PLC Cycle: Formative Assessment falls as the third step in the PLC Cycle. Formative Assessment addresses question 2: How do we know when a student has learned something? What is formative assessment? After establishing what we are going to teach students (learning targets), and then teaching it (through varied instructional strategies), we must assess student understanding. This assessment occurs in a variety of ways: discussion, q &a, exit slips, bell work, homework assignment, quiz, etc. When an assessment is used for learning, when it is used to inform a teacher’s instruction, then it is formative. Typically, teachers: assess student understanding of the learning target formatively determine their next instructional steps as a result of student performance either re-teach or enhance the initial learning eventually administer a summative assessment
What are the 7 Strategies? Jan Chappuis has developed 7 Strategies of Assessment for Learning. These 7 strategies revolve around 3 questions (for the students): 1) Where Am I going?- Strategy 1 (Captain Target: Learning Target); Strategy 2 (Model Master: Models or examples of the continuum of quality) 2) Where Am I Now?, - Strategy 3 (Flash Feedback: Effective Feedback); Strategy 4 (Goal Guard: Student Self-Assessment & Goal Setting) 3) How do I Close the Gap?- Strategy 5 (One-der-Woman: focus on 1 target at a time); Strategy 6 (Robin Revision: focused revision); Strategy 7 (Reflecto Man: Tracking learning and Self-Reflection) Why are we going to study the 7 Strategies? LT is going to engage in the study and application of these 7 strategies of assessment this school year because research has demonstrated: “Innovations that include strengthening the practice of formative assessment produce significant and often substantial learning gains.” (Black & Wiliam, 1998b) “formative assessment practices greatly increase the achievement of low-performing students” (p. 3) 7 strategies are “designed to meet students’ information needs to maximize both motivation and achievement, by involving students from the start in their own learning” (Chappuis, p. 11). These 7 strategies facilitate meta-cognition, which strong learners already engage in, but low-level learners need to be taught explicitly to think about their thinking. Today’s focus: In August we were briefly introduced to these strategies. In today’s session, we are going to delve into strategies 4 & 7.
DESCRIBE IT! To begin today we are going to participate in the activity: Describe It! We need one volunteer. Who would like to volunteer? Directions for the Volunteer: Please seat the volunteer in a chair so their back is to the audience. Please give the volunteer the picture and have them keep it hidden from the audience. Please tell the volunteer that his/her task is to DESCRIBE the picture to their audience in such a manner that the audience members will be able to recreate the picture. Please prohibit the volunteer from giving feedback or asking questions. Directions for the Audience: Our volunteer is going to describe a picture which you will draw on the provided piece of paper. You may not ask questions or ask for feedback. Please listen to his/her description and replicate the drawing. You should be aware that the picture contains rectangles and these rectangles can/do touch.
Unhide this slide following the Describe It! Activity (Right click on the slide and select “Hide Slide”) Directions: Ask the audience to: examine the original drawing Determine to what degree he/she was able to replicate the original Find evidence that can justify his/her opinion in his/her drawing Ex: I was able to replicate this drawing with 75% accuracy. I had 4 of 6 rectangles facing the correct direction and overlapping their neighbors to the correct degree. My rectangles were all equally sized.
Put time limit on this.
Ask Your Audience to Contemplate the Following: If we had provided examples to accompany our initial directions of strong and weak rectangles, how would this have impacted your ability to replicate the drawing?
Talking Points: Strategy 2 is intended to answer the question: Where am I headed? It works in conjunction with strategy 1. The idea is that you present the models of the strong and weak work in order to further communicate your learning target or vision of the intended learning. Oftentimes teachers present models of work to demonstrate project expectations rather than to communicate a learning target. This strategy involves using the model to clarify and communicate the learning target. If used in this way, then models of work can:---do all of this before you assign something, not after they’ve done it Clarify your vision of the intended learning Shape the student’s continuum of quality-expectations- Communicate your expectations Assign meaning and relevance to quality levels “[Prepare students to understand] your feedback to them and to engage in peer-and self-assessment.” Strategy 2 is considered an enabling strategy because it enables the students to understand your feedback (which is provided with strategy 3).
To officially shape a students’ continuum of quality, to make them understand our expectations or the vision of learning in our head, we can’t simply show a model and expect it will yield a great and similar outcome.---they need to interact with the models in some way. If we show Starry, Starry night to the class, the class will agree it is excellent, but they won’t know why it is excellent. If they students can’t explain why this excellent, if they can’t point to what the artist did to make this excellent, then he/she won’t be able to reach a similar outcome.
