PLC Cycle:Formative Assessment falls as the third step in the PLC Cycle.Formative Assessment addresses question 2: How do we know when a student has learned something?What is formative assessment?After establishing what we are going to teach students (learning targets), and then teaching it (through varied instructional strategies), we must assess student understanding.This assessment occurs in a variety of ways: discussion, q &a, exit slips, bell work, homework assignment, quiz, etc.When an assessment is used for learning, when it is used to inform a teacher’s instruction, then it is formative.Typically, teachers: assess student understanding of the learning target formatively determine their next instructional steps as a result of student performanceeither re-teach or enhance the initial learningeventually administer a summative assessment
What are the 7 Strategies?Jan Chappuis has developed 7 Strategies of Assessment for Learning. These 7 strategies revolve around 3 questions (for the students):1) Where Am I going?- Strategy 1 (Captain Target: Learning Target); Strategy 2 (Model Master: Models or examples of the continuum of quality)2) Where Am I Now?, - Strategy 3 (Flash Feedback: Effective Feedback); Strategy 4 (Goal Guard: Student Self-Assessment & Goal Setting)3) How do I Close the Gap?- Strategy 5 (One-der-Woman: focus on 1 target at a time); Strategy 6 (Robin Revision: focused revision); Strategy 7 (Reflecto Man: Tracking learning and Self-Reflection)Why are we going to study the 7 Strategies?LT is going to engage in the study and application of these 7 strategies of assessment this school year because research has demonstrated:“Innovations that include strengthening the practice of formative assessment produce significant and often substantial learning gains.” (Black & Wiliam, 1998b)“formative assessment practices greatly increase the achievement of low-performing students” (p. 3)7 strategies are “designed to meet students’ information needs to maximize both motivation and achievement, by involving students from the start in their own learning” (Chappuis, p. 11). These 7 strategies facilitate meta-cognition, which strong learners already engage in, but low-level learners need to be taught explicitly to think about their thinking.Today’s focus:In August we were briefly introduced to these strategies. In today’s session, we are going to delve into strategies 4 & 7.
DESCRIBE IT!To begin today we are going to participate in the activity: Describe It!We need one volunteer. Who would like to volunteer?Directions for the Volunteer: Please seat the volunteer in a chair so their back is to the audience.Please give the volunteer the picture and have them keep it hidden from the audience.Please tell the volunteer that his/her task is to DESCRIBE the picture to their audience in such a manner that the audience members will be able to recreate the picture.Please prohibit the volunteer from giving feedback or asking questions.Directions for the Audience: Our volunteer is going to describe a picture which you will draw on the provided piece of paper.You may not ask questions or ask for feedback. Please listen to his/her description and replicate the drawing.You should be aware that the picture contains rectangles and these rectangles can/do touch.
Unhide this slide following the Describe It! Activity (Right click on the slide and select “Hide Slide”)Directions:Ask the audience to:examine the original drawingDetermine to what degree he/she was able to replicate the originalFind evidence that can justify his/her opinion in his/her drawing Ex: I was able to replicate this drawing with 75% accuracy. I had 4 of 6 rectangles facing the correct direction and overlapping their neighbors to the correct degree. My rectangles were all equally sized.
Ask Your Audience to Contemplate the Following:If we had provided examples to accompany our initial directions of strong and weak rectangles, how would this have impacted your ability to replicate the drawing?
Talking Points:Strategy 2 is intended to answer the question: Where am I headed?It works in conjunction with strategy 1. The idea is that you present the models of the strong and weak work in order to further communicate your learning target or vision of the intended learning.Oftentimes teachers present models of work to demonstrate project expectations rather than to communicate a learning target. This strategy involves using the model to clarify and communicate the learning target.If used in this way, then models of work can:Clarify your vision of the intended learningShape the student’s continuum of qualityCommunicate your expectationsAssign meaning and relevance to quality levels“[Prepare students to understand] your feedback to them and to engage in peer-and self-assessment.”Strategy 2 is considered an enabling strategy because it enables the students to understand your feedback (which is provided with strategy 3).
