(Wolf) The Rest of the 7 Student-Centered Strategies of Assessment for Learning
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(Wolf) The Rest of the 7 Student-Centered Strategies of Assessment for Learning

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  • The session is 50 minutes in length.
  • PLC Cycle:Formative Assessment falls as the third step in the PLC Cycle.Formative Assessment addresses question 2: How do we know when a student has learned something?This question can be rephrased to say…how do we know when a student has learned something from group guidance? About the college application process? About means to cope with their substance abuse problem?What is formative assessment?After establishing what we are going to teach students (learning targets), and then teaching it (through varied instructional strategies), we must assess student understanding…After trying to teach students either through one-on-one counseling or This assessment occurs in a variety of ways: discussion, q &a, exit slips, bell work, homework assignment, quiz, etc.When an assessment is used for learning, when it is used to inform a teacher’s instruction, then it is formative.Typically, teachers: assess student understanding of the learning target formatively determine their next instructional steps as a result of student performanceeither re-teach or enhance the initial learningeventually administer a summative assessment
  • What are the 7 Strategies?Jan Chappuis has developed 7 Strategies of Assessment for Learning. These 7 strategies revolve around 3 questions (for the students):1) Where Am I going?- Strategy 1 (Captain Target: Learning Target); Strategy 2 (Model Master: Models or examples of the continuum of quality)2) Where Am I Now?, - Strategy 3 (Flash Feedback: Effective Feedback); Strategy 4 (Goal Guard: Student Self-Assessment & Goal Setting)3) How do I Close the Gap?- Strategy 5 (One-der-Woman: focus on 1 target at a time); Strategy 6 (Robin Revision: focused revision); Strategy 7 (Reflecto Man: Tracking learning and Self-Reflection)Why are we going to study the 7 Strategies?LT is going to engage in the study and application of these 7 strategies of assessment this school year because research has demonstrated:“Innovations that include strengthening the practice of formative assessment produce significant and often substantial learning gains.” (Black & Wiliam, 1998b)“formative assessment practices greatly increase the achievement of low-performing students” (p. 3)7 strategies are “designed to meet students’ information needs to maximize both motivation and achievement, by involving students from the start in their own learning” (Chappuis, p. 11). These 7 strategies facilitate meta-cognition, which strong learners already engage in, but low-level learners need to be taught explicitly to think about their thinking.Today’s focus:In August we were briefly introduced to these strategies. In today’s session, we are going to delve into strategies 4 & 7.
  • Talking Points:Strategy 2 is intended to answer the question: Where am I headed?It works in conjunction with strategy 1. The idea is that you present the models of the strong and weak work in order to further communicate your learning target or vision of the intended learning.Oftentimes teachers present models of work to demonstrate project expectations rather than to communicate a learning target. This strategy involves using the model to clarify and communicate the learning target.If used in this way, then models of work can:Clarify your vision of the intended learningShape the student’s continuum of qualityCommunicate your expectationsAssign meaning and relevance to quality levels“[Prepare students to understand] your feedback to them and to engage in peer-and self-assessment.”Strategy 2 is considered an enabling strategy because it enables the students to understand your feedback (which is provided with strategy 3).
  • To officially shape a students’ continuum of quality, to make them understand our expectations or the vision of learning in our head, we can’t simply show a model and expect it will yield a great and similar outcome. If we show Starry, Starry night to the class, the class will agree it is excellent, but they won’t know why it is excellent. If they students can’t explain why this excellent, if they can’t point to what the artist did to make this excellent, then he/she won’t be able to reach a similar outcome.
  • Strategy 2 involves getting the students to USE the models of work to “buy into” your vision of learning or your levels of quality. In order to buy into your vision of learning, students must understand what makes a strong sample STRONG and what makes a weak sample WEAK. As educators, we can structure activities that force the students to examine the work to the point where they are determining why the work is strong or weak. Here are some activities that facilitate this: Match the phrase in the rubric to the relevant aspect of the sample workStudents are asked to underline the portion of the rubric that captures the relevant aspect of the work in the provided sampleIf the product is a paper, then students can highlight the portion of the sample paper and the portion of the rubric that are aligned to one another2) Rank the samples according to the rubricThe teacher would provide one example of work per quality level in the rubric (Example: 3 samples- one excellent, one emerging, and one barley there).The students would examine the work and the rubric to determine which quality level describes each sample.Students then justify their opinion with verbiage from the rubric and evidence from the sample work.
