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IISA Medieval Castles Student Workbook

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This is a workbook that I helped to develop as a pre-service teacher completing a placement at the ICARDA International School of Aleppo.

This is a workbook that I helped to develop as a pre-service teacher completing a placement at the ICARDA International School of Aleppo.

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  • 1. IISAA Week Without Walls~Crusader Castles ~ 2008 Student Booklet ________________________
  • 2. Table of Contents3 Trip Information4–5 Itinerary6 Student Work Groups and Hotel Roommates7–9 Coat of Arms Activity10 Essential Questions11 Mapping Our Journey Activity12 – 15 The Crusades – Historical Information16 – 17 Qala’at Salah ad-Din Background Information and Castle Tour Activity18 – 19 Qala’at Salah ad-Din Topographic Map Activity20 Ugarit Background Information21 – 22 Ugarit Discovery Walk Activity23 – 24 Qala’at Marqab Background Information and Castle Tour Activity25 – 27 Qala’at Marqab Architectural Features Activity28 – 29 Musyaf Background Information and Castle Tour Activity30 Musyaf Feudalism Activity31 Safita and Hosn Suleiman Background Information32 – 33 How High is the Castle Activity34 – 35 How Heavy is the Stone Block Activity36 – 37 Krak des Chevaliers Background Information and Castle Tour Activity38 – 39 Krak des Chevaliers Crusader Quest Activity40 – 41 Krak des Chevaliers Creating a Legend Activity42 – 46 A Knight’s Tale – Journal Activity47 Self EvaluationAll Information taken from:Burn, Ross. Monuments of Syria. An Historical Guide. 1999The Lonely Planet- Syria and Lebanon. 2004
  • 3. Contact DetailsSchool: 00 000 00 0000000Trip Chaperones:Mr. WhiteMr. RedMs. BlueMs. GreenMr. YellowMs. OrangeMr. BlackHotels:Lattakia – Palace HotelTartus – Grand HotelKrak des Chevalier – Bebers HotelWhat To Take:In a SMALL suitcase: • Jacket • Boots/shoes (flat heels) to hike in • Pajamas, Underwear, and socks for 5 days • Clothing for 5 days you can layer if it is cold, but can be comfortable in if it is hot (t- shirts, long-sleeved shirts, sweaters) Pants, shorts and a swimsuit • Soap, shampoo, toothpaste, toothbrush, hair brush/comb, and other toiletriesIn a Backpack: 1. Lunch for the first day 2. Spending money 3. Your work booklet 4. Any medication you take (tell your supervisor you are carrying it) 5. Snacks for on the bus and hotel room 6. Flashlight 7. Sunglasses and a hat to shade from the sun 8. Pencil case with blue pen, red pen, ruler, pencil, eraser, highlighter 9. Clipboard to rest your booklet on (optional) 10. Camera (optional) 11. Mobile Phone and MP3 player (optional, and NOT to be used when we are at sites – if used it will be confiscated – you are taking this at your own risk)What NOT to take: • ANY Electronic Games • Laptops • ANYTHING that would NOT be allowed at school 3
  • 4. Week Without Walls Grades 6 & 7 – Crusader Castles Tentative ItineraryDay 1 – Sunday 30th:8:00 Depart for Saladin Castle11:00 Arrive Saladin Castle11:30 – 12:30 Guided tour of Saladin Castle (3-4 guides)1:00 – 2:00 Lunch – packed from home2:00 – 3:30 Topography Activity3:30 Depart for Ugarit4:00 – 5:00 Ugarit discovery walk5:30 Check in at hotel – Palace Hotel6:30 – 7:30 Dinner and reflection7:30 - ???Day 2 – Monday 31st:8:00 Breakfast9:00 Depart for Marqab10:30 – 12:00 Guided tour of Marqab (3-4 guides)12:00 – 1:00 Activity1:00 – 1:30 Lunch at Marqab (shawarmas and fallafal)1:30 Depart for Musyaf2:00 Arrive Musyaf2:00 – 3:00 Guided tour of Musyaf3:00 – 4:00 Activity4:30 Depart for Tartous5:30 Arrive in Tartous – Grand Hotel6:30 – 7:30 Dinner and reflection7:30 – 9:30 Movie (Robin Hood?)Day 3 – Tuesday 1st: (Castles Closed)8:00 Breakfast9:00 Depart for Safita and Hosn Suleiman10:30 Arrive Safita and tour Qala Yahmur (30 min?)11:30 – 12:00 Drive to Hosn Suleiman12:00 – 1:00 Activity at Hosn Suleiman (something with math and size of blocks?) Lunch??? Pick up Shawarmas in Safita? And eat on bus1:00 Depart for Tartous2:00 Arrive Tartous ferry dock and depart for Arwad Island3:00 – 4:30 Tour Castle on Arwad and Corniche with Phoenician blocks4:30 Return to docks5:30 Return to hotel – Grand Hotel6:00 – 7:00 Dinner and reflection7:00 – 9:00 Movie at hotel (First Knight?) 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. Day 4 – Wednesday 2nd:8:00 Breakfast9:00 Depart for Krak des Chevaliers10:00 - 11:30 Guided tour of Krak (3-4 guides)11:30 – 12:30 Lunch at Krak restaurant and free time to explore12:30 – 1:30 Introduction to Writing a Legend Script Activity1:30 – 3:00 Crusader Quest grade 7 / Legend activity grade 63:00 – 4:30 Crusader Quest grade 6 / Legend activity grade 75:00 Depart for hotel6:00 – 7:00 Dinner and reflection7:00 – 8:00 Legend Work Time8:00 – 10:00 BonfireDay 5 – Thursday 3rd:8:00 Breakfast9:00 Depart for Krak9:30 – 11:00 Legend Work Time – Rehearse and practice scripts11:00 – 12:00 Presentation of Legends12:00 – 1:00 Lunch at Krak1:00 Depart for Aleppo Lunch – shawarmas and fallafal to go 6
  • 7. Teams of KnightsGrade 6: (students)Hotel RoommatesGrade 7: (students)Hotel Roommates 7