Strategy 2 involves getting the students to USE the models of work to “buy into” your vision of learning or your levels of quality. In order to buy into your vision of learning, students must understand what makes a strong sample STRONG and what makes a weak sample WEAK. As educators, we can structure activities that force the students to examine the work to the point where they are determining why the work is strong or weak. Here are some activities that facilitate this: Match the phrase in the rubric to the relevant aspect of the sample work Students are asked to underline the portion of the rubric that captures the relevant aspect of the work in the provided sample If the product is a paper, then students can highlight the portion of the sample paper and the portion of the rubric that are aligned to one another 2) Rank the samples according to the rubric The teacher would provide one example of work per quality level in the rubric (Example: 3 samples- one excellent, one emerging, and one barley there). The students would examine the work and the rubric to determine which quality level describes each sample. Students then justify their opinion with verbiage from the rubric and evidence from the sample work. 3) Take a strong and weak essay. For each essay, cut up quotes from the paper and cut up the accompanying comments. Have students collaborate to match the appropriate teacher comment with the relevant student quote.
Directions: Turn to the first page of your activity packet. Read the rubric. Read the problem on the second page. Examine each student work sample. As a table, score these samples. Match elements of the student sample to the verbiage in the rubric to justify your scores. Be prepared to share your table’s responses to the following questions: How would you score each sample? What evidence in the work justifies your score? How does an activity like this facilitate student understanding of the vision for learning?
Directions: Bring all groups back together and review responses. “Take a look at the rubric. Then, read the math problem and examine the student responses. Based on the rubric, where would you say each student’s work is on the continuum from strong to weak. Why?” Example Responses: Sample #1= Strong- Score of 5 Rationale=The student “translated the problem into a useful mathematical form” by determining how many liters each person would need per day, then multiplying the number of people, and then multiplying by the number of days. The student then “applied the selected plan,” “which involved multiple approaches,” “through to completion” and arrived at the correct answer. The student’s answer of 60 liters was “reasonable and consistent with the context of the problem.” Sample #2= Weak- Score of 3 (but Score of 1 could be defended with rubric language)
Prior to beginning discussions concerning strategy 3, have participants take a self-assessment concerning their feedback practices. This self-assessment is on pg. 3 of the activity handout. They should write A for All of the Time, S for Some of the Time, and N for Not Yet.
Quality feedback: Communicates to the student what they did well & guides them towards improvement Coaches the student Inspires hope
EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK: “maximizes the chances that student achievement will improve as a result” (Chappuis, p. 56) Is about quality not presence Is about progress & how to proceed not the person emphasizes effort not perfection provides opportunity for practice not a summative judgment on what has yet to be practiced 5 Characteristics of Effective Feedback: Communicates performance without being evaluative. Creates a relationship between the student/ teacher, student/student and student/learning. It helps students identify where they are now with respect to where they are headed and prompts further learning. Individualizes and customizes learning. Takes place in the classroom.
Feedback should revolve around the learning target. Point out strengths related to the target & provide guidance so the intended learning is achieved. THE TERMS SUCCESS & INTERVENTION AVOID THE ASSOCIATION WITH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE; THEY SUGGEST THAT MISTAKES ARE OKAY & THERE IS ROOM TO GET BETTER Consider a check plus or check minus what message is being sent by these symbols?
Example: You used a logical strategy of drawing a table to solve this problem. Try converting all your data points to meters and then re-enter them in the table and solve the problem again. SUCCESS WAS USING A TABLE AS PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY INTERVENTION IS “TRY” (Suggestion) CONVERTING YOUR DATA POINTS TO COMMON UNITS & THEN SOLVE AGAIN
Circulate while the tables are working on the activities on pgs. 3 & 4 and check answers for each table to PART I. PART I ANSWERS Success Success Intervention Success (This one often tricks people. The success is in the fact that the student corrected her own process.) Intervention Success
Reconvene large group to review Part II : Call on tables to offer quality feedback for PART II. Possible Responses Instead of Incomplete: Showing your work in numbers 1-3 demonstrated you have the right process. Can you apply the correct process when given word problems. Try numbers 4-10 to find out. Instead of Keep Studying: Try making flashcards for your unit vocabulary and then practice “quizzing” yourself with these cards for ten minutes each night. Instead of more effort needed: Let’s see what type of still-life you can produce if you … What do you need to do to reach the Excellent & Beyond category on the rubric?
