Student Work Emphysema


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Student Work Emphysema

  1. 2. <ul><li>Emphysema is a lung disease that reduces the ability to expel air. Which damages the tiny airways in the lungs called bronchioles. </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchioles are joined to the alveoli, little grape like clusters of sacs in the lungs where oxygen from the air is exchanged for carbon dioxide from the body. </li></ul>
  2. 3. How Emphysema is Diagnosed <ul><li>Some healthcare providers will carefully look at a persons background history. </li></ul><ul><li>Does the patient smoke or have any exposure to and second hand smoking or any other toxic fumes? </li></ul><ul><li>How long has the shortness of breath been present. </li></ul><ul><li>What makes it worse or better? </li></ul>
  3. 4. Causes <ul><li>Cigarette smoking is the major cause of Emphysema </li></ul><ul><li>The lungs are damaged because of reactions to irritants entering the airways and alveoli. </li></ul><ul><li>When exposed to cigarette smoke the air sacs of the lungs produce defensive cells called Macrophages which eat the inhaled particles. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Causes Continued… <ul><li>Macrophages release materials which can destroy proteins that expand the lungs and contract called elastin. </li></ul><ul><li>Cigarette smoking damages the Cilia which are tiny hair like projections in bronchi that sweep foreign bodies and bacteria out of the lungs. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AAT) <ul><li>Inherited disorder that can cause lung disease in adults and liver disease in both adults and children. </li></ul><ul><li>Protein that protects the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Due to gene problems some people have little or none of it and that can cause emphysema or liver problems such as Cirrhosis and Liver Cancer. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Smoking is the greatest risk factor for emphysema. </li></ul><ul><li>Others include… </li></ul><ul><li>- Age (Most likely to occur in the ages from50-60) </li></ul><ul><li>-Second hand smoke </li></ul><ul><li>-Heredity (inherited deficiency of the protein alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAt) </li></ul><ul><li>-Exposure to chemical fumes (chemicals or dust from grain, cotton, wood or mining products) </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>1. Normal Air Sacs (Alveoli) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Alveoli Affected by Emphysema </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>There is no cure for emphysema. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of treatment is to slow down the development of disabling systems . </li></ul><ul><li>People with inherited emphysema due to Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can receive alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (A1PI), which slows lung tissue destruction. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Side effects of this treatment are rare and, if they do occur, are mild. They include fever, light-headedness dizziness, and flu-like symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>The long-term effects of this therapy are not known. A1PI is not recommended for those who develop emphysema as a result of cigarette smoking. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Physical Examinations <ul><li>Based on complaints of a patient a physical examination will be performed. </li></ul><ul><li>Physical examinations will be apart of examining info about lungs and about the circulatory system. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>DO NOT SMOKE!! </li></ul><ul><li>Stay away from second hand smoke </li></ul><ul><li>If you are a smoker, try to quit. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Watch what you eat </li></ul>
  12. 13. Just the facts <ul><li>Nearly 2 million Americans have emphysema. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people with emphysema are with older mean, however it is also increasing among women. </li></ul><ul><li>It comes gradually after years exposure to cigarettes. </li></ul><ul><li>Rates higher for men age 65+ </li></ul>
  13. 14. Just the facts <ul><li>Studies show that more people in the Midwest have emphysema than in any other region in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be slowed but not stopped. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>