  • 8. Team Coat of Arms Activity Why did a knight need to have a coat of arms?In the 12th century, knights began wearing helmets that completely concealed their facesexcept for two narrow slits for the eyes. It made a knight unrecognizable to both his friendsand his enemies. Symbols such as lions or other beasts were painted on the knights’ shieldsand banners to aid in recognition during a battle. As time went on these decorations wererepeated on the surcoat (a sleeveless garment that was worn over armor) – therefore thename, coat of arms. By the 15th century, as the designs became more complex, it developedinto a complicated science called heraldry – a system of personal symbols by which a knightcould be recognized.Parts of a Coat of Arms:Ribbon & Motto- A ribbon could be placed above the entire coat of arms or at the bottom ofthe shield. A motto (short goal or idea) is placed on the ribbon.Crest- On some coats of arms a crest is included that almost always sets on top of a Torse.Torse- Twisted fabrics make up a Torse that contains the same colors as the shield and onecolor of metal (gold or silver). The Torse sits on the helm or helmet, and some say it is there tohold the Mantling in place.Mantling- (this is usually on a coat of arms only if there is also a helm or helmet shown)- TheMantling may represent the tattered hooded capes or cloaks worn by a warrior after battleand is usually all one color on a coat of arms.Helm- Helm and helmet are the same thing and different helmets symbolize specific classessuch as Bards, Earls, and Peers.Supporter- Typically the supporters are humans or animals that hold the shield on eitherside.Compartment- The compartment is the area on the coat of arms at the bottom of the shield.The compartment is there to hold the shield up and in many cases it is made to look like theground.Shield and Arms- The shield and arms make up the design on the shield itself. Traditionally,a woman’s shield would have been in the shape of a diamond, instead of the shape seenbelow. Since a coat of arms was an honor given to a specific person, each one was unique.Pieces of a coat of arms might be used in a family emblem, however, individuals who weregiven this award could have an emblem different from their family’s coat of arms. 8
  • 9. Create Your Own Coat of ArmsThere are very specific rules for designing a coat of arms.1. Partition the background with lines. You may use any of the designs picturedbelow or create a design of your own.2. Choose a combination of the following colors: black, green, red, purple, goldor silver to color in your background.3. Draw a fanciful animal as part of yourdesign.4. Complete your coat of arms with anypersonal or family symbols. 9
  • 10. Essential Questions__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10
  • 11. Mapping our JourneyUse the following map to identify all of the locations we visit. Mark the map toidentify each location and create a key. Use the latitude and longitude toestimate the correct coordinates of each location. LocationsAleppo36.2˚N 37.2˚EQala’at Salah ad-Din_______ _______Qala’at Marqab_______ _______Musyaf_______ _______Safita_______ _______Krak des Chevaliers_______ _______ 11
  • 12. What were the Crusades?The medieval "Crusade" was a holy war. For a conflict to be officially considered a Crusade, ithad to be approved by the pope and conducted against groups seen as enemies ofChristendom. Initially, only expeditions to the Holy Land (Jerusalem and associatedterritory) were considered Crusades. More recently, historians have also recognizedcampaigns against heretics, pagans and Muslims in Europe as Crusades.Nowadays, countries have people from all kinds of religions, but in the Middle Ages almosteveryone in Europe was Christian. Western Christians were all members of the CatholicChurch, and the Pope was the head of the Church. All the Christian countries together werecalled Christendom. Sometimes the countries of Christendom could work together and mostfamously did so during the Crusades – the Wars of the Cross. The Christians wanted to winback their Holy City, Jerusalem, from the Muslim armies; however, Jerusalem was also aHoly City for the Muslims, so the Muslim leaders were just as determined to win. TheCrusades eventually failed, in part because of the disagreements arising between differentChristian kings. How the Crusades BeganFor centuries, Jerusalem had been governed by Muslims, but Christian pilgrims weretolerated because these visitors helped the economy. In the 1070s though, Turks (who werealso Muslim) conquered the Holy Land and mistreated Christians before realizing how usefultheir good will (and money) could be. The Turks also threatened the Byzantine Empire.Emperor Alexius asked the pope for assistance, and Pope Urban II, seeing a way to harnessthe violent energy of Christian knights, made a speech calling for Christians to take backJerusalem. Thousands responded, resulting in the First Crusade.There is no doubt that the Crusades contributed greatly to changes in Europe. The effort ofraising armies and providing supplies for Crusaders stimulated the economy. Tradebenefited as well, especially once the Crusader States were established. Interaction betweenthe East and West affected European culture in areas of art and architecture, literature andeducation. Finally, Pope Urbans vision of directing the energies of warring knights outwardsucceeded in reducing conflict within Europe. The creation of a common foe and objectiverenewed feelings of unity within Christendom, even for those who didnt participate in theCrusade. On the other hand, the Crusades had a much smaller impact on the societies livingin and around the Holy Land. Crusader CastlesThe Crusader castles that rise from the Syrian hilltops and mountain crags remain the clearestlegacy of the 200-year struggle for the Holy Land between the Christians of Europe and the 12