  • Strategy 2 involves getting the students to USE the models of work to “buy into” your vision of learning or your levels of quality. In order to buy into your vision of learning, students must understand what makes a strong sample STRONG and what makes a weak sample WEAK. As educators, we can structure activities that force the students to examine the work to the point where they are determining why the work is strong or weak. Here are some activities that facilitate this: Match the phrase in the rubric to the relevant aspect of the sample workStudents are asked to underline the portion of the rubric that captures the relevant aspect of the work in the provided sampleIf the product is a paper, then students can highlight the portion of the sample paper and the portion of the rubric that are aligned to one another2) Rank the samples according to the rubricThe teacher would provide one example of work per quality level in the rubric (Example: 3 samples- one excellent, one emerging, and one barley there).The students would examine the work and the rubric to determine which quality level describes each sample.Students then justify their opinion with verbiage from the rubric and evidence from the sample work.3) For counseling: watch video, identify & discuss behavior.
  • Directions:Turn to the third page of your activity packet.Select a context as a table.Write a learning target for this context.Select a strong and weak example of work to shape the student’s continuum of quality as it relates to this learning target.Outline an activity will that will engage the students in determining what makes this sample good or weak.
  • Directions:Turn to the third page of your activity packet.Select a context as a table.Write a learning target for this context.Select a strong and weak example of work to shape the student’s continuum of quality as it relates to this learning target.Outline an activity will that will engage the students in determining what makes this sample good or weak.
  • Prior to beginning discussions concerning strategy 3, have participants take a self-assessment concerning their feedback practices.This self-assessment is on pg. 4 of the activity handout.First select a context of your work: Group guidanceGroup CounselingOne on one meetingCollege WorkshopThen, write A for All of the Time, S for Some of the Time, and N for Not Yet for the feedback you provide students in that context.
  • EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK COMMUNICATES WHAT THE STUDENT DID WELL CONCERNING THE LEARNING TARGET AND HOW THE SUDENT NEEDS TO IMPROVE IN RELATION TO THE LEARNING TARGET
  • EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK:“maximizes the chances that student achievement will improve as a result” (Chappuis, p. 56)Is about quality notpresenceIs about progress & how to proceed notthe personemphasizes effort notperfection provides opportunity for practice not a summative judgment on what has yet to be practiced5 Characteristics of Effective Feedback:Communicates performance without being evaluative. Creates a relationship between the student/ teacher, student/student and student/learning. It helps students identify where they are now with respect to where they are headed and prompts further learning. Individualizes and customizes learning. Takes place in the classroom.
  • Feedback should revolve around the learning target.Point out strengths related to the target & provide guidance so the intended learning is achieved.THE TERMS SUCCESS & INTERVENTION AVOID THE ASSOCIATION WITH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE; THEY SUGGEST THAT MISTAKES ARE OKAY & THERE IS ROOM TO GET BETTERConsider a check plus or check minus what message is being sent by these symbols?
  • Example:You used a logical strategy of drawing a table to solve this problem. Try converting all your data points to meters and then re-enter them in the table and solve the problem again. SUCCESS WAS USING A TABLE AS PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGYINTERVENTION IS “TRY” (Suggestion) CONVERTING YOUR DATA POINTS TO COMMON UNITS & THEN SOLVE AGAIN
  • Circulate while the tables are working on the activities on pgs. 3 & 4 and check answers for each table to PART I.PART I ANSWERSSuccessSuccessInterventionSuccess (This one often tricks people. The success is in the fact that the student corrected her own process.)InterventionSuccess
  • Reconvene large group to review Part II :Call on tables to offer quality feedback for PART II.Possible ResponsesInstead of Seek assistance:Your grades in English and World History indicate that you are mastering the content on quizzes and tests. Your mathematics quiz and test grades suggest that you are struggling with this material. When will you make an appointment with the teacher to review the material before the next quiz?Instead of Talk to Your Teacher:Try making an appointment with your teacher to discuss potential methods of studying the material.Instead of Keep Studying:Try making flashcards for your unit vocabulary and then practice “quizzing” yourself with these cards for ten minutes each night.Instead of more effort needed:Let’s see what type of still-life you can produce if you …What do you need to do to reach the Excellent & Beyond category on the rubric?
