“SHAKING UP” YOUR LESSONS: A LOOK AT DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION Presented byMartha Elliott, Brian Keller, Lisa Plichta, and Jennifer Setzke
Today we want to introduce you to the 2012-2013 Institute Day Topic: Differentiated InstructionObjectives:•To know the three types of differentiation•Tounderstand differentiated instruction is asystematic way of planning and teaching thataddresses the interests, learning profiles, andreadiness of all students•Participate in three types of differentiatedactivities
Directions: As each picture is displayed, please answerthe following question by raising your hand to indicate YES or NO. Is this an example of differentiation? YES NO
NO Differentiation is not streaming or leveling or tracking “Even in homogenous classes , there is considerableIs this an example of heterogeneity in terms differentiation? of readiness, interest, and learning profile (Strickland, p. 2)” Strickland,
YES “Differentiation is meeting kids where they are … not where we wish they would be (Strickland, p.1).” “Differentiation is responsive teachingIs this an example of rather than one-size- differentiation? fits-all teaching (Strickland, p.1).” Strickland, 2012.
YES Differentiation is intentional planning as opposed to on-the-spotIs this an example of a component of adjustments differentiation? Strickland, 2012.
NO Differentiation is not simply group work GROUP WORK nor is it constantIs this an example of group work differentiation? Strickland, 2012.
NO Differentiation is not an IEP IEP IEP IEP IEPIEP IEP IEP IEP IEP IEP IEP (Individualize IEP d IEP Education Is this an example of Plan) for differentiation? every child Strickland, 2012.
YES Differentiation is everywhereIs this an example of differentiation? Strickland, 2012.
What is Differentiation? What it is: What it is Not:•Teaching with variance in •Newmind •Tracking or•Responsive teaching ratherthan one-size-fits-all Streamingteaching •IEP for every child•Meeting kids where we •Constant Groupare… not where we wish Workthey would be •Occasional Variation•“Shaking up” the classroom of teaching stylessostudents have multiple •On the spotoptions for making sense of adjustmentsinformationChart from Strickland, “Differentiation of Instruction at the High School Level.” ASCD, 2012.
What is Differentiation? “A systematic approach toIt is not planning curriculum andwhat weteach, instruction for academicallyit is diverse learners” that providesHOWWE students of different abilities,TEACH interests, or learning needs equally appropriate ways to learn (Tomlinson & Strickland, p.7).”
5 Principles forDifferentiated Instruction Building a Respectful Community ◦ Students need to feel safe Quality Curriculum ◦ You can’t differentiate fog Quality Tasks ◦ No busywork Continual Assessment ◦ How can you differentiate if you do not know where they are?
3 Ways to Differentiate“What a “A student’s “Currentstudent enjoys preferred knowledge, understanding,learning mode of and skill level aabout, thinking learning” student has (Tomlinson &about, and Strickland, p.6). related to adoing” particular(Tomlinson & Strickland, sequence ofp.6) learning” (Tomlinson & Strickland, p.6).
Differentiating by LEARNING PROFILEWhy? When we differentiate Because efficiency by results when Learning profile we learners are taught should in ways that are consider student: natural for them (Tomlinson & Strickland Learning Styles p.7) Sternberg’s Intelligences Garner’s Multiple Intelligences Strickland, p. Environmental 5 Preferences
Sternberg Intelligence SurveyMark each sentence T if you like to do the activity and F if you do not like to do the activity.1. Analyzing characters when I’m reading or listening to a story ___2. Designing new things ___3. Taking things apart and fixing them ___4. Comparing and contrasting points of view ___5. Coming up with ideas ___6. Learning through hands-on activities ___7. Criticizing my own and other kids’ work ___8. Using my imagination ___9. Putting into practice things I learned ___10. Thinking clearly and analytically ___11. Thinking of alternative solutions ___12. Working with people in teams or groups
Sternberg Intelligence SurveyMark each sentence T if you like to do the activity and F if you do not like to do the activity.16. Evaluating my own and other’s points of view ___17. Thinking in pictures and images ___18. Advising friends on their problems ___19. Explaining difficult ideas or problems to others ___20. Supposing things were different ___21. Convincing someone to do something ___22. Making inferences and deriving conclusions ___23. Drawing ___24. Learning by interacting with others ___25. Sorting and classifying ___26. Inventing new words, games, approaches ___27. Applying my knowledge ___28. Using graphic organizers or images to organize your thoughts
Transfer your answers from the survey to the key. The column with the most True responses is your dominant intelligence.Analytical Creative Practical1. ___ 2. ___ 3. ___4. ___ 5. ___ 6. ___7. ___ 8. ___ 9. ___10. ___ 11. ___ 12. ___13. ___ 14. ___ 15. ___16. ___ 17. ___ 18. ___19. ___ 20. ___ 21. ___22. ___ 23. ___ 24. ___25. ___ 26. ___ 27. ___28. ___ 29. ___ 30. ___Total Number of True:Analytical ____ Creative _____ Practical _____
Thinking About the Sternberg IntelligencesANALYTICAL Linear – Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential Show the parts of _________ and how they work. Explain why _______ works the way it does. Diagram how __________ affects __________________. Identify the key parts of _____________________. Present a step-by-step approach to _________________.PRACTICAL Streetsmart – Contextual – Focus on Use Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in their life or work. Show how we could apply _____ to solve this real life problem ____. Based on your own experience, explain how _____ can be used. Here’s a problem at school, ________. Using your knowledge of ______________, develop a plan to address the problem. CREATIVE Innovator – Outside the Box – What If - Improver Find a new way to show _____________. Use unusual materials to explain ________________. Use humor to show ____________________. Explain (show) a new and better way to ____________. Make connections between _____ and _____ to help us understand ____________. Become a ____ and use your “new” perspectives to help us think about ____________.