  • 13. Muslims of the east. The massive size and intricate craftsmanship of these structures arecharacteristic of fortresses that were intended to house and protect inhabitants from anyenemy.The Europeans who embarked on the First Crusade at the end of the 11th century werepredominantly Frankish, and the basic traditions of Crusader castle construction can betraced to the country we now call France. Throughout Western Europe, fortificationtechnology had developed from the days of Roman camps and forts and throughout theMiddle Ages. Despite these developments, there was not standard blueprint for Frankishcastle construction. The nature of castle construction was dictated more by the topography ofa chosen site than by strict adherence to a specific building pattern. The greatest skill ofFrankish engineers was their ability to adapt designs that suited the demands of specificterrain, whether it was a precipitous mountain peak or a harbour-side promontory. This wasequally true in Syria, where the fortifications in coastal towns like Tartus and theimpregnable hilltop castle of Krak des Chevaliers used similar forms of castle technology butwere fundamentally different in design, appearance, and function.It is likely that the Crusaders greatly extended their knowledge military architecture duringthe lengthy march to the Holy Land. They must have been amazed by the walls ofConstantinople, and they discovered first-hand the effectiveness of ancient Byzantinefortifications during their long sieges of Nicaea (1097) and Antioch (1098). It is alsointeresting to speculate upon possible Armenian influences on the Crusades. The path of theCrusaders brought them into contact with Armenian populations in the principality ofAntioch and also in Edessa. The Armenians had a tradition of constructing true castles,rather than city defenses, on elevated or mountainous locations. Armenian castles were 13
  • 14. frequently built with an outer wall that closely followed the line of the cliff face, with roundtowers spaced regularly along it. These features can be seen in some Syrian Crusader castles,and it is likely that inspiration came, at least in part, from the Armenians. Why Build Castles?Following the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099, the Crusaders faced a crisis of human resources.It is estimated that of the 150,000 Crusaders who embarked on the journey, only 40,000reached Jerusalem. Many of those who had survived the First Crusade returned home afterthe city was captured because they believed they had fulfilled their religious duty ofliberating the Holy Land. Crusader nobles remaining in the Holy Land began constructing anetwork of castles along the coast and through the mountains. These castles allowed asmaller number of knights and soldiers to maintain control over the newly-conqueredterritory. The virtue of these great strongholds was demonstrated clearly during therampaging campaign of Salah ad-Din in 1180 when the hopelessly outnumbered Crusader forces retreated to Krak des Chevaliers and the Muslims, who did not have the resources or the time to conduct a siege, had no option but to reluctantly pass on by. Of course, once the army had moved away from the castle walls, the Crusaders sallied forth again to recapture the local area and extract tax money.Krak des Chevaliers sometimes boasted a garrison of more than two thousand, but it was sowell-designed that it could be defended by as few as two hundred soldiers. Even when theMuslims managed to control the surrounding lands, the castle itself remained impregnable.The pattern of castle ownership, like the style of castle construction, changed markedlyduring the 200-year period of the Crusades. Initially, individual nobles attempted to createsmall, self-ruled estates in the Holy Land similar to those of Western Europe. As the tideturned in favor of the Muslims, the survival of independent foreign states and eventually ofthe whole Crusading movement became increasingly precarious. The defensive capacities ofthe great castles became even more important as the plight of the Crusaders became evermore desperate. The Master Castle BuildersIncreasingly, castle ownership and renovation became the responsibility of the two great elitemilitary orders, the Knights of St John (or Hospitallers), and the Order of the KnightsTemplar. Most of the castles that can still be seen in Syria today were controlled by theTemplars or the Hospitallers in the 13th century, and it was these knights who redesigned andexpanded the fortifications, sometimes to a truly remarkable extent. 14
