Nervous System


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Basic Anatomy

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Nervous System

  1. 1. Nervous System
  2. 2. Central vs. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>1. Central Nervous System (CNS) : brain and spinal cord   </li></ul>
  3. 3. Central vs. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>  2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) : cranial nerves, spinal nerves and ganglia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* ( Ganglion =group of neuron cell bodies located outside CNS) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Sensory division vs. Motor division <ul><li>1. Sensory Division : receives information FROM body and transmits it TO the CNS for processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Somatic Sensory component – receives sensory information from skin, joints, muscle, special senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Visceral Sensory component – receives sensory info from blood vessels and viscera </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Motor Division : transmits info FROM the CNS TO muscles and glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Somatic motor component: innervates skeletal muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Autonomic motor (Autonomic Nervous System) : innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands of viscera (organs) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. NERVOUS TISSUE CELLS <ul><li>A. Neurons : respond to stimuli and conduct nerve impulses </li></ul>
  6. 6. NERVOUS TISSUE CELLS <ul><li>B. Glial Cells: support and protect neurons (maintenance) </li></ul>
  7. 7. NEURON COMPOSITION (p 104) <ul><li>A. Cell Body : </li></ul><ul><li>    B. Nucleus : </li></ul><ul><li>    C. Dendrites :         </li></ul><ul><li>    D. Axon : </li></ul><ul><li>E. Synapse:         </li></ul>
  8. 8. NEURON CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>1. Sensory (Afferent) Neuron : brings information TO the CNS   </li></ul><ul><li>   2. Motor (Efferent) Neuron : takes information FROM CNS to other parts of the body, cell body located in CNS   </li></ul><ul><li>    3. Interneuron (Association Neurons) : helps coordinate and integrate info between sensory and motor neurons, cell body located in CNS </li></ul>
  9. 9. GLIAL CELLS - PNS <ul><li>A. Satellite Cells : surround neuron cell bodies in spinal ganglia         * ( Ganglion =group of neuron cell bodies located outside CNS) </li></ul><ul><li>  B. Schwann cells : myelinate axons in PNS   </li></ul>
  10. 10. Glial Cells - CNS <ul><li>C. Astrocytes : regulate transfer of materials from blood to the brain - help the workings of &quot;blood -brain barrier&quot;   </li></ul><ul><li>D. Oligodendrocytes : myelinate axons in CNS   </li></ul><ul><li>E. Microglia : phagocytize damaged neurons   </li></ul><ul><li>F. Ependymal Cells : line central canal and ventricles - help circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)   </li></ul>
  11. 11. MYELINATION OF AXONS <ul><li>wrapping an axon with myelin </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Brain <ul><li>4 Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R & L Hemispheres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain Stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Brain – Cerebrum <ul><li>Largest Region </li></ul><ul><li>Gyri (twisters) & Sulcus (grooves) </li></ul><ul><li>Fissures (deep grooves) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal (hemispheres) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide Lobes </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Brain – Cerebrum (lobes) <ul><li>Parietal Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic sensory area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ homunculus” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Brain – Cerebrum (lobes) <ul><li>Occipital Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual area </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Brain – Cerebrum (lobes) <ul><li>Temporal Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep inside </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Brain – Cerebrum (lobes) <ul><li>Frontal Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Motor Area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Cerebrum <ul><li>Cerebral Gray Matter (Cortex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>superficial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebral White Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deeper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corpus Callosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connects hemispheres </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Diencephalon (interbrain) <ul><li>Sits atop brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosed by cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithalamus </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Diencephalon <ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relay station from spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crude impulse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasant vs. Unpleasant </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Diencephalon <ul><li>Hypothalmus (“under the thalmus”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANS (Emotional Visceral Brain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Temp, H 2 O balance, Metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appetites (thirst, hunger) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure & Pain </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Diencephalon <ul><li>Epithalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pineal body (endocrine system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choroid plexus (cerebrospinal fluid) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Brain Stem <ul><li>About size of thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convey impulses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls breathing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla Oblongata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate, BP, Swallowing, Vomiting, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Cerebellum <ul><li>Convoluted surface </li></ul><ul><li>Precise timing of Skeletal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>“ Auto-Pilot” </li></ul>
  25. 25. Protection of Brain <ul><li>Meninges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dura mater (tough mother) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arachnoid mater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pia mater (gentle mother) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebrospinal Fluid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate waste </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood-Brain Barrier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Least-permeable membrane in body </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Spinal Cord <ul><li>Aprox. 17 in long </li></ul><ul><li>Continuation of Brain Stem </li></ul><ul><li>Ends Below ribs </li></ul>
  27. 27. Spinal Cord <ul><li>Gray Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior Horns (dorsal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior Horns (ventral) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CSF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebrae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dura mater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arachnoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pia mater </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Spinal Cord <ul><li>Cervical </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>Sacral </li></ul><ul><li>Coccygeal </li></ul>
  29. 29. Spinal Cord - Cervical <ul><li>8 Cervical Nerves C1-C8 </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm, Shoulders, Neck </li></ul><ul><li>Damage may result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory Paralysis </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Spinal Cord - Thoracic <ul><li>T1-T12 </li></ul><ul><li>Intercostal </li></ul>
  31. 31. Spinal Cord - Lumbar <ul><li>L1-L5 </li></ul><ul><li>Lower abdomen, buttocks, anterior & medial thigh, hip muscles, skin of thigh </li></ul><ul><li>Damage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to flex hip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of cutaneous sensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to adduct thigh </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Spinal Cord – Sacral & Coccygeal <ul><li>S1-S5 + Coccygeal Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral & posterior leg/foot, gluteus, lower trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Damage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to extend hip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to flex knee </li></ul></ul>
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