To officially shape a students’ continuum of quality, to make them understand our expectations or the vision of learning in our head, we can’t simply show a model and expect it will yield a great and similar outcome. If we show Starry, Starry night to the class, the class will agree it is excellent, but they won’t know why it is excellent. If they students can’t explain why this excellent, if they can’t point to what the artist did to make this excellent, then he/she won’t be able to reach a similar outcome.
Strategy 2 involves getting the students to USE the models of work to “buy into” your vision of learning or your levels of quality. In order to buy into your vision of learning, students must understand what makes a strong sample STRONG and what makes a weak sample WEAK. As educators, we can structure activities that force the students to examine the work to the point where they are determining why the work is strong or weak. Here are some activities that facilitate this: Match the phrase in the rubric to the relevant aspect of the sample workStudents are asked to underline the portion of the rubric that captures the relevant aspect of the work in the provided sampleIf the product is a paper, then students can highlight the portion of the sample paper and the portion of the rubric that are aligned to one another2) Rank the samples according to the rubricThe teacher would provide one example of work per quality level in the rubric (Example: 3 samples- one excellent, one emerging, and one barley there).The students would examine the work and the rubric to determine which quality level describes each sample.Students then justify their opinion with verbiage from the rubric and evidence from the sample work.3) Take a strong and weak essay. For each essay, cut up quotes from the paper and cut up the accompanying comments. Have students collaborate to match the appropriate teacher comment with the relevant student quote.
Directions:Turn to the first page of your activity packet.Read the rubric.Read the problem on the second page.Examine each student work sample.As a table, score these samples. Match elements of the student sample to the verbiage in the rubric to justify your scores.Be prepared to share your table’s responses to the following questions:How would you score each sample?What evidence in the work justifies your score?How does an activity like this facilitate student understanding of the vision for learning?
Prior to beginning discussions concerning strategy 3, have participants take a self-assessment concerning their feedback practices.This self-assessment is on pg. 3 of the activity handout.They should write A for All of the Time, S for Some of the Time, and N for Not Yet.
EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK:“maximizes thechances that student achievement willimprove as a result” (Chappuis, p. 56)Is about quality notpresenceIs about progress & how to proceed notthe personemphasizes effort notperfection provides opportunity for practice not a summative judgment on what has yet to be practiced5 Characteristics of Effective Feedback:Communicates performance without being evaluative. Creates a relationship between the student/ teacher, student/student and student/learning. It helps students identify where they are now with respect to where they are headed and prompts further learning. Individualizes and customizes learning. Takes place in the classroom.
Feedback should revolve around the learning target.Point out strengths related to the target & provide guidance so the intended learning is achieved.THE TERMS SUCCESS & INTERVENTION AVOID THE ASSOCIATION WITH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE; THEY SUGGEST THAT MISTAKES ARE OKAY & THERE IS ROOM TO GET BETTERConsider a check plus or check minus what message is being sent by these symbols?
Example:You used a logical strategy of drawing a table to solve this problem. Try converting all your data points to meters and then re-enter them in the table and solve the problem again. SUCCESS WAS USING A TABLE AS PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGYINTERVENTION IS “TRY” (Suggestion) CONVERTING YOUR DATA POINTS TO COMMON UNITS & THEN SOLVE AGAIN
Circulate while the tables are working on the activities on pgs. 3 & 4 and check answers for each table to PART I.PART I ANSWERSSuccessSuccessInterventionSuccess (This one often tricks people. The success is in the fact that the student corrected her own process.)InterventionSuccess
Reconvene large group to review III:Call on tables to review possible feedback for Describe It activity.Possible Response: 5 of your 6 rectangles are all correctly oriented. – SUCCESS PORTIONIn this particular exercise, all of the rectangles are the same size. How could you adjust your drawing to embody this fact?-INTERVENTIONIST PORTION
Reconvene large group to review Part II :Call on tables to offer quality feedback for PART II.Possible ResponsesInstead of Incomplete:Showing your work in numbers 1-3 demonstrated you have the right process. Can you apply the correct process when given word problems. Try numbers 4-10 to find out. Instead of Keep Studying:Try making flashcards for your unit vocabulary and then practice “quizzing” yourself with these cards for ten minutes each night.Instead of more effort needed:Let’s see what type of still-life you can produce if you …What do you need to do to reach the Excellent & Beyond category on the rubric?