  • 15. The architecture of the great Hospitaller castles,particularly Krak des Chevaliers and Qala’atMarqab, was distinctly different to that of theTemplars. The dominating, rectangular donjonsfavored by the Templars (the best example ofwhich is at Safita) were not used as extensivelyby the Hospitallers. The Hospitallers favoredgreat, round towers that often projected boldlyfrom the castle walls to allow the defenders awide field of vision and fire.Both Krak and Marqab were effectively two castles in one, with the main castle being fullyenclosed by a complete outer circuit of heavily fortified walls and towers. The upperwindows of the towers were wide enough to allow large defensive weapons to be deployedfrom within. Castles after the CrusadesIn 1291, the last of the Crusaders abandoned the castle of Tortosa (present day Tartus) andsailed to the fortified offshore island of Arwad. Eleven years later, they left this final refugeand departed the Holy Land forever. In some ways the Crusading movement can be seen asa failure. The knights came to protect their shrines and pilgrim routes from the Muslims, butwhen the last Crusader sailed from the coast the whole region was in Muslim hands.Equally, it can be argued that the Crusaders did remarkably well to maintain an activeforeign presence for more than 200 years, despite their isolation, lack of resources andinability to harness the support of the Christian populations in the east. There is no doubtthat the key to the Crusaders’ stubborn resistance was their construction and use of greatfortifications.Castle building did not, of course, end with the Crusaders. Hard-won experienced led to theadoption of the use of large-scale fortifications by the Muslims. Late in the 12th century,rulers like Nur ad-Din built castles of varying styles at Damascus, Homs, Aleppo, Bosra, andelsewhere, while the Ayyubid rulers of the early 13th century also undertook an extensiveprogram of fortification. Not surprisingly, there are many similarities between the styles ofthe Muslim and Crusader construction. For example, the defensive openings, ormachicolations, that project from the tower overlooking the approach to the gate of theAleppo citadel represent a device constructed by the Muslims that is identical to Crusaderworkmanship at Krak des Chevaliers.Military architecture in Western Europe underwent a revision in the years following theCrusades. Although many subsequent Western European castles incorporated designfeatures that were conceived in the Holy Land, these fortifications never rivaled the size andsplendor of the Crusader fortresses. Never improved upon, the great Crusader castles, ofwhich Syria boasts the finest examples, represent the ultimate triumph of the art of defensivefortification construction. 15
  • 16. Qala’at Salah ad-Din Background InformationThe castle Qala’at Salah ad-Din orSaone (as it was known to theCrusaders) was unlike the othermajor Crusade strongholds. It wasnever given to one of the majororders of the Crusades; the KnightsTemplar or the Hospitallers; and itsconstruction dates from the earlyphase of the Crusader presence1100 – 1188.The fortifications were begun bythe Byzantines in the late 10thcentury. The site was chosen for its proximity to, and control of, the main route betweenLattakia and Aleppo. The Crusaders took over in the early 12th century and the constructionof the castle as you see it today was carried out some time before 1188. Incredibly, thecanyon is man-made; the Crusaders laboriously hacked a volume of stone 28 m deep and 156m long creating a “ditch” separating the castle from the rest of the hill. In the middle of thecanyon, they left a solitary freestanding needle of stone to provide support for a drawbridge.On July 27, 1188 Saladin arrived atSaone (as it was called by theCrusaders) and began to lay siege. Hisforces pounded the castle from theplateau to the east while his son (fromAleppo) took up position across thenorth ravine. The Crusaders resistedfiercely but two days later the wallswere breached by bombardment fromSaladin’s son. The weak point was the relatively thin walls of the lower court. The Muslimsoldiers stormed the breach, gained the lower court and from there swarmed over the narrowand incomplete ditch into the upper fortress. The garrison was overwhelmed by how quickthe breach happened and surrendered after barely a fight. The vast area of the fortress hadproved too much for them to defend. The castle was never regained by the Crusaders. 16
  • 17. Qala’at Salah ad-DinAliases: __________________________________________________History of Construction: (who built it, why, when, etc…)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Discuss why you think it was built in this location:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Significant Defensive Features:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Unique Features of this Castle:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Evaluate the Overall Castle Construction:(How does it compare to other castles?)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 17
  • 18. Qala’at Salah ad-Din Building A Topographic ModelBackground Information:Topographic maps show the shapes and features of the Earth’s surface. A contour lineconnects places on the map which have the same elevation. To demonstrate the differentelevations shown on a two dimensional topographic map, you can build a 3-dimensionalmodel.Relief -- The features shown on topographic maps may be divided into three groups: (1)relief, which includes hills, valleys, mountains, etc.; (2) water features, including lakes,ponds, and streams; and (3) cultural features, man-made features like bridges, canal,buildings, and roads.Relief is the difference in elevation between any two points. Where relief is low, the areaappears to be relatively flat as in river valleys or broad, flat uplands. When relief is high, thearea is steep, as in rugged mountainous terrain. Relief determines the contour interval, whichis the difference in elevation between adjacent contour lines. A contour line is an imaginaryline on the Earths surface connecting points of the same elevation. Contours can be large forrugged terrain (80 or 100 feet) or they may be small in areas of low relief (10-20 feet).Rules of Contour Lines. -- Some basic rules or facts about contour lines are listed below.1. Where a contour line crosses a stream or valley, the contour bends to form a "V" thatpoints-upstream or-valley. 