Reconvene large group to review III: Call on tables to review possible feedback for Describe It activity. Possible Response: 5 of your 6 rectangles are all correctly oriented. – SUCCESS PORTION In this particular exercise, all of the rectangles are the same size. How could you adjust your drawing to embody this fact?- INTERVENTIONIST PORTION
CHARACTERISTIC #2: Effective feedback is provided when there is still time to act on it. Students have to be encouraged to learn, but this means mistakes will occur. You must communicate it is okay to make mistakes. If formative assessments are not graded, then you are sending the message it is okay to make mistakes because you are: 1) providing practice and 2) avoiding punishments via grades for mistakes. There must be time to practice before the work is graded summatively. Once the work is graded, then mistakes truly do count against you. The goal is to provide opportunities for practice that provide feedback to guide improvements prior to making a final judgment of learning. CHARACTERISTIC #3: Quality feedback highlights the student’s success and then attempts to correct misconceptions, partial understanding, or undeveloped skills through interventionist feedback. If a students does not understanding anything, then feedback will not be helpful. You must re-teach.
Overfeed backing is when we provide so much information to the student that we do the thinking for him/her If time allows-have them give each other feedback based on their drawings. Example: grammar key-accel circle mistakes, prep circle mistakes and give them key code
REMEMBER: All students are different Your professional judgment is sound Getting a student to improve one thing is a step in the right direction If a student has to fix many things or their paper is completely filled with marks, the student could interpret their work as wrong, riddled with mistakes, and unlikely to get better…this is where the student could develop harmful feelings regarding their potential Comment on a one thing at a time (limited number) To select which thing to comment on, always consider the learning target- focus the feedback on the learning target
The following suggestions are timesaving strategies that meet the requirements of effective feedback. (SEE PACKET OF TEMPLATES pg. 204, 205, 80,81 -if need more time, can take out “at your table” section I. Pictures or Cues: Stars and Stairs- (p. 75) Star= what student did well Stair= specific intervention feedback That’s Good? Now This- (p. 77) Simple form with two areas for feedback to ensure that you are including both the success and intervention feedback Codes Consider using codes to indicate common errors and write the code in the margin, then the students must do the work to figure out which problem they had, where it is, and they must correct it. Ex: In foreign language you may use GTPWO= Gender, Tense, Plural, Word Choice Immediate Feedback The more immediate feedback can be, the more likely it is to assist the student on their path to attaining the learning target II. Assessment Dialogues: * Intended for performance assessment with a rubric Written Comments- Identify a focus for the feedback (the focus should be one portion of the rubric related to the learning target you are/have been teaching) Students use the rubric to identify their success and one aspect of the work they need to work on Students complete the “My Opinion” portion of the Assessment Dialogue Form) Review their work & write your “Feedback” in the are for Teacher’s Comments After reading your comments, students take their opinion and your comments into consideration and develop a plan for revision Two-color Highlighting- Have students take a yellow highlighter and highlight the phrases on the rubric that they think describes their work The student submits the highlighted rubric with their work You review the rubric and highlight the phrases on the rubric that describe their work in blue Areas where you and the student agree are in green and those remaining in blue are areas the student should reflect upon The Three-minute Conference- The students should complete the “My Opinion” portion of the Assessment Dialogue Form Student Self-Assessment Will get the student to think about quality Accesses prior info. Start the conf. off by asking the student to share his/her thoughts about strengths and areas to improve Share your feedback Student should right down your comments on the Assessment Dialogue Form
Strategies 5 & 6 work in tandem Strategies 5 & 6 work to answer the question: How do I close the gap in learning? Strategy 5 should be viewed in relation to the question How do I close the learning gap? It encourages the student to focus on the one aspect of the target that he/she has a misconception about, an incomplete understanding, and a partially developed skill.
Strategy 5 = focused instruction Instruction is focused on the aspect of the learning target that each student misunderstands or partially understands Strategy 6= focused practice Opportunities to practice the one portion of the learning target that is misunderstood are developed and completed
3 Steps to Take when attempting to answer the question How Do I Close the Gap: Identify the Common Misunderstanding, Misconception, or Partially Developed Skill Provide instruction specifically on the one area that was identified as “missing” and “needed to closing the gap” Provide practice specifically focused on the skill or applying the content that was identified as “missing” and “needed to closing the gap”
The following document was created by an AP History Teacher (Paul Kelley- currently a principal in Elk Grove). This teacher examined his AP History Course Essential Outcome: I will be able to write an argumentative essay defending a historical thesis statement with relevant supporting evidence. Through reviews of his student’s essays, he quickly determined that the students had a partial understanding of what constitutes relevant historical evidence. As a result, he developed opportunities for students to work with simply one the portion of the learning target that pertains to collecting and using “relevant supporting evidence” The first opportunity consists of ten evidence statements. For each statement, the student must decide whether it helps to answer the prompt. If it helps, the student must say how. If it doesn’t help, the student muse explain why it doesn’t work.
