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Nervous System
 

Nervous System

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Basic Anatomy

Basic Anatomy

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    Nervous System Nervous System Presentation Transcript

    • Nervous System
    • Central vs. Peripheral Nervous System
      • 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) : brain and spinal cord  
    • Central vs. Peripheral Nervous System
      •   2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) : cranial nerves, spinal nerves and ganglia
        • * ( Ganglion =group of neuron cell bodies located outside CNS)
    • Sensory division vs. Motor division
      • 1. Sensory Division : receives information FROM body and transmits it TO the CNS for processing
        • a) Somatic Sensory component – receives sensory information from skin, joints, muscle, special senses
        • b) Visceral Sensory component – receives sensory info from blood vessels and viscera
      • 2. Motor Division : transmits info FROM the CNS TO muscles and glands
        • a. Somatic motor component: innervates skeletal muscle
        • b. Autonomic motor (Autonomic Nervous System) : innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands of viscera (organs)
    • NERVOUS TISSUE CELLS
      • A. Neurons : respond to stimuli and conduct nerve impulses
    • NERVOUS TISSUE CELLS
      • B. Glial Cells: support and protect neurons (maintenance)
    • NEURON COMPOSITION (p 104)
      • A. Cell Body :
      •     B. Nucleus :
      •     C. Dendrites :        
      •     D. Axon :
      • E. Synapse:        
    • NEURON CLASSIFICATION
      • 1. Sensory (Afferent) Neuron : brings information TO the CNS  
      •    2. Motor (Efferent) Neuron : takes information FROM CNS to other parts of the body, cell body located in CNS  
      •     3. Interneuron (Association Neurons) : helps coordinate and integrate info between sensory and motor neurons, cell body located in CNS
    • GLIAL CELLS - PNS
      • A. Satellite Cells : surround neuron cell bodies in spinal ganglia         * ( Ganglion =group of neuron cell bodies located outside CNS)
      •   B. Schwann cells : myelinate axons in PNS  
    • Glial Cells - CNS
      • C. Astrocytes : regulate transfer of materials from blood to the brain - help the workings of "blood -brain barrier"  
      • D. Oligodendrocytes : myelinate axons in CNS  
      • E. Microglia : phagocytize damaged neurons  
      • F. Ependymal Cells : line central canal and ventricles - help circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)  
    • MYELINATION OF AXONS
      • wrapping an axon with myelin
    • The Brain
      • 4 Regions
        • Cerebrum
          • R & L Hemispheres
        • Diencephalon
        • Brain Stem
        • Cerebellum
    • Brain – Cerebrum
      • Largest Region
      • Gyri (twisters) & Sulcus (grooves)
      • Fissures (deep grooves)
        • Longitudinal (hemispheres)
        • Divide Lobes
    • Brain – Cerebrum (lobes)
      • Parietal Lobe
        • Somatic sensory area
        • “ homunculus”
    • Brain – Cerebrum (lobes)
      • Occipital Lobe
        • Visual area
    • Brain – Cerebrum (lobes)
      • Temporal Lobe
        • Olfactory
          • Deep inside
    • Brain – Cerebrum (lobes)
      • Frontal Lobe
        • Primary Motor Area
        • Speech
        • Language
    • Cerebrum
      • Cerebral Gray Matter (Cortex)
        • superficial
      • Cerebral White Matter
        • deeper
      • Corpus Callosum
        • connects hemispheres
    • Diencephalon (interbrain)
      • Sits atop brain stem
      • Enclosed by cerebrum
      • Structures
        • Thalamus
        • Hypothalamus
        • Epithalamus
    • Diencephalon
      • Thalamus
        • Relay station from spinal cord
        • Crude impulse
          • Pleasant vs. Unpleasant
    • Diencephalon
      • Hypothalmus (“under the thalmus”)
        • ANS (Emotional Visceral Brain)
        • Body Temp, H 2 O balance, Metabolism
        • Appetites (thirst, hunger)
        • Pleasure & Pain
    • Diencephalon
      • Epithalamus
        • Pineal body (endocrine system)
        • Choroid plexus (cerebrospinal fluid)
    • Brain Stem
      • About size of thumb
      • Areas
        • Midbrain
          • Convey impulses
        • Pons
          • Controls breathing
        • Medulla Oblongata
          • Heart rate, BP, Swallowing, Vomiting, etc.
    • Cerebellum
      • Convoluted surface
      • Precise timing of Skeletal muscles
      • Balance
      • “ Auto-Pilot”
    • Protection of Brain
      • Meninges
        • dura mater (tough mother)
        • arachnoid mater
        • pia mater (gentle mother)
      • Cerebrospinal Fluid
        • Eliminate waste
      • Blood-Brain Barrier
        • Least-permeable membrane in body
    • Spinal Cord
      • Aprox. 17 in long
      • Continuation of Brain Stem
      • Ends Below ribs
    • Spinal Cord
      • Gray Matter
        • Posterior Horns (dorsal)
        • Anterior Horns (ventral)
      • CSF
        • Central Canal
      • Protection
        • Vertebrae
        • Dura mater
        • Arachnoid
        • Pia mater
    • Spinal Cord
      • Cervical
      • Thoracic
      • Lumbar
      • Sacral
      • Coccygeal
    • Spinal Cord - Cervical
      • 8 Cervical Nerves C1-C8
      • Diaphragm, Shoulders, Neck
      • Damage may result in:
        • Respiratory Paralysis
    • Spinal Cord - Thoracic
      • T1-T12
      • Intercostal
    • Spinal Cord - Lumbar
      • L1-L5
      • Lower abdomen, buttocks, anterior & medial thigh, hip muscles, skin of thigh
      • Damage:
        • Inability to flex hip
        • Loss of cutaneous sensation
        • Inability to adduct thigh
    • Spinal Cord – Sacral & Coccygeal
      • S1-S5 + Coccygeal Nerve
      • Lateral & posterior leg/foot, gluteus, lower trunk
      • Damage:
        • Inability to extend hip
        • Inability to flex knee