PLC Cycle:Formative Assessment falls as the third step in the PLC Cycle.What is formative assessment?After establishing what we are going to teach students (learning targets), and then teaching it(through varied instructional strategies), we must assess student understanding.This assessment occurs in a variety of ways: discussion, q &a, exit slips, bell work, homework assignment, quiz, etc.When an assessment is used for learning, when it is used to inform a teacher’s instruction, then it is formative.Typically, teachers: assess student understanding of the learning target formatively determine their next instructional steps as a result of student performanceeither re-teach or enhance the initial learningeventually administer a summative assessment.
What are the 7 Strategies?Jan Chappuis has developed 7 Strategies of Assessment for Learning. These 7 strategies revolve around 3 questions (for the students):1) Where Am I going?- Strategy 1 (Captain Target: Learning Target); Strategy 2 (Model Master: Models or examples of the continuum of quality)2) Where Am I Now?, - Strategy 3 (Flash Feedback: Effective Feedback); Strategy 4 (Goal Guard: Student Self-Assessment & Goal Setting)3) How do I Close the Gap?- Strategy 5 (One-der-Woman: focus on 1 target at a time); Strategy 6 (Robin Revision: focused revision); Strategy 7 (Reflecto Man: Tracking learning and Self-Reflection)Why are we going to study the 7 Strategies?LT is going to engage in the study and application of these 7 strategies of assessment this school year because research has demonstrated:“Innovations that include strengthening the practice of formative assessment produce significant and often substantial learning gains.” (Black & Wiliam, 1998b)“formative assessment practices greatly increase the achievement of low-performing students” (p. 3)7 strategies are “designed to meet students’ information needs to maximize both motivation and achievement, by involving students from the start in their own learning” (Chappuis, p. 11). These 7 strategies facilitate meta-cognition, which strong learners already engage in, but low-level learners need to be taught explicitly to think about their thinking.Today’s focus:In August we were briefly introduced to these strategies. In today’s session, we are going to delve into strategies 4 & 7.
Strategy IV- Additional Information to convey: Strategy 4 “teachesstudents to identify their strengths and weaknesses and to set goals for further learning” so they can answer the questions:Where am I now?What am I good at?What do I need to work on?What should I do next? (p.13)There are three components involved to this strategy: 1) self-assessment of the learning target (Where am I ? What am I good at? What do I need to work on?) 2) justification (Why do I need to work on ___?) 3) goal setting in regard to the learning target (What do I need to do next in relation to the intended learning target?)Example of a student goal:
Student response clarified: Cole chose to define the term preventative care. He defined it as steps you take/things you do in order to prevent a disease from happening. His example was, “I get a physical before playing sports to make sure that I’m healthy and help prevent me from getting hurt during the season.”
Strategy VII- Additional Information to convey:“Long-term retention and motivation increase when students track, reflect on, and communicate about their learning” (p.13)Strategy 7 begs the question, How do I close the gap?Engagement is not serendipitous. It occurs with careful teacher planning. This strategy allows students to answer positively to the question: “Can I do this?” They are actively living the concept of “growth-mindset” versus “ability-mindset.” This strategy can prevent learned helplessness for students who often feel no control over their academic fate…with proper guidance, they can see where growth is possible.The Gap=divide between where you are and the learning target/end goalSelf-reflection:Is a gap-closing strategy because of its impact on student motivation and retention.Students track progressReflect on their learning processes and growthShare observations about achievement or about themselves as learners
This teaches students to think about the process of learning, and how to change their own process to yield better outcomes in the future.