As a result, he developed opportunities for students to work with simply one the portion of the learning target that pertains to collecting and using “relevant supporting evidence” The second opportunity consists of a prompt. Students must select 7-10 pieces of evidence that can be used to answer the prompt.
Have participants turn to pg. 5 in the activity handout and work as a table to record their responses. Together as a table, the participants will: Compare our student work sample to the original Determine the misunderstanding or partially developed skill reflected in the student work Identify the instruction that is needed Outline an activity that would provide focused revision/practice Ex: The misunderstanding was that he/she had to draw rectangles that were the same. Develop a strategy to make 5 rectangles exactly the same size. Teach students how to draw a rectangle .5 x 1 inches using a ruler The student will apply the technique to a drawing of 5 identical rectangles.
** can cut if we don’t have time. People from the same division will be sitting together. Ask them to consider their next unit and predict a common student misconception, partial understanding, or partially developed skill that you will likely see in your next unit. Ask them to determine the focused instruction they will need to provide students with this misconception to close the gap. Ask them to describe an activity for focused practice that they will create to close the gap.
Today, we have reviewed Strategies 2, 3, and 6 which are each linked to a different formative question. Strategy 2 clarifies the vision for learning (Where I am going) by providing samples of strong and weak work related to the learning target. Strategy 3 helps the student determine Where Am I Now by providing quality feedback which point outs the students success (as it relates to the learning target) and his/her areas to improve upon (as it relates to the learning target). Strategy 6 works in tandem with Strategy 5 to close the learning gap by providing the student focused instruction and focused practice on the aspect of the learning target that he/she doesn’t completely understand.
Tell participants that they will be sharing their work at the end.
Meister & Martinez The Rest of the 7 Student-Centered Strategies of Assessment for Learning
be able to define Strategies 2, 3, and 6
be able to explain how strategies 2, 3, and 6 are
related to the questions:
Where am I headed?
Where am I now?
How do I close the gap?
be able to explain ways to implement strategies 2,
3, and 6 in my classroom
apply strategies 2, 3, and 6 to my next instructional
Strategy #2 (Strong & Weak Examples)
Ways to implement
Strategy #3 (Effective Feedback)
Characteristics of Effective Feedback
Suggestions for Offering Feedback
Strategy #6 (Focused Revision)
How do I close the gap?
Strategy 5 & 6
Strategy 5 & 6 in AP
Where Am I Going?
Where Am I Now?
How do I Close the Gap ?
WHO WOULD LIKE TO
Sit with your back to the
Examine the following
Describe this picture to the
YOU MAY NOT:
Ask questions of the
The volunteer is going to
describe a picture.
You must attempt to draw
All you know is:
The picture contains
The rectangles touch one
You may not ask for
feedback or questions
As a table, discuss the following:
How close was your picture to reflecting
the volunteer’s original?
What led to your success?
What would have helped you be more
How did you feel when participating?
The volunteer is going
to describe a picture.
You must attempt to
draw this picture.
All you know is:
The picture contains
The rectangles touch
You may not ask for
feedback or questions
By using examples of strong and weak work in
conjunction with the learning target, you are:
Clarifying your vision of the intended learning
Shaping the student’s continuum of quality
Communicating your expectations
Assigning meaning and relevance to quality
“[Preparing students to understand] your
feedback to them and to engage in peer-and
To be clear:
models of strong
work will not yield
replicas of strong
Match the phrase in the
rubric to the relevant
aspect of the sample work
Rank/score the samples
according to a rubric
Match up quotes from an
essay to feedback
AS A TABLE:
Read the rubric on
pg. 1 of your activity
Examine the two
student work samples
on pg. 2 of your
Score each sample
according to the
4. Provide a rationale for
your score by
identifying the phrases
or concepts that are
associated with this
score in the rubric.
5. Record your score and
rationale on pg. 2 of
your activity handout.
WHAT DOES YOUR TABLE THINK?
•How would you score each sample?
•What evidence in the work justifies your score?
•How does an activity like this facilitate student
understanding of the vision for learning?