2.Contours near the upper parts of hills form closures. The top of a hill is higher than thehighest closed contour.3. Contours are widely spaced on gentle slopes.4. Contours are closely spaced on steep slopes.5. Evenly spaced contours indicate a uniform slope.6. Contours do not cross or intersect each other.7. All contours eventually close, either on a map or beyond its margins. Scale-- Scale expresses the relationship between distance on the map and the true distance on theEarths surface. This is generally expressed as a ratio or a fraction, such as 1: 24,000 or1/24,000. The numerator, usually 1, represents map distance, and the denominator, a largenumber, represents ground distance. Thus, 1: 24,000 means that a distance of 1 unit on themap represents 24,000 such units on the ground. The unit here is not important - it could bemeters, feet, or inches. What is important is the relationship between the map distance andthe true ground distance.Colors and Symbols-- Each color on a topographic map has significance as follows:Blue = water features;Green = woodlands, orchards, etc.;Red = urban areas, important roads, public-land boundary lines, civil boundaries;Black = man-made works;Brown = contour lines.Purple = new additions in revised versions; usually man-made features 18
  • 19. Purpose:Use the map below to make a 3-Dimensional model of the features of Qalaat Saladin and thesurrounding area.Procedure: 1. Determine how many layers your model will need to represent different elevations. 2. Draw each layer onto separate pieces of cardboard – BE CAREFUL to be as precise as possible as you will have limited cardboard. 3. Cut out each layer of cardboard. 4. Assemble entire 3-D model to represent the topography of the Qalaat Saladin area. 5. Provide an estimated scale of contour lines. 6. Add color to your model to indicate water features, woodlands, roads and man-made works (this includes the main parts of the castle) 19
  • 20. Ugarit Background Information Ugarit was once the most important city on the Mediterranean coast. Many consider it to be the world’s first international port, and evidence suggests that a settlement on this site was trading with Cyprus and Mesopotamia as afar back as the4 3rd millennium BC. Ugarit was at its peak around 2000 to 1800 BC, when it enjoyed a healthy trade providing the Egyptian pharaohs with timber and exporting the city’s trademark bronze work. With the immense wealth accrued from trade, the city’s royalpalace was developed into one of the most imposing and famous buildings in western Asia.Ugarit’s wealth was matched by its learning and innovation. For instance, the palace had apiped water system and drainage, as did the houses of the well-to-do.The most significant achievement of all, however, was thedevelopment of the Ugaritic alphabet. Tablets discoveredat this site are inscribed with what is thought to be one ofthe world’s earliest alphabets. Prior to the one developedat Ugarit the two known systems of writing werehieroglyphics (developed by the Egyptians) and cuneiform(from Mesopotamia) both of which involved hundreds ofpictograms that represented complete words or syllables.Ugaritic is a greatly simplified system of 30 symbols, eachof which represents one sound. It is also thought theUgaritic alphabet may have been adopted and adapted bythe Greeks and Romans, thus making it the ancestor ofmodern European alphabets. 20
  • 21. Ugarit Activity Discovery Walk1. Find the Reception Hall and explain what you think the inhabitants used this space for. _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________2. Find the Stone Vessel and predict what you think it was used for. _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________3. In the House of Rapanu there is an underground chamber. Find it and explain what you think it was used for. _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________4. On the way to the Acropolis find this object: and predict what you think it was used for. _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ 21
  • 22. 5. Find the stratigraphic sounding and describe what you think archaeologists did here. _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________6. Find the Temple of Baal and look at the sketch of what the archaeologists predicted it looked like. How do you think they were able to do this? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________7. Find the Northern Residence and locate the underground chamber there. Go inside and examine the far wall. Describe what you think this chamber could have been used for and the shapes in the wall. _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________8. Find the main entrance to the Palace. Sketch what you think it could have looked like during the height of the civilization here. 22