Example of Differentiating byLearning Profile in Language Arts “ To get started with today’s work on alliteration in poetry, you may choose to: listen to poems using alliteration read poems using alliteration write a poem using alliteration Example from Strickland, p. 5
Example of Differentiating by Learning Profile in Science Water Cycle Activity: Choose one of the following options to complete. CHOICE A Design a comic book that illustrates your journey as a water droplet. Include appropriate captions. CHOICE B Draw an accurate version of the water cycle that includes all steps. Be sure to show the process that get a water droplet from one step to another. CHOICE C Create a fictional story about the journey of a water droplet. Base it on your water droplet’s journey. CHOICE D Create a local version of the water cycle. Be sure to include the names of local rivers, bays, oceans, mountains, and so on.Activity taken from Sample 9.3- Water Cycle Activity Options on pg.343 of Tomlinson, Carol Ann & Cindy Strickland (2005). Differentiationin practice: A resource guide for differentiating curriculum: 9-12.
Example of Differentiating by Learning Profile in ScienceWho would benefit from selecting eachof the choices? Choice A, C ◦ high levels of creative intelligence Choice B ◦ high levels of visual/spatial intelligence Choice D ◦ high levels of naturalistic intelligence Tomlinson & Strickland, p. 327
Ways to get the information you need to differentiate by Learning Profile Help Students Determine their Learning Preferences • Survey concerning Learning Styles (Auditory, Visual, Kinesthetic) •http://people.usd.edu/~bwjames/tut/learning- style/stylest.html • Survey concerning Garner’s Multiple Intelligences •Multiple Intelligences Inventory like: http://surfaquarium.com/MI/inventory.htm • Create questionnaire for students to complete that
Ways to differentiate by Learning Profile Three Ways to Incorporate Differentiation by Learning Profile1. Let students gain access to content through varied means (like reading, listening, talking, writing, etc.) • Like the previous Language Arts Example2. Create activities/ assignments that require or appeal to various multiple intelligences for successful completion • Like the previous Science Example3. Allow options for students to compete against others or themselves Strickland, p. 5-6
ACTIVITY # 1Take two minutes to think about the discuss followingwith your other elbow partner:Give an example of how you could teach tomorrow’sobjective (in your class) in a way that would appeal to :1) Creative2) Analytical3) Practical SHARE YOUR EXAMPLE WITH YOUR OPPOSITE ELBOW PARTNER
3 Ways to Differentiate“What a “A student’s “Currentstudent enjoys preferred knowledge, understanding,learning about, mode of and skill level athinking about, learning” student hasand doing” (Tomlinson & Strickland, p.6). related to a(Tomlinson & Strickland,p.6) particular sequence of learning” (Tomlinson & Strickland, p.6).
Differentiating by INTERESTWhy? When we differentiate by Because interest we should interest is a consider student: great motivator Because Passions interest relates Hobbies to relevancy (for Family Interest or pursuits the students) Clubs or sports TV Shows (they watch) Music (they listen to) Friends Electives they take Strickland, p. 3
Ways to get the information you need to differentiate by INTEREST In General: Within an Instructional Unit:• Administer a student Create an assignment interest survey in August: that involves a personal • What is your favorite sport? Why? profile • Who is your favorite team? Why? • What is your favorite TV show? Why? Assign journal entries • Who is your favorite musical artist? that ask your students to Why? • What is your favorite thing to read relate to your subject about? Why? Ask the question: What• Hallway Chats are some of the things• Personal Relationships that You hope we do during the unit?
Example of Differentiating by Interest in World LanguageASSIGNMENT: "Will The Hunger Games be the nextIn order to practice our "Twilight?“reading fluency and ("Seran los juegos de hambre el proximocomprehension in Crepusculo?") Spanish, "Rihanna and Chris Brown Together Again?"pick one of the following ("Rihanna y Chris Brownarticles listed on the right juntos de nuevo?") to Googles new glasses ("Google lanza unasread tonight. Be prepared gafas interactivas")to summarize the The unluckiest man in article in Spain ("El hombre masSpanish in your own desafortunado de
Example of Differentiating by Interest in Math Look for an example of vectors in your after school activities. Record what you find in one of the following three ways: ◦ Explain the example in writing ◦ Illustrate the example ◦ Prepare 2 minute explanation to share orally with the classDifferentiation by Differentiation by Interest Learning Profile Example adapted from Strickland, p.
