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Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
Nervous System
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Nervous System

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Basic Anatomy

Basic Anatomy

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  • very helpful for learners thanx
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  • gudam sir can i download your powerpoint for case presentation.i am a nursing student of saint mary's university..if its okey to download your presentations in nervous and circulatory system now...cause i cant download it...im waiting for your reply..ASAP...
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  • 1. Nervous System
  • 2. Central vs. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>1. Central Nervous System (CNS) : brain and spinal cord   </li></ul>
  • 3. Central vs. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>  2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) : cranial nerves, spinal nerves and ganglia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* ( Ganglion =group of neuron cell bodies located outside CNS) </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Sensory division vs. Motor division <ul><li>1. Sensory Division : receives information FROM body and transmits it TO the CNS for processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Somatic Sensory component – receives sensory information from skin, joints, muscle, special senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Visceral Sensory component – receives sensory info from blood vessels and viscera </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Motor Division : transmits info FROM the CNS TO muscles and glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Somatic motor component: innervates skeletal muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Autonomic motor (Autonomic Nervous System) : innervates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands of viscera (organs) </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. NERVOUS TISSUE CELLS <ul><li>A. Neurons : respond to stimuli and conduct nerve impulses </li></ul>
  • 6. NERVOUS TISSUE CELLS <ul><li>B. Glial Cells: support and protect neurons (maintenance) </li></ul>
  • 7. NEURON COMPOSITION (p 104) <ul><li>A. Cell Body : </li></ul><ul><li>    B. Nucleus : </li></ul><ul><li>    C. Dendrites :         </li></ul><ul><li>    D. Axon : </li></ul><ul><li>E. Synapse:         </li></ul>
  • 8. NEURON CLASSIFICATION <ul><li>1. Sensory (Afferent) Neuron : brings information TO the CNS   </li></ul><ul><li>   2. Motor (Efferent) Neuron : takes information FROM CNS to other parts of the body, cell body located in CNS   </li></ul><ul><li>    3. Interneuron (Association Neurons) : helps coordinate and integrate info between sensory and motor neurons, cell body located in CNS </li></ul>
  • 9. GLIAL CELLS - PNS <ul><li>A. Satellite Cells : surround neuron cell bodies in spinal ganglia         * ( Ganglion =group of neuron cell bodies located outside CNS) </li></ul><ul><li>  B. Schwann cells : myelinate axons in PNS   </li></ul>
  • 10. Glial Cells - CNS <ul><li>C. Astrocytes : regulate transfer of materials from blood to the brain - help the workings of &amp;quot;blood -brain barrier&amp;quot;   </li></ul><ul><li>D. Oligodendrocytes : myelinate axons in CNS   </li></ul><ul><li>E. Microglia : phagocytize damaged neurons   </li></ul><ul><li>F. Ependymal Cells : line central canal and ventricles - help circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)   </li></ul>
  • 11. MYELINATION OF AXONS <ul><li>wrapping an axon with myelin </li></ul>
  • 12. The Brain <ul><li>4 Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R &amp; L Hemispheres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brain Stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. Brain – Cerebrum <ul><li>Largest Region </li></ul><ul><li>Gyri (twisters) &amp; Sulcus (grooves) </li></ul><ul><li>Fissures (deep grooves) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal (hemispheres) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide Lobes </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Brain – Cerebrum (lobes) <ul><li>Parietal Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic sensory area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ homunculus” </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Brain – Cerebrum (lobes) <ul><li>Occipital Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual area </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. Brain – Cerebrum (lobes) <ul><li>Temporal Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep inside </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 17. Brain – Cerebrum (lobes) <ul><li>Frontal Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Motor Area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul>
  • 18. Cerebrum <ul><li>Cerebral Gray Matter (Cortex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>superficial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebral White Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deeper </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corpus Callosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connects hemispheres </li></ul></ul>
  • 19. Diencephalon (interbrain) <ul><li>Sits atop brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosed by cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epithalamus </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Diencephalon <ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relay station from spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crude impulse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasant vs. Unpleasant </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 21. Diencephalon <ul><li>Hypothalmus (“under the thalmus”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANS (Emotional Visceral Brain) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Temp, H 2 O balance, Metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appetites (thirst, hunger) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pleasure &amp; Pain </li></ul></ul>
  • 22. Diencephalon <ul><li>Epithalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pineal body (endocrine system) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choroid plexus (cerebrospinal fluid) </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Brain Stem <ul><li>About size of thumb </li></ul><ul><li>Areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convey impulses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Controls breathing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla Oblongata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart rate, BP, Swallowing, Vomiting, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 24. Cerebellum <ul><li>Convoluted surface </li></ul><ul><li>Precise timing of Skeletal muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><li>“ Auto-Pilot” </li></ul>
  • 25. Protection of Brain <ul><li>Meninges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dura mater (tough mother) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arachnoid mater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pia mater (gentle mother) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebrospinal Fluid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate waste </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blood-Brain Barrier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Least-permeable membrane in body </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Spinal Cord <ul><li>Aprox. 17 in long </li></ul><ul><li>Continuation of Brain Stem </li></ul><ul><li>Ends Below ribs </li></ul>
  • 27. Spinal Cord <ul><li>Gray Matter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior Horns (dorsal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior Horns (ventral) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CSF </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Central Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebrae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dura mater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arachnoid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pia mater </li></ul></ul>
  • 28. Spinal Cord <ul><li>Cervical </li></ul><ul><li>Thoracic </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbar </li></ul><ul><li>Sacral </li></ul><ul><li>Coccygeal </li></ul>
  • 29. Spinal Cord - Cervical <ul><li>8 Cervical Nerves C1-C8 </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphragm, Shoulders, Neck </li></ul><ul><li>Damage may result in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory Paralysis </li></ul></ul>
  • 30. Spinal Cord - Thoracic <ul><li>T1-T12 </li></ul><ul><li>Intercostal </li></ul>
  • 31. Spinal Cord - Lumbar <ul><li>L1-L5 </li></ul><ul><li>Lower abdomen, buttocks, anterior &amp; medial thigh, hip muscles, skin of thigh </li></ul><ul><li>Damage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to flex hip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of cutaneous sensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to adduct thigh </li></ul></ul>
  • 32. Spinal Cord – Sacral &amp; Coccygeal <ul><li>S1-S5 + Coccygeal Nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral &amp; posterior leg/foot, gluteus, lower trunk </li></ul><ul><li>Damage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to extend hip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to flex knee </li></ul></ul>

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