  • 23. Qala’at Marqab Background InformationThe original castle was originallybuilt by the Muslims in 1062 out ofblack basalt rock. The castle sits onan extinct volcano, of which thestone was most likely cut to buildthe castle. During the early 12thcentury it passed into Crusaderhands and was part of theprincipality of Antioch beforebeing sold in 1168 to the KnightsHospitaller. It was the Hospitallerswho gave the castle its present shape, concentrating their fortifications on the southern flankwhere the gentler slopes made the site most vulnerable. Their work was well done, as itstood up to two major assaults in the 13thycentury. Saladin (Salah ad-Din) who in 1188successfully captured the nearby castle that now bears his name, did not even bother withMarqab but just marched right by, preferring to concentrate on easier targets.Historians suspect that the main reason for itseventual fall in 1285 to the Mamelukes was the lackof manpower for the extensive defenses. Withincreasingly fewer volunteers from Europe thecastle could not be properly protected because of itsvast size. The Mameluke Sultan brought down Marqab by ‘mining’; his soldiers dug under the foundations of the castle walls and towers, propping up the tunnels with wooden beams. By lighting a fire and burning the beams, the tunnels collapsed and brought down the defenses above them. Following the surrender of the Crusaders, the Mamelukes repaired the castle – you can identify their handiwork in the telltale white bands of the south tower – and continued to use it until they lost power to the Ottomans, who had little use for castles and kept it as a prison. 23
  • 24. Qala’at MarqabAliases: __________________________________________________History of Construction: (who built it, why, when, etc…)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Discuss why you think it was built in this location:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Significant Defensive Features:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Unique Features of this Castle:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Evaluate the Overall Castle Construction:(How does it compare to other castles?)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 24
  • 25. Qala’at Marqab Activity Architectural Features of the Castle The castle as a stronghold:Castles were built to protect people and their property. If opponents wanted to destroy theowner’s power and authority, and take the land, the castle had to be captured. Attackersused a number of different methods. The attack:There were two main methods of attacking castles: batter down the defences, or besiege thesite until the defenders gave in. Castles could be attacked in other ways as well. Mininginvolved tunneling under a wall so that it would collapse. Diseased animal carcasses werehurled into castles to spread diseases; heads from prisoners were sometimes hurled in todemoralize defenders. Occasionally attackers successfully climbed up the lavatory chutes. Which side was successful?Sometimes the defenders were successful and sometimes the attackers. Defenders had theadvantage of strong walls and towers from which they could fire down on their attackers.Defensive features included such as the barbican, which crowded attackers into a small spaceunder concentrated fire, and machicolations made the assault on the castle even morehazardous for the attackers. Sieges sometimes failed because the attackers could not afford topay for the wages, food and supplies of their army but in the end any castle would fall if thesiege were long enough.Your Task:You will analyze and evaluate different features of the castle that either helped todefend the castle or allow the crusaders to attack their enemies. Be observantand be sure to look at all parts of the castle! Step One: Complete the chart on the next page with architectural features from this particular castle. The first two entries have been done for you as an example. Step Two: Pick two or three features of the castle and draw them on the page provided. Try to put as much detail as possible into the picture. 25
  • 26. Step One:Complete the chart with architectural features from this particular castle. Thefirst two entries have been done for you as an example. Features that helped protect or Features that allowed the defend the crusaders from attack. crusaders to attack their enemies.Feature: Drawbridge Feature: Weapons storage roomExplanation: Explanation:When the drawbridge is lifted up the Crusaders kept the weapons they usedattackers cannot cross the moat to get to attack their enemies here.into the castle.Feature: Feature:Explanation: Explanation:Feature: Feature:Explanation: Explanation:Feature: Feature:Explanation: Explanation:Feature: Feature:Explanation: Explanation:Feature: Feature:Explanation: Explanation: What do you notice about the offensive and defensive features of a castle? 26
  • 27. Step Two:Pick two or three features of the castle and draw them on this paper. Try to putas much detail as possible into the picture. 27