CHARACTERISTIC #2: Effective feedback is provided when there is still time to act on it.Students have to be encouraged to learn, but this means mistakes will occur. You must communicate it is okay to make mistakes.If formative assessments are not graded, then you are sending the message it is okay to make mistakes because you are: 1) providing practice and 2) avoiding punishments via grades for mistakes.There must be time to practice before the work is graded summatively. Once the work is graded, then mistakes truly do count against you.The goal is to provide opportunities for practicethat provide feedback to guide improvements prior to making a final judgment of learning.CHARACTERISTIC #3:Quality feedback highlights the student’s success and then attempts to correct misconceptions, partial understanding, or undeveloped skills through interventionist feedback. If a students does not understanding anything, then feedback will not be helpful. You must re-teach.
Overfeed backing is when we provide so much information to the student that we do the thinking for him/her
REMEMBER:All students are differentYour professional judgment is soundGetting a student to improve one thing is a step in the right directionIf a student has to fix many things or their paper is completely filled with marks, the student could interpret their work as wrong, riddled with mistakes, and unlikely to get better…this is where the student could develop harmful feelings regarding their potentialComment on a one thing at a time (limited number)To select which thing to comment on, always consider the learning target- focus the feedback on the learning target
The following suggestions are timesaving strategies that meet the requirements of effective feedback.(SEE PACKET OF TEMPLATES pg. 204, 205, 80,81I. Pictures or Cues:Stars and Stairs- (p. 75)Star= what student did wellStair= specific intervention feedbackThat’s Good? Now This- (p. 77)Simple form with two areas for feedback to ensure that you are including both the success and intervention feedbackCodesConsider using codes to indicate common errors and write the code in the margin, then the students must do the work to figure out which problem they had, where it is, and they must correct it.Ex: In foreign language you may use GTPWO= Gender, Tense, Plural, Word ChoiceImmediate FeedbackThe more immediate feedback can be, the more likely it is to assist the student on their path to attaining the learning targetII.Assessment Dialogues:* Intended for performance assessment with a rubricWritten Comments-Identify a focus for the feedback (the focus should be one portion of the rubric related to the learning target you are/have been teaching)Students use the rubric to identify their success and one aspect of the work they need to work onStudents complete the “My Opinion” portion of the Assessment Dialogue Form)Review their work & write your “Feedback” in the are for Teacher’s CommentsAfter reading your comments, students take their opinion and your comments into consideration and develop a plan for revisionTwo-color Highlighting-Have students take a yellow highlighter and highlight the phrases on the rubric that they think describes their workThe student submits the highlighted rubric with their workYou review the rubric and highlight the phrases on the rubric that describe their work in blueAreas where you and the student agree are in green and those remaining in blue are areas the student should reflect uponThe Three-minute Conference-The students should complete the “My Opinion” portion of the Assessment Dialogue FormStudent Self-AssessmentWill get the student to think about qualityAccesses prior info.Start the conf. off by asking the student to share his/her thoughts about strengths and areas to improveShare your feedbackStudent should right down your comments on the Assessment Dialogue Form
Strategies 5 & 6 work in tandemStrategies 5 & 6 work to answer the question: How do I close the gap in learning?Strategy 5 should be viewed in relation to the question How do I close the learning gap? It encourages the student to focus on the one aspect of the target that he/she has a misconception about, an incomplete understanding, and a partially developed skill.
Strategy 5 = focused instructionInstruction is focused on the aspect of the learning target that each student misunderstands or partially understandsStrategy 6= focused practiceOpportunities to practice the one portion of the learning target that is misunderstood are developed and completed
Have participants turn to pg. 5 in the activity handout and work as a table to record their responses.Together as a table, the participants will:Compare our student work sample to the originalDetermine the misunderstanding or partially developed skill reflected in the student workIdentify the instruction that is neededOutline an activity that would provide focused revision/practice Ex: The misunderstanding was that he/she had to draw rectangles that were the same. Develop a strategy to make 5 rectangles exactly the same size. Teach students how to draw a rectangle .5 x 1 inches using a rulerThe student will apply the technique to a drawing of 5 identical rectangles.