Example of Differentiatingby Interest in Science, Health, or Social Studies Select one of the following roles to assume as we discuss the tobacco industry in North Carolina: ◦ Tobacco Farmer ◦ Lobbyist for the tobacco industry ◦ Person with emphysema ◦ Teen who smokes ◦ Oncologist Example from Strickland, p. 3
Ways to differentiate by INTEREST Three Ways to Incorporate Differentiation by Interest1. Show how current topics relate to or enhance skills required for success in various student activities • like previous Math example2. Design assignments that relate your subject matter to pop-culture/ student interests • like World Language Example3. Ask students to share their personal experience with, preferred perspective, or interest in the topic of study • like previous Tobacco example Strickland, p. 3- 4
ACTIVITY # 2 SECOND: USING THE INTEREST FIRST: SELECT ONE OF THE YOU SELECTED, COMPLETE FOLLOWING INTERESTS: ONE OF THE FOLLOWING: Rap Music Provide an example of an Cubs/ White Sox in-class activity that differentiates for student March Madness interest. Spring Break Provide an example of a Friends homework assignment that Student differentiated for student Clubs/Activities interest. Family Interest Provide an example of a long-term project that could be differentiated for SHARE YOUR EXAMPLE WITH interest. AN ELBOW PARTNER
3 Ways to Differentiate“What a “A student’s “Currentstudent preferred knowledge, understanding,enjoys mode of and skill level alearning learning” student has (Tomlinson &about, Strickland, p.6). related to athinking particularabout, and sequence ofdoing” learning” (Tomlinson & Strickland,(Tomlinson & Strickland, p.6).p.6)
Differentiating by READINESSWhy? When we differentiate by To appropriately Readiness we should consider challenge all student: learners “Attitude (toward school &Goal: topic)“make the work a Experience with the topic little (outside of school or previoustoo difficult for courses) Knowledge, understanding, andstudents at a given skill with the topicpoint in their growth- Preconceptions about the topicand then to provide Overgeneralizations about thethe support they topic need General communication, Tomlinson & Strickland, p. 6to succeed at a new thinking, & reasoning skills” p. 8-9 Strickland,
Ways to get the information you need to differentiate by Readiness Things all teachers can Formal Assessments thatdo to obtain information: can provide information:• Pre-Assessment • Explore, Plan, ACT(EPAS• In-Class /Formative Data) Assessment • Read 180 (During the Unit) •White Boards • AIMS Web Data •Knowledge Rating • NWEA Map Data Chart • Aleks Data •KWL•Homework Assignment • Formal Educational•Entrance & Exit Slips Testing (WISC, WIAT)
Example of Differentiating by Readiness in Social Science Lesson Objective:To know the positions of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King on ways to achieve equality. After the initial lesson, students complete an Exit Slip:Provide two examples of methods Martin Luther King used during the Civil Rights Movement and two that Malcolm X used. Teacher analyzes exit slip information & divides thestudents into three groups 1) Students that flip-flopped the examples between the two Civil Rights Leaders 2) Students that provided only one example for each Leader 3) Students that provided at least two appropriate examples for each leader
Continued Social Science Example The next day in class the students were placed in either Group 1, 2, or 3 Students in Group 1 sat with the teacher Teacher re-taught the objective Students filled in a graphic organizer Students in Group 2 worked independently Read & summarized an article concerning multiple ways of achieving equality Students in Group 3 worked independently Read an article concerning current leaders Compared current leaders & their positions to Malcolm X and Martin Luther King
Example of Differentiating byReadiness in Physical WelfareA Tiered Task: Assignment A: Assignment B: “A classmate had to “Pretend you were the leave the room today coach of your kickball team just as we were today. Select a key or beginning to play critical play in today’s game. kickball. Please write Pretend it happened in that student a note some other way. What might explaining what the results have been? happened in today’s Why? What principle can game, why it happened you infer? Be sure you pick the way it did, and what something that will help your your team could do to team in its efforts to improve improve your over time.” performance. Be as Strickland, p. 8
Ways to differentiate by Readiness Two Ways to Incorporate Differentiation by Readiness1. Create Tiered Tasks • Like previous Physical Welfare example2. Offer mini-lessons to students missing content or skills while simultaneously offering an alternate activity for enhancement to students who have mastered the content or skills • Like previous Social Science example Strickland, p. 8-9
Review & Reflection• Differentiation is a way of thinking about teaching. • systematic approach to planning instruction • provides learners (who are different) with equally appropriate options for learning • good teaching• Three Types of Differentiation• How did we differentiate throughout the presentation?• How can you apply today’s information to your classroom?
References Tomlinson, Carol Ann & Cindy Strickland (2005). Differentiation in practice: A resource guide for differentiating curriculum: 9-12. Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD. Strickland, Cindy (February, 2012). Differentiation of Instruction at the High School Level. Alexandria, Virginia: ASCD.