  • 28. Musyaf Background InformationMusyaf, also known as the Castle of the Assassins, is thebest preserved of the Ismaeli (Assassins) castles in Syria.It’s not known when the first fortifications were erected onthis site, but there was definitely a castle of some sort herein 1103 because it was seized by the Crusaders. Theydidn’t have enough manpower to garrison it and by 1140 ithad passed into the hands of the mysterious Ismaeli sect,more dramatically known as the Assassins. The Ismaelis were an extreme sect that originated in Persia. A sect is a small religious or political group that has broken off from a larger group. The Ismaelis broke off from the Shia Muslims, however they were considered non-Muslims and leaned more towards the mystical. TheAssassins were committed to murder to further their cause, and targeted Muslim rulers whohad been persecuting their sect. They were meticulous in killing the targeted individual;seeking to do so without any additional casualties and innocent loss of life. The Assassinsdeveloped a terrifying reputation by slaying their victims in public, often in mosques,typically approaching them in disguise and using a dagger.Throughout the Crusades both theMuslims and Crusaders came to fearand respect the Ismaelis. It is believedthat at their peak, the Isameliscontrolled a total of 10 castles, andmost were hidden deep in the JebelAnsariyya mountain range. 28
  • 29. MusyafAliases: __________________________________________________History of Construction: (who built it, why, when, etc…)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Discuss why you think it was built in this location:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Significant Defensive Features:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Unique Features of this Castle:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Evaluate the Overall Castle Construction:(How does it compare to other castles?)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 29
  • 30. Safita and Hosn Suleiman Background InformationSafitaThis small mountain town is dominated by astriking Crusader-era keep, all that remains of theonce powerful Castel Blanc. The keep, essentially afortified watch-tower with a surrounding wall, wasoriginally built in the early 12th century as part of theoutlying defences of Tartus. The castle was rebuiltand strengthened after damage sustained in anattack. It was garrisoned by the Knights Templaruntil 1271 when they were driven out by theBeybars, who shortly after went on to take Krak desChevaliers.Hosn SuleimanAlong some of the highest mountain ridges of theJebel Ansariyya lies a temple that gives testament tothousands of years of religious use. Evidencesuggests that the site has been home to temples ofone religion or another since the Persian occupation.The present remains are Roman but the first temple was probably constructed under Persiandomination. What makes the site extraordinary is the construction of huge stone blocks,some of them as large as 5m by 3m, in such a remote area at a time when travel was by foot or on horse. Activity – How high is the castle? We will use 3 different methods for trying to measure the height of the castle. 30
  • 31. Method 1 The falling balloonAs objects fall towards the earth they get faster, i.e. their velocity increases. Wecan use this phenomenon to calculate the height of the castle by recording thetime taken for an object to fall from the top.Procedure 1. ½ fill balloon with water and tie a knot in it. 2. 1 student (S1) to go to the top of the castle and find a safe place to stand where they can drop the balloon. 3. Another student (S2) goes to the bottom with a stopwatch where they can see S1. 4. S1 blows a whistle to indicate that he is about to drop the balloon. 5. S1 releases balloon 5 seconds after blowing whistle. 6. S2 records the time taken from when the balloon is released until it hits the ground. 7. Repeat procedure 3 times to get a more accurate result and calculate the average time.t1= _______seconds t2= _______seconds t3= _______secondsAverage time(tavg) = (t1 + t2 + t3)/3 = ____ secondsThe formula to calculate the height is given as Castle Height = (5 x tavg x tavg) meters Castle Height = ____ mMethod 2 Using a fishing lineProcedure 1. A student at the top of the castle drops a reel of fishing line while holding onto the end of the line. 2. Student at the bottom cuts the line where it touches the ground and students measure the line using a trundle wheel.Method 3 using a protractor 31
  • 32. Procedure 1. Using a trundle wheel walk 100m away from the castle. 2. 1 student(S1) lies on the ground facing the castle, place the 1m ruler in front of the student with 1 end near their face. 3. student laying on ground must look along the ruler at the castle. 4. Another student(S2) gradually raises the far end of the ruler until the student on the ground can see the top of the castle along the ruler. 5. S2 and others need to use paper to trace the triangle made by the ground and the ruler as in the diagram above 6. Measure the angle of the triangle as shown in the diagram.The height, h = 100 x tan(angle)Use the table below to work out the tan of the angleCastle height = 100 x ____ = _____ m Angle(degrees) Tan(angle) Angle(degrees 5 0.09 ) Tan(angle) 10 0.18 45 1.00 15 0.27 50 1.19 20 0.36 55 1.43 25 0.47 60 1.73 30 0.58 65 2.14 35 0.70 70 2.75 75 3.73 40 0.84 80 5.67 32
