices over the instructional methods used to teach these Enduring Other members Understandings & Essential Outcomes of my PLC are not implementing Differentiated Instruction is a best practice- Forge Ahead differentiation as Differentiated Instruction can be I understand it… implemented incorrectly Engage in conversations concerning best practice & implementation Or ask questions to seek clarity and share the answers
Implementation Challenges… Students will be THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND:completing different •With differentiated instruction,activities the teacher is grading mastery of the KUD… •One rubric assessing learning of the KUD can be used how do you regardless of activity grade •The objective for all studentsthem equitably if is to grow them from where the they are to a further point onactivities are the learning continuumdifferent? •Explain the goal to create a respectful community do you explain •Set appropriately challenging goals for each studentthe differences tostudents?
Implementation Challenges… THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND: Parents could have difficulty Communicate that Differentiated Instruction will understanding occur why their children are Explain the goal of differentiated instruction not doing the To maximize each student’s same task as learning capacity by another providing appropriately student challenging and engaging tasks Keep in mind that the School Climate Survey revealed that parents desire “more personalized instruction” for their
IN CONCLUSION… Essential Outcome Summative Instruction Assessment Differentiation & Data Collection the PLC Cycle Formative & Analysis Assessment Differentiated Instr.: Intervention & Data Collection Enrichment & Analysis SMART Goals
EXIT TICKET On your way out, please let us know:1) What questions you have concerning Differentiated Instruction that were not answered today?2) What support you would like as you differentiate?3) Other comments
References Hattie, J. (2012). Visible learning for teachers: Maximizing impact on learning.New York: Routledge, p. 97. Miller, G. (2010, April 21). Summary (Summary of the book Visible Learning). Retrieved from http://www.google.com/#hl=en&sugexp=les%3B&gs_rn=1&gs_ri=hp&gs_mss =Sumam ry%20Visible%20Learning&cp=11&gs_id=2u&xhr=t&q=summary+of+visible+l earning +by+john+hattie&pf=p&safe=active&tbo=d&sclient=psy- ab&oq=Sumamry+of+Visible+Learning&gs_l=&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw. r_qf.&b vm=bv.1355534169,d.aWc&fp=a4c147812de756a9&bpcl=40096503&biw=16 00&bih= 719 Strickland, C.A. (2012, November 15.). Research supporting differentiation. [Presentation at LTHS]. ASCD: Alexandria:, Virginia. Tomlinson, C.A. & Strickland, C. A. (2005). Differentiation in practice: A resource guide for differentiating curriculum – Grades 9-12. ASCD: Alexandria, Virginia. Tomlinson, C.A. (2011). Learning Profile: What we Know, What we Don’t Know, What we Need to Know- What we Should Do. University of Virginia. Wormeli, Rick. (2011). Teaching in the middle. Differentiated instruction: setting the pedagogy straight. Middle Ground, October 2011, p.39-40.