3 Steps to Take when attempting to answer the question How Do I Close the Gap:Identify the Common Misunderstanding, Misconception, or Partially Developed SkillProvide instruction specifically on the one area that was identified as “missing” and “needed to closing the gap”Provide practice specifically focused on the skill or applying the content that was identified as “missing” and “needed to closing the gap”
The following document was created by an AP History Teacher (Paul Kelley- currently a principal in Elk Grove).This teacher examined his AP History Course Essential Outcome: I will be able to write an argumentative essay defending a historical thesis statement with relevant supporting evidence. Through reviews of his student’s essays, he quickly determined that the students had a partial understanding of what constitutes relevant historical evidence.As a result, he developed opportunities for students to work with simply one the portion of the learning target that pertains to collecting and using “relevant supporting evidence”The first opportunity consists of ten evidence statements.For each statement, the student must decide whether it helps to answer the prompt. If it helps, the student must say how.If it doesn’t help, the student muse explain why it doesn’t work.
As a result, he developed opportunities for students to work with simply one the portion of the learning target that pertains to collecting and using “relevant supporting evidence”The second opportunity consists of a prompt. Students must select 7-10 pieces of evidence that can be used to answer the prompt.
Today, we have reviewed Strategies 2, 3, and 6 which are each linked to a different formative question.Strategy 2 clarifies the vision for learning (Where I am going) by providing samples of strong and weak work related to the learning target.Strategy 3 helps the student determine Where Am I Now by providing quality feedback which point outs the students success (as it relates to the learning target) and his/her areas to improve upon (as it relates to the learning target).Strategy 6 works in tandem with Strategy 5 to close the learning gap by providing the student focused instruction and focused practice on the aspect of the learning target that he/she doesn’t completely understand.
Tell participants that they will be sharing their work at the end.
Dawn & Sam The Rest of the 7 Student-Centered Strategies of Assessment for Learning
be able to define Strategies 2, 3, and 6
be able to explain how strategies 2, 3, and 6 are
related to the questions:
Where am I headed?
Where am I now?
How do I close the gap?
be able to explain ways to implement strategies 2,
3, and 6 in my classroom
apply strategies 2, 3, and 6 to my next instructional
Strategy #2 (Strong & Weak Examples)
Ways to implement
Strategy #3 (Effective Feedback)
Characteristics of Effective Feedback
Suggestions for Offering Feedback
Strategy #6 (Focused Revision)
How do I close the gap?
Strategy 5 & 6
Strategy 5 & 6 in AP
Where Am I Going?
Provide students with a clear and understandable
vision of the learning target.
Use examples and models of strong and weak
Where Am I Now?
Offer regular descriptive feedback.
Strategy Close Teach students to self-assess and set goals.
How do I 4:
Design lessons to focus on one learning target or
aspect of quality at a time.
Teach students focused revision.
Engage students in self-reflection, and let them
WHO WOULD LIKE TO
Sit with your back to the
Examine the following
Describe this picture to
YOU MAY NOT:
Ask questions of the
The volunteer is going to
describe a picture.
You must attempt to draw
All you know is:
The picture contains
The rectangles touch one
You may not ask for
feedback or questions
As a table, discuss the following:
How close was your picture to reflecting
the volunteer’s original?
What led to your success?
What would have helped you be more
How did you feel when participating?
The volunteer is going
to describe a picture.
You must attempt to
draw this picture.
All you know is:
The picture contains
The rectangles touch
You may not ask for
feedback or questions
Weak or Incorrect
By using examples of strong and weak work in
conjunction with the learning target, you are:
Clarifying your vision of the intended learning
Shaping the student’s continuum of quality
Communicating your expectations
Assigning meaning and relevance to quality
“[Preparing students to understand] your
feedback to them and to engage in peer-and
To be clear:
models of strong
work will not yield
replicas of strong
Match the phrase in the
rubric to the relevant
aspect of the sample work
Rank/score the samples
according to a rubric
Match up quotes from an
essay to feedback
AS A TABLE:
Read the rubric on pg.
