Urinary System Notes

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  • 1. Urinary System
  • 2. Kidneys: external
    • 1. Paired, located between T12-L3
    • 3. Convex lateral surface
    • 4. Concave medial surface
    • 5. Covered by 3 layers
      • a. Renal fascia, c.t. = outside adipose capsulea
      • b. Adipose capsule = middle
      • c. Renal capsule, c.t. = innermost  
  • 3. Kidneys: internal
    • 1. Cortex: This is where the blood is filtered. The filtrate flows into medulla
    • 2. Medulla is composed of 8-15 conically-shaped Renal Pyramids.
    • 3. The Renal Papillae are surrounded by funnel-shaped tubes
  • 4. Renal Blood Vessels
    • Aorta
    • Renal Artery
    • Glomerulus = a mass of capillaries. Some of the plasma    (= filtrate) leaves the blood stream at this point
    • Renal vein
    • Inferior Vena Cava
  • 5. Nephrons
    • Functional units of kidney. The nephrons modify the filtrate.
    • Composed of:
      • GLOMERULUS
      • RENAL TUBULE.                
  • 6. Urine Flow
    • The urine flows into a Collecting Duct which ends at the tip of the renal pyramid The urine flows next into the minor calyx--> major calyx--->
    • renal pelvis--->
    • ureter--->
    • bladder---> urethra
  • 7. Ureters
    • Paired, tubular organs, 10" long
    • Histology: 3 layers
      • 1. Mucosa - innermost, transitional epi.
      • 2. Muscularis - middle, 2-3 layers of smooth muscle (peristalsis)
      • 3.Adventitia - c.t.
  • 8. Urinary Bladder
    • Urine reservoir
    • Histology: 3 layers
    •   1. Mucosa - inner, transitional epi.
      • a. Large folds = rugae
      • b. Smooth area = trigone
    •   2. Muscularis - 3 layers of smooth muscle = Detrusor Muscle. The muscle is modified at neck of bladder = Internal Sphincter (involuntary) 
    •   3. Serosa
  • 9. Urethra
    • Muscular tube - from bladder to body's exterior
    •   Pierces urogenital diaphragm. The skeletal muscle there is modified to form the External Sphincter (voluntary) around Urethra
    • Female urethra - 1 ½ inches long
    • Male urethra - 8 inches long
      • Prostatic - through prostate
      • Membranous - from prostate to bulb of penis
      • Penile (Spongy) - through penis