  • CHARACTERISTIC #2: Effective feedback is provided when there is still time to act on it.Students have to be encouraged to learn, but this means mistakes will occur. You must communicate it is okay to make mistakes.If formative assessments are not graded, then you are sending the message it is okay to make mistakes because you are: 1) providing practice and 2) avoiding punishments via grades for mistakes.There must be time to practice before the work is graded summatively. Once the work is graded, then mistakes truly do count against you.The goal is to provide opportunities for practice that provide feedback to guide improvements prior to making a final judgment of learning.CHARACTERISTIC #3:Quality feedback highlights the student’s success and then attempts to correct misconceptions, partial understanding, or undeveloped skills through interventionist feedback. If a students does not understanding anything, then feedback will not be helpful. You must re-teach.
  • Overfeed backing is when we provide so much information to the student that we do the thinking for him/her
  • REMEMBER:All students are differentYour professional judgment is soundGetting a student to improve one thing is a step in the right directionIf a student has to fix many things or their paper is completely filled with marks, the student could interpret their work as wrong, riddled with mistakes, and unlikely to get better…this is where the student could develop harmful feelings regarding their potentialComment on a one thing at a time (limited number)To select which thing to comment on, always consider the learning target- focus the feedback on the learning target
  • Strategies 5 & 6 work in tandemStrategies 5 & 6 work to answer the question: How do I close the gap in learning?Strategy 5 should be viewed in relation to the question How do I close the learning gap? It encourages the student to focus on the one aspect of the target that he/she has a misconception about, an incomplete understanding, and a partially developed skill.
  • Strategy 5 = focused instructionInstruction is focused on the aspect of the learning target that each student misunderstands or partially understandsStrategy 6= focused practiceOpportunities to practice the one portion of the learning target that is misunderstood are developed and completedThink about the Name that Strategy Activity we participated in at the beginning of this session. Teaching the student with executive functioning deficiencies the two organizational strategies was the focused instruction- Strategy 5. Charging the student with keeping her binder organized according to these methods for two weeks was the focused practice- Strategy 6.
  • Today, we have reviewed Strategies 2, 3, and 6 which are each linked to a different formative question.Strategy 2 clarifies the vision for learning (Where I am going) by providing samples of strong and weak work related to the learning target.Strategy 3 helps the student determine Where Am I Now by providing quality feedback which point outs the students success (as it relates to the learning target) and his/her areas to improve upon (as it relates to the learning target).Strategy 6 works in tandem with Strategy 5 to close the learning gap by providing the student focused instruction and focused practice on the aspect of the learning target that he/she doesn’t completely understand.

(Wolf) The Rest of the 7 Student-Centered Strategies of Assessment for Learning (Wolf) The Rest of the 7 Student-Centered Strategies of Assessment for Learning Presentation Transcript

  •   
  •  I will:  be able to explain how the 7 strategies are designed to assist the student in answering the following questions:  Where am I headed?  Where am I now?  How do I close the gap?  be able to define Strategies 2, 3, and 6.  apply strategies 2 and 3 to my area of work.
  •  Review of the PLC Cycle & 7 Strategies  Name that Strategy  Strategy #2 (Strong & Weak Examples)  Key ideas  Let’s Try  Ways to implement  Strategy #3 (Effective Feedback)  Self-assessment  Characteristics of Effective Feedback  Let’s Try  Strategy #6 (Focused Revision)  Quick Overview  How can I apply the strategies to my job?
  • Where Am I Going? Strategy 1: Provide students with a clear and understandable vision of the learning target. Strategy Use examples and models of strong and weak 2: Where Am I Now? work. Strategy 3: Offer regular descriptive feedback. Strategy Close Teach students to self-assess and set goals. How do I 4: the Gap? Strategy Strategy 5: 6: Strategy 7: Design lessons to focus on one learning target or aspect of quality at a time. Teach students focused revision. Engage students in self-reflection, and let them
  • AS A TABLE   Read the provided scenarios. Determine which of the 7 strategies is being employed.  Write the name of the reflected strategy next to each scenario.  Each strategy is used only once. Activity Packet Pg. 1 & 2
  • STRATEGY SCENARIO After working with a student to examine his math 4 grades, you ask the student to: (Self- Assessment 1. Identify his current academic and behavioral & Goal-Setting) strengths and weaknesses in math. 2. Point to evidence that supports his opinion. 3. Set a SMART goal to address his weaknesses. 6 (Focused Practice/ Focused Revision) After demonstrating two methods of organization to a student, you charge her with organizing her binder according to these methods for two weeks. At the conclusion of the two weeks, you meet with the student to review her progress.