1 of your activity
Examine the two
student work samples
on pg. 2 of your
Score each sample
according to the
Using Strong and Weak Examples
4. Provide a rationale for
your score by
identifying the phrases
or concepts that are
associated with this
score in the rubric.
5. Record your score and
rationale on pg. 2 of
your activity handout.
Using Strong and Weak Examples
A: All S: Some N: Not yet
The feedback I provide students…
1) directs attention to the intended learning.
(A, S, or N)
2) occurs during learning so there is time for
students to ACT upon the feedback.
3) addresses partial understanding
self4) is phrased so the students must do the assessment on
page 3 of the
5) is appropriately limited in regard to
corrective information so the students can
act on the feedback
KLUGER & DE NISI’S
1/3 feedback yields
1/3 feedback led to
Feedback focuses on
person instead of task
Feedback focuses on
elements of the task &
gives guidance on
ways to make
(Chappuis, 2009, p. 56)
1) Directs attention to the intended learning,
pointing out strengths and offering specific
information to guide improvement
2) Occurs during learning, while there is still time to
act on it
3) Addresses partial understanding
4) Does not do the thinking for the student
5) Limits corrective information to the amount of
advice the student can act on
( Table from Chappuis, 2009, p.
out strengths and
information to guide
points out what the
student has done well
information to guide
(Chappuis, 2009, p. 57)
Identify what is done
Identify a correction
Ask a question
Describe a quality
feature in the work
Offer a reminder
Point out effective
use of strategy or
Point out a problem
with strategy or
AS A Group
As we read each
Make a fist if the
comment is success
Open hand if the
For each feedback
comment, please :
revise the comment to
make it effective
5 of your 6 rectangles are correctly oriented. In this particular
exercise, all of the rectangles are the same size. How could
you adjust your drawing to embody this fact?
Feedback is given & then
time & opportunity are
provided to act on the
Allowed to make
Practice is not graded
Quality feedback guides
Feedback can address
Apply success and
Re-teach if there is “no
A student with no
understanding will NOT
benefit from feedback
“DOES NOT DO THE THINKING FOR THE STUDENT”
Avoid overfeed backing
Point out the error
Ask the student how he/she will correct it
If needed, carefully pose a question to guide the
“Good thinking spurs thoughtful action”
QUALITY FEEDBACK LIMITS THE NUMBER OF
Provide “as much intervention
feedback as the individual student
can reasonably act on”
For students with many
errors…consider limiting the focus of
corrections to one criterion at a time
• Stars and Stairs
• That’s Good? Now
• Immediate Feedback
• Written Comments
Dialogues • The Three-minute
aspect of the
learning gap that
Targets instruction to
the learning gaps
Strategy 5 answers “the operative
question: When students go sideways on
this learning target, what are the typical
problems?” Strategy 5 gives students
Strategy 6 offers students focused
practice to ensure they avoid the
common misunderstandings or correct
•Identify the misconception, partial understanding, or
partially developed skill in the student work.
• What focused instruction would be provided to “close
•What focused practice would be created to “close the
Identified Common Misunderstanding
Collecting evidence that supports the thesis statement
The criteria for historical evidence
Read the evidence statement & determine does it help or hurt
answer the prompt
Prompt provided for you to support with 7-10 statements of
Where Am I Going?
Use examples and models of
strong and weak work.
Where Am I Now?
Offer regular descriptive
How Can I Close the Gap?
Teach students focused revision.
Select a learning target you will teach
in your next unit.
Identify a strong and weak sample of
Outline an activity that would require
the students to use these samples to
identify what makes the sample
strong or weak.
4) Write a quality feedback statement that
fits your strong model.
5) Write a quality feedback statement that
fits your weak model.
This should include success and
6) Confirm the potential misunderstanding
you anticipate seeing in your next
7) Outline the focused instruction you will
provide to address this misunderstanding.
8) Create the guided practice you will offer
to address this misunderstanding.
Chappuis, Jan (2009). Seven strategies of
assessment for learning. Boston: Pearson
Education, Inc. 2009.’
Stiggins, R (2007). Assessment for learning: An
essential foundation of productive instruction. In
Douglas Reeves (ed.), Ahead of the curve (pp5677). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree.