Cardiovascular System
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Cardiovascular System

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Basic Anatomy

Basic Anatomy

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Cardiovascular System Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Mr. Jeremy Schriner
  • 2. The Heart
    • 4 chambers
    • Located between the lungs
    • 2/3 of heart left of midline
    • Apex points downward & contacts the diaphragm
    • It lies in the pericardial cavity
  • 3. The Heart
    • It is separated from the other organs by a double-layered membrane = Pericardium
    • The Pericardium is composed of a Fibrous Pericardium & a Serous Pericardium. The serous pericardium has 2 parts:
      • 1.    Parietal layer - attached to the back of the fibrous pericardium
      • 2.    Visceral layer (epicardium) - attached to the heart muscle
      • These two are separated by a fluid filled space = pericardial cavity.
  • 4. The Heart Wall
    • A. Epicardium - outermost, = Visceral layer of the serous pericardium  
  • 5. Heart Wall
    •   B. Myocardium - middle, = Cardiac muscle cells (very thick)    
  • 6. The Heart Wall
    •   C. Endocardium - innermost, forms valves, & is continuous with the endothelium of the blood vessels that enter & leave the heart
  • 7. Chambers
    • 4 chambers
      • 2 upper: Lt. & Rt. Atrium
      • 2 lower: Lt. & Rt. Ventricle
  • 8. Valves
    • 4 valves
      • 2 Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
        • Rt. AV valve = tricuspid
        • Lt. AV valve = bicuspid, mitral
      • 2 semilunar valves: found at the base of 2 large vessels leaving the heart = Pulmonary & Aortic valves
  • 9. Blood Flow
    • 1. Rt. Atrium: receives deoxygenated (venous) blood from 3 vessels;
      • A. Superior vena cava - blood from above the heart
      • B. Inferior vena cava - blood from below the heart
      • C. Coronary sinus - blood from the heart muscle    
  • 10. Blood Flow
    • 2. Blood flows through Rt. AV valve into Rt. Ventricle (the flaps of AV valves are held in place by Chordae Tendineae & Papillary Muscles to prevent back flow)  
  • 11. Blood Flow
    • 3. Rt. Ventricle contracts & blood exits through the Pulmonary Semilunar valve. It enters the Pulmonary trunk which divides into Lt. & Rt. Pulmonary arteries. Blood goes to lungs (carbon dioxide out, oxygen in)  
  • 12. Blood Flow cont.
    • 4. Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs through the Pulmonary veins to the Lt. Atrium  
    •   
  • 13. Blood Flow
    •   5. Blood flows through the Lt. AV valve (bicuspid, mitral) to the Lt. Ventricle  
  • 14. Blood Flow
    • 6. Lt. Ventricle contracts & blood exits through the Aortic Semilunar valve & enters Ascending Aorta.
  • 15. Coronary circulation (Blood flow to Heart Muscle)
    • First vessels off of the Ascending Aorta = Lt. & Rt. Coronary Arteries
  • 16. Coronary Circulation cont.
    • The blood returns from the heart muscle via 2 major veins 
      • 1. Great Cardiac vein: brings deoxygenated blood back from the anterior heart wall 
      • 2. Middle Cardiac vein: brings deoxygenated blood back from the posterior heart wall.
    • Both vessels empty into the Coronary Sinus (a large vein on back of heart). It empties into Rt. Atrium
  • 17. Conduction system
    • An electrical system. It determines the rate & rhythm of the heartbeat
    • 1. Sinoatrial node (SA node, pacemaker) - Neurons fire at 70/80 beats per minute, causes atria to contract  
    • 2. Atrioventricular node (AV node) - neurons fire at 40-50 beats per minute; typically the SA node overrides it, but if SA node is not functioning it will ultimately cause ventricles to contract at a slower rate.  
  • 18. Conduction System
    • 3. Atrioventricular Bundle (Bundle of His) - conducts impulses between ventricles   
    • 4. The AV Bundle divides into lt & rt Bundle Branches which go to the ventricles.  
    • 5. Purkinje fibers - deliver impulses directly to the myocardium of the ventricles .  
  • 19. Blood – connective tissue with fluid matrix
    • A. Fluid = plasma
    • B. Blood cells = formed elements
      • 1. Red blood cells (RBC's) = ERYTHROCYTES
        • a. Flattened, biconcave, anucleated discs
        • b. Life span - 120 days
        • c. Function: transport oxygen & carbon dioxide bound pigmented protein = hemoglobin
  • 20. Blood cont.
    • 2. White blood cells (WBC's) = LEUKOCYTES
      • a.granulocytes
        • i. eosinophils
        • ii. Basophils
        • iii. Neutrophils 
  • 21. Blood cont.
    • 2. White blood cells (WBC's) = LEUKOCYTES
      • b. Agranulocytes
        • i. Monocytes
        • ii. Lymphocytes
  • 22. Blood cont.
    • 3. Thrombocytes = PLATELETS; not cells. Cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes. Assists in blood clot formation.
  • 23. Hemopoiesis = Blood Cell formation. Occurs in red bone marrow.
    • A. Erythropoiesis = RBC formation
    • B. Leukopoiesis = WBC formation
    • C. Thrombopoiesis = platelet formation
  • 24. Blood vessels: blood flow
    • Blood flows from the heart through progressively narrowing vessels;             artery ->arteriole -> capillary
    • And returns through progressively enlarging vessels;
    • venules -> vein-> heart  
  • 25. Blood vessels
    • Structure: arteries and veins have 3 tunics
      • 1. Tunica Externa (adventitia) - Outermost, loose connective tissue, this is the thickest layer in veins  
      • 2. Tunica Media - middle, smooth muscle layer, this is the thickest layer in arteries  
      • 3. Tunica Intima - innermost
        • a. Endothelium - simple squamous + c.t.
        • b. Subendothelial layer - c.t.
  • 26. Arteries (carry blood away from heart)
    • Elastic - large amount of elastin expandable
    • Muscular - tunica media is predominantly smooth muscle.
    • There is an elastic lamina on each face of the tunica media
  • 27. Arterioles -
    • Smallest, tunica media very thin (<10 layers)
  • 28. Capillaries
    • &quot;Functional units&quot; of circulatory system, very thin-walled, allows for exchange of gases, nutrients, & waste products.
    • Composed of the Tunica Intima only
  • 29. Venules  
    • Usually lack a tunica media. They have the other two tunics
  • 30. Veins
    • Carry blood to the heart) All 3 tunics present. Veins have a very
    • Low pressure, The blood flow through them is dependent on:
      • A. Contraction of surrounding musculature = Skeletal muscle &quot;pump&quot;
      • B. One-way valves  
  • 31.