A: All S: Some N: Not yet
The feedback I provide students…
(A, S, or N)
1) directs attention to the intended learning.
2) occurs during learning so there is time for
students to ACT upon the feedback.
3) addresses partial understanding
self4) is phrased so the students must do the assessment on
page 3 of the
5) is appropriately limited in regard to
corrective information so the students can
act on the feedback
By quality of feedback, we now realize
that we have to understand not just the
technical structure of the feedback (such
as its accuracy, comprehensiveness, and
appropriateness) but also its
accessibility to the learner (as a
communication), its catalytic and
coaching value, and its ability to
inspire confidence and hope.”
(Chappuis, 2009,p. 55)
KLUGER & DE NISI’S
1/3 feedback yields
1/3 feedback led to
Feedback focuses on
person instead of task
Feedback focuses on
elements of the task &
gives guidance on
ways to make
(Chappuis, 2009, p. 56)
1) Directs attention to the intended learning,
pointing out strengths and offering specific
information to guide improvement
2) Occurs during learning, while there is still time to
act on it
3) Addresses partial understanding
4) Does not do the thinking for the student
5) Limits corrective information to the amount of
advice the student can act on
( Table from Chappuis, 2009, p. 57)
out strengths and
information to guide
points out what the
student has done well
gives specific information to
(Chappuis, 2009, p. 57)
what is done
feature in the work
out effective use
of strategy or process
out a problem
with strategy or process
AS A TABLE
Part I Read the feedback
comments on pg. 3 of
the activity packet
Label each comment
as Success or
Part II For each feedback
comment, please :
revise the comment to
make it effective
success + intervention
Part III Examine the drawing
and write quality
Quality Feedback :
5 of your 6 rectangles are correctly oriented. In this particular
exercise, all of the rectangles are the same size. How could you
adjust your drawing to embody this fact?
Feedback is given & then
time & opportunity are
provided to act on the
Allowed to make
Practice is not graded
Quality feedback guides
Feedback can address
Apply success and
Re-teach if there is “no
A student with no
understanding will not
benefit from feedback
“DOES NOT DO THE THINKING FOR THE STUDENT ”
Avoid overfeed backing (do the thinking for the
Point out the error
Ask the student how he/she will correct it
If needed, carefully pose a question to guide the
“Good thinking spurs thoughtful action”
QUALITY FEEDBACK LIMITS THE NUMBER OF
“as much intervention
feedback as the individual student
can reasonably act on”
students with many errors…
consider limiting the focus of
corrections to one criterion at a time
“Sadler (1989) identified that, in
order for improvement to take
place, the child must first know
the purpose of the task,
then how far this was achieved,
and finally be given help in
knowing how to move closer
toward the desired goal or ‘in
closing the gap.”
aspect of the
that is typically
Targets instruction to
the learning gaps
5 answers “the operative
question: When students go sideways on
this learning target, what are the typical
problems?” Strategy 5 gives students
6 offers students focused
practice to ensure they avoid the
common misunderstandings or correct
Identified Common Misunderstanding
Collecting evidence that supports the thesis statement
The criteria for historical evidence
Read the evidence statement & determine does it help or hurt
answer the prompt
Prompt provided for you to support with 7-10 statements of
the misconception, partial understanding, or
partially developed skill in the student work.
• What focused instruction would be provided to “close
•What focused practice would be created to “close the
AS A TABLE
Think about the course you
teach (or courses in your
Answer the following three
questions together on
page 6 in your activity
Be prepared to share your
Answer the Following…
What is a misconception, partial
understanding, or partially
developed skill that some of your
students will likely demonstrate
in your next unit?
What focused instruction will
you provide to “close the gap?”
What focused practice will you
offer to “close the gap?”
Where Am I Going?
Where Am I Now?
How Can I Close the Gap?
Select a learning target you will
teach in your next unit.
Identify a strong and weak sample of
Outline an activity that would
require the students to use these
samples to identify what makes the
sample strong or weak.
4) Write a quality feedback statement that
fits your strong model.
5) Write a quality feedback statement that
fits your weak model.
This should include success and
6) Confirm the potential
misunderstanding you anticipate
seeing in your next instructional unit.
7) Outline the focused instruction you will
provide to address this misunderstanding.
8) Create the guided practice you will offer
to address this misunderstanding.
Chappuis, Jan (2009). Seven strategies of assessment
for learning. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. 2009.’
Stiggins, R (2007). Assessment for learning: An
essential foundation of productive instruction. In
Douglas Reeves (ed.), Ahead of the curve (pp56-77).
Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.