It is important on this slide to talk about difference between the options correct and incorrect and the thumbs up, down or to the side. Here are some examples. (I didn’t type it, as it would make the slide way too crowded). A student who got a question right might…Still feel uncertain because they had to look at their notes to complete the problemFeel not good about it because they had to ask their elbow partner for help and they really walked them through the whole thingFeel really good because they did it right and didn’t need any help.Feel uncertain because they actually guessed and feel they got lucky.A student who got the warm up wrong might…Feel good because they made a really silly mistake (copied the problem from the screen wrong and thus got it wrong)Feel good because they just missed a negative, spelled something wrong or something small that they realize was just a small error (trying to think of different content area examples). Feel uncertain because they understand what they did wrong but don’t feel totally confident on the fact that they are not going to do that in the future Feel not good at all because they still don’t even understand what they got wrong and why or how to fix it. Also I think it is important to talk about the icons (star, stairs, lightbulb). I would mention that they are very easy to remove if teachers don’t like the look of it… BUT it would be helpful to explain the purpose is actually to help teachers give feedback. I would explain that if the students are used to seeing these symbols and what they mean then when grading something you could quickly draw stairs next to a topic that kids might need to work on or put a star by something they did really well at (a quick way to give descriptive feedback). So this could help with grading papers, essays, math tests/quizzes or really anything that needs feedback. Also I would talk about teachers needing to model this. Maybe even making a strong and weak example to show their kids.
Dean. (2008, May 7). When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://www.spring.org.uk/the1sttransportAuthor, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://Web address Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
1. What have you tried concerning selfassessment and self-reflection?
2. What worked well?
3. What would you like to improve?
4. What questions do you have?
I will be able to:
Define strategy 4 & 7
Explain how to implement
strategies 4 & 7 in the
applications of selfassessment and selfreflection and determine
how to apply them to my
Ask questions concerning
the implementation of
strategies 4 & 7
Entrance Slip: 4
Review of Strategy 4 & 7
Video Example of
If time remains:
Generate warm-up activity
Peruse resource packet
Where Am I Going?
Provide students with a clear and understandable
vision of the learning target.
Use examples and models of strong and weak
Where Am I Now?work.
Offer regular descriptive feedback.
Teach students to self-assess and set goals.
How do I Close the Gap?
Design lessons to focus on one learning target or
aspect of quality at a time.
Teach students focused revision.
Engage students in self-reflection, and let them
THE COMPONENTS OF VALID
Students make judgments about what they
know, have learned, or have mastered.
The judgment should be tied to a learning
Students show evidence in their work as
rationale for their judgments.
Students make a plan for continued
learning. Goals should be specific and
In My Classroom:
The following example was used as a formative assessment
at the end of my Contemporary Issues class.
• define and give examples of important healthcare vocabulary
(directions on next slide).
•Students shared their term/definition/example with a partner.
•Each partner had to use the rubric (they’ve seen this before)
to assess their partner’s definition and example.
• This was NOT the first time they’ve done this, therefore I
didn’t have to spend time explaining the rubric in detail;
however the first time I did.
term from the
It should be
You define the
provide a detailed
example of the
term either from
history or a
You define the
Your give an
it doesn’t help to
You are unsure of
the definition of
You can’t provide
an example of the
term from history
or a hypothetical
•connects students to
•is embedded in the
•offers opportunities for
students to share their
•is a gap-closing
strategy because of its
impact on student
•reflect on their
about achievement or
about themselves as
Students must look over their collection
of tracked work and think metacognitively about their learning.
Students should draw conclusions
What they have learned
How they have learned it
What worked and didn’t work
What they would do differently
As I reflected on my
they should self-reflect.
*If answers are more
down what information
should be included.
o MODEL the process to
• Daily Students complete a
• After going over the answer
students ask themselves:
• Did I get it correct or incorrect?
• What is my confidence level?
• What strengths do I have on
• What do I not understand or
need to work on?
• What am I going to do in order
to achieve higher success?
• At the end of the week they
reflect on their strengths,
weaknesses and a plan for
the following week.
In your folder you have received a resource
packet with many examples of Strategy 4 &
7. Pick one example that you could adapt to
your curriculum & use in your classroom. Be
prepared to share…
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.