  • 7 At the conclusion of the sophomore year, you administer a year (Selfend survey to your students. This survey asks each student to Reflection) examine his/her unofficial transcript and determine: 1. the number of credits he/she has achieved to date. 2. the specific credits he/she still needs in order to secure graduation. 3. the positive trends in his/her academic performance. 4. whether or not he/she is on track to meeting his/her postsecondary goals, and explain his/her opinion. 1 The counselor posted the following learning target for her (Learning group guidance session. Target) I can create a 4 year plan that meets LT graduation requirements and post secondary preferences.
  • 3 (Effective Feedback) One of your students came to complain about their math class, which they are failing. In an effort to determine the cause of failure, you access the student’s grade portal. You made the following feedback statement to the student: Your test grades are strong; however, your overall grade in this course is low. Look at your assignment grades. What is bringing your overall average down? How can this be corrected? 5 (one instructional focus/ focused instruction) A student services staff member is working with a small group of students that struggle with executive functioning. This group of students is not meeting their learning targets because they struggle with organizational skills. You teach the students two methods of organizing: 1. Using dividers to separate items in the course binder by topic and assignment type 2. Color coding the information according to topic (for studying)
  • 2 (Provide Models) During group guidance, the counselor split the 9th graders into groups and asked each group to: highlight the graduation requirements exhibited in two sample 4 year plans determine which sample plan was ideal justify which sample plan was ideal by referring to graduation requirements
  • By using examples of strong and weak work in conjunction with the learning target, you are:  Clarifying your vision of the intended learning  Shaping the student’s continuum of quality  Communicating your expectations  Assigning meaning and relevance to quality levels  “[Preparing students to understand] your feedback to them and to engage in peer-and self-assessment.”
  • To be clear: Simply flashing models of strong work will not yield replicas of strong work STRONG EXAMPLE
  • 1. Students highlight the college requirements in a strong and weak sample four year plan 2. Students rank/score the college essay samples according to a college essay rubric
  • 3. Students watch sample “counseling group” video and identify and discuss examples of “normed” behavior and inappropriate behavior.
  • AS A TABLE: Select your context. 1. 3. One on one meeting Group Counseling Group Guidance College Workshop Select a strong and weak example of your learning target. 4. Outline an activity that the students will engage in to determine what makes each example strong or weak. Activity Packet Pg. 3 1. 2. 3. 4. Write your learning target. 2.  Create your vision of the intended learning
  • AS A TABLE:      Your Learning Target Your Strong Sample Your Weak Sample Reasons that the samples are strong and weak Describe your activity Activity Packet Pg. 3
  • A: All S: Some N: Not yet The feedback I provide students… 1) directs attention to the intended learning. (A, S, or N) 2) occurs during learning so there is time for students to ACT upon the feedback. Please complete the 3) addresses partial understanding self4) is phrased so the students must do the assessment on page 4 of the thinking. activity 5) is appropriately limited in regard to handout. corrective information so the students can act on the feedback
  • KLUGER & DE NISI‟S META-ANALYSIS (1996):  1/3 feedback worsens performance  1/3 feedback yields no change  1/3 feedback led to consistent improvements  Feedback focuses on person instead of task  Feedback focuses on elements of the task & gives guidance on ways to make improvement (Chappuis, 2009, p. 56)
  • 1) Directs attention to the intended learning, pointing out strengths and offering specific information to guide improvement 2) Occurs during learning, while there is still time to act on it 3) Addresses partial understanding 4) Does not do the thinking for the student 5) Limits corrective information to the amount of advice the student can act on ( Table from Chappuis, 2009, p. 57)
  • “Directs attention to the intended learning, pointing out strengths and offering specific information to guide improvement”  Success feedback points out what the student has done well  Intervention feedback gives specific information to guide improvement (Chappuis, 2009, p. 57)
  • Success Feedback    Intervention Feedback Identify what is done correctly Describe a quality feature in the work Point out effective use of strategy or process     Identify a correction Ask a question Offer a reminder Point out a problem with strategy or process (Chappuis, 2009) SUCCESS: Today you were on time to class so you were able to complete your bellringer and earn points. INTERVENTION: What can you do again tomorrow to make sure you are on time for class?
