Nervous System
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Basic Anatomy

Basic Anatomy

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Nervous System Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Nervous System
  • 2. Central vs. Peripheral Nervous System
    • 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) : brain and spinal cord  
  • 3. Central vs. Peripheral Nervous System
    •   2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) : cranial nerves, spinal nerves and ganglia
      • * ( Ganglion =group of neuron cell bodies located outside CNS)
  • 4. Sensory division vs. Motor division
    • 1. Sensory Division : receives information FROM body and transmits it TO the CNS for processing
      • a) Somatic Sensory component – receives sensory information from skin, joints, muscle, special senses
      • b) Visceral Sensory component – receives sensory info from blood vessels and viscera
    • 2. Motor Division : transmits info FROM the CNS TO muscles and glands
      • a. Somatic motor component: innervates skeletal muscle
      • b. Autonomic motor (Autonomic Nervous System) : innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands of viscera (organs)
  • 5. NERVOUS TISSUE CELLS
    • A. Neurons : respond to stimuli and conduct nerve impulses
  • 6. NERVOUS TISSUE CELLS
    • B. Glial Cells: support and protect neurons (maintenance)
  • 7. NEURON COMPOSITION (p 104)
    • A. Cell Body :
    •     B. Nucleus :
    •     C. Dendrites :        
    •     D. Axon :
    • E. Synapse:        
  • 8. NEURON CLASSIFICATION
    • 1. Sensory (Afferent) Neuron : brings information TO the CNS  
    •    2. Motor (Efferent) Neuron : takes information FROM CNS to other parts of the body, cell body located in CNS  
    •     3. Interneuron (Association Neurons) : helps coordinate and integrate info between sensory and motor neurons, cell body located in CNS
  • 9. GLIAL CELLS - PNS
    • A. Satellite Cells : surround neuron cell bodies in spinal ganglia         * ( Ganglion =group of neuron cell bodies located outside CNS)
    •   B. Schwann cells : myelinate axons in PNS  
  • 10. Glial Cells - CNS
    • C. Astrocytes : regulate transfer of materials from blood to the brain - help the workings of "blood -brain barrier"  
    • D. Oligodendrocytes : myelinate axons in CNS  
    • E. Microglia : phagocytize damaged neurons  
    • F. Ependymal Cells : line central canal and ventricles - help circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)  
  • 11. MYELINATION OF AXONS
    • wrapping an axon with myelin
  • 12. The Brain
    • 4 Regions
      • Cerebrum
        • R & L Hemispheres
      • Diencephalon
      • Brain Stem
      • Cerebellum
  • 13. Brain – Cerebrum
    • Largest Region
    • Gyri (twisters) & Sulcus (grooves)
    • Fissures (deep grooves)
      • Longitudinal (hemispheres)
      • Divide Lobes
  • 14. Brain – Cerebrum (lobes)
    • Parietal Lobe
      • Somatic sensory area
      • “ homunculus”
  • 15. Brain – Cerebrum (lobes)
    • Occipital Lobe
      • Visual area
  • 16. Brain – Cerebrum (lobes)
    • Temporal Lobe
      • Olfactory
        • Deep inside
  • 17. Brain – Cerebrum (lobes)
    • Frontal Lobe
      • Primary Motor Area
      • Speech
      • Language
  • 18. Cerebrum
    • Cerebral Gray Matter (Cortex)
      • superficial
    • Cerebral White Matter
      • deeper
    • Corpus Callosum
      • connects hemispheres
  • 19. Diencephalon (interbrain)
    • Sits atop brain stem
    • Enclosed by cerebrum
    • Structures
      • Thalamus
      • Hypothalamus
      • Epithalamus
  • 20. Diencephalon
    • Thalamus
      • Relay station from spinal cord
      • Crude impulse
        • Pleasant vs. Unpleasant
  • 21. Diencephalon
    • Hypothalmus (“under the thalmus”)
      • ANS (Emotional Visceral Brain)
      • Body Temp, H 2 O balance, Metabolism
      • Appetites (thirst, hunger)
      • Pleasure & Pain
  • 22. Diencephalon
    • Epithalamus
      • Pineal body (endocrine system)
      • Choroid plexus (cerebrospinal fluid)
  • 23. Brain Stem
    • About size of thumb
    • Areas
      • Midbrain
        • Convey impulses
      • Pons
        • Controls breathing
      • Medulla Oblongata
        • Heart rate, BP, Swallowing, Vomiting, etc.
  • 24. Cerebellum
    • Convoluted surface
    • Precise timing of Skeletal muscles
    • Balance
    • “ Auto-Pilot”
  • 25. Protection of Brain
    • Meninges
      • dura mater (tough mother)
      • arachnoid mater
      • pia mater (gentle mother)
    • Cerebrospinal Fluid
      • Eliminate waste
    • Blood-Brain Barrier
      • Least-permeable membrane in body
  • 26. Spinal Cord
    • Aprox. 17 in long
    • Continuation of Brain Stem
    • Ends Below ribs
  • 27. Spinal Cord
    • Gray Matter
      • Posterior Horns (dorsal)
      • Anterior Horns (ventral)
    • CSF
      • Central Canal
    • Protection
      • Vertebrae
      • Dura mater
      • Arachnoid
      • Pia mater
  • 28. Spinal Cord
    • Cervical
    • Thoracic
    • Lumbar
    • Sacral
    • Coccygeal
  • 29. Spinal Cord - Cervical
    • 8 Cervical Nerves C1-C8
    • Diaphragm, Shoulders, Neck
    • Damage may result in:
      • Respiratory Paralysis
  • 30. Spinal Cord - Thoracic
    • T1-T12
    • Intercostal
  • 31. Spinal Cord - Lumbar
    • L1-L5
    • Lower abdomen, buttocks, anterior & medial thigh, hip muscles, skin of thigh
    • Damage:
      • Inability to flex hip
      • Loss of cutaneous sensation
      • Inability to adduct thigh
  • 32. Spinal Cord – Sacral & Coccygeal
    • S1-S5 + Coccygeal Nerve
    • Lateral & posterior leg/foot, gluteus, lower trunk
    • Damage:
      • Inability to extend hip
      • Inability to flex knee