  • AS A TABLE Part I  Read the feedback comments on pg. 4 of the activity packet Label each comment as Success or Interventionist Part II For each feedback comment, please :  add context  revise the comment to make it effective success + intervention Activity Packet Pg. 4 & 5
  • FEEDBACK COMMENTS Seek assistance Talk to your teacher Keep Studying More effort needed REVISED FEEDBACK COMMENT (Success + Intervention) Ex: Your grades in English and World History indicate that you are mastering the content on quizzes and tests. Your mathematics quiz and test grades suggest that you are struggling with this material. When will you make an appointment with the teacher to review the material before the next quiz?
  •  Hattie and Timperley (2007)  “Unclear evaluative feedback, which fails to clearly specify the grounds on which students have met with achievement success or otherwise, is likely to exacerbate negative outcomes, engender uncertain selfimages, and lead to poor performance. “ (Chappuis, 2009
  • “OCCURS DURING LEARNING”  Feedback is given & then time & opportunity are provided to act on the feedback  Allowed to make mistakes  Practice is not graded  Quality feedback guides next actions/ improvement “ADDRESSES PARTIAL UNDERSTANDING”  Feedback can address partial understanding  Apply success and interventionist  Re-teach if there is “no understanding”  A student with no understanding will not benefit from feedback
  • QUALITY FEEDBACK “DOES NOT DO THE THINKING FOR THE STUDENT”  Avoid over-feedbacking Try:  Point out the error  Ask the student how he/she will correct it  Allow exploration  If needed, carefully pose a question to guide the corrective process “Good thinking spurs thoughtful action” (Chappuis, 2009)
  • QUALITY FEEDBACK LIMITS THE NUMBER OF CORRECTIVES  Provide “as much intervention feedback as the individual student can reasonably act on”  For students with many errors…consider limiting the focus of corrections to one criterion at a time (Chappuis, 2009)
  • “Sadler (1989) identified that, in order for improvement to take place, the child must first know the purpose of the task, then how far this was achieved, and finally be given help in knowing how to move closer toward the desired goal or „in (Chappuis, 2009) closing the gap.”
  • Strategy 5 addresses the aspect of the learning gap that is typically misunderstood or confused  Targets instruction to the learning gaps  Incomplete understanding  Misconceptions  Partially developed skills
  •  Strategy 5 answers “the operative question: When students go sideways on this learning target, what are the typical problems?” Strategy 5 gives students focused instruction.  Strategy 6 offers students focused practice to ensure they avoid the common misunderstandings or correct them.
  • STRATEGY SCENARIO 5 A student services staff member is working with a small group of students that struggle with executive functioning. This group of students is not meeting their learning targets because they struggle with organizational skills. You teach the students two methods of organizing: (one instructional focus/ focused instruction) 1. Using dividers to separate items in the course binder by topic and assignment type 2. Color coding the information according to topic (for studying)
  • STRATEGY SCENARIO 6 (Focused Practice/ Focused Revision) After demonstrating two methods of organization to a student, you charge her with organizing her binder according to these methods for two weeks. At the conclusion of the two weeks, you meet with the student to review her progress.
  • Where Am I Going? Strategy 2: Use examples and models of strong and weak work. Where Am I Now? Strategy 3: Offer regular descriptive feedback. How Can I Close the Gap? Strategy 6: Teach students focused revision.
  •  Take a moment to answer the following question individually:  How can I apply the formative assessment strategies to my work? ▪ In which context will I use them? ▪ Which strategies will I use? ▪ How will I use them?  Be prepared to share your response. Activity Packet Pg. 6
  • Chappuis, Jan (2009). Seven strategies of assessment for learning. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. 2009.’ Stiggins, R (2007). Assessment for learning: An essential foundation of productive instruction. In Douglas Reeves (ed.), Ahead of the curve (pp5677). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.