  • 33. How Heavy is the Stone Block ?We will estimate the mass of the largest block we can find. We will do this by measuring the rocksvolume and density, then from this we can determine its mass.Density The density is a measure of an objects mass per volume.We can calculate this as follows: 1. Take a piece of rock used to make the blocks around 1kg or so that will fit into the bottom ½ of your 2L container. 2. Record the mass of the rock using an electronic balance. 3. Measure the volume of the rock as follows: 4. Place a 1cm horizontal mark ½ way up the inside of the plastic container with a permanent pen. 5. Fill the container with water up to your pen mark. 6. Now carefully place the rock into the container of water. Make sure the rock is completely submerged. 7. Draw another mark to record the new water level. 8. Now remove the rock and add water if necessary to get the water level back up to the lower mark. 9. Using a 200ml water bottle add water up to the upper level mark recording how much water you have added…..this volume is the volume of the rock.Mass of rock = ____ gVolume of rock = ____ mls Equipment required Electronic balance 2L plastic beakerDensity of an object is equal to the mass/volume Permanent pen Calculator Empty 200ml water bottleDensity of rock = mass(g) / volume(mls) = _________ g/mlNow multiply your answer by 1000 to get it to units of kg/m3Density of rock = _______ kg/m3
  • 34. Volume Locate the largest block on the siteCalculate its volume by measuring the length, width and height in metersLength = _______ m Width = _______ m Height = _______ mVolume = length x width x height = ______ x ______ x ______ = ________ m3Mass of the largest blockThe mass of the block = (density x volume) kg = ______ x ______ The mass of the block = ______ kgAssume a student has a mass of approximately 50kg.How many students do we need to have the same mass as your block?Show your working below 34
  • 35. Krak des Chevaliers Background InformationThe “Castle of the Knights”(as it is also called) is situatedin the only significant break inthe Jebel Ansariyya. Anyonewho held this location, knownas the Homs Gap, wasvirtually assured authorityover inland Syria bycontrolling the flow of goodsand people from the portsthrough to the interior. Eventoday, this gap carries themajor road link from Homs toTartus, as well as the oilpipeline from the fields in the far east of the country to the port at Tartus.The first fortress that is known to haveexisted on this site was built by the Emir ofHoms in 1031. He was first briefly displacedin 1099 by the hordes of the First Crusadepassing through on its way to Jerusalem, andwas then completely pushed out 11 yearslater when the Christian knights, nowestablished in the Holy City, began to extendtheir lands throughout the region. Aroundthe middle of the 12th century the eliteKnights Hospitaller replaced the FirstCrusaders and built and expanded the Krakinto its present form. The knights built well and despite repeated attacks and sieges, the fortress was never truly breached. Instead, the Crusaders simply gave it up. When the Mameluke Sultan marched on the castle in 1271, the knights at the Krak were a last outpost. Jerusalem had been lost and the Christians were retreating. Numbers in the castle, which was built to hold a garrison of 2000, were depleted to around 200. Surrounded by the armies of Islam andwith no hope of reprieve, the fortress must have seemed more like a prison than astronghold. Even though they had supplies to last for five years, after a month under siegethe Crusaders agreed to depart the castle under terms of safe conduct. 35
  • 36. Krak des ChevaliersAliases: __________________________________________________History of Construction: (who built it, why, when, etc…)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Discuss why you think it was built in this location:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Significant Defensive Features:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Unique Features of this Castle:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Evaluate the Overall Castle Construction:(How does it compare to other castles?)___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 36
  • 37. Krak des Chevaliers Activity Crusader Quest 37
  • 38. Krak des Chevaliers Activity Creating A Dramatic LegendIntroduction:A legend is a story that is probably about someone that did exist, but has been twisted toseem more interesting and fascinating. This story was passed down generation to generationover hundreds of years and eventually the story was written down. Legends give us aninsight into the lives, cultures and landscapes of a time long ago. Most legends contain ahero or heroine, deal with good versus evil, and tend to involve the hero or heroine in someproblem.Your Task:Your team will create and write your own script of a legend based on your experiences andknowledge gained over the week of studying castles. Your team will then act out the legendand perform for the rest of the group! 1. Learn enough background knowledge of castles, the crusades, and the people of these times to create your own legend based on some aspect of the crusades. 2. Create a legend by planning and outlining all the parts of the legend. 3. Write your own script of a legend to act out.STEP 1: Planning a) Create an outline of the beginning, middle, and end of your legend a. Beginning – should set the scene, describe who, what, when, where and introduce some of the characters, b. Middle – develop the problem, use detail c. Ending – resolution to the problemSTEP 2: Writing the Script b) Use the outline to write the script of your legend c) Provide dialogue between characters and action throughout the script d) Be creative to make the legend exciting and interesting – REMEMBER you will be acting out the legend!STEP 3: Performing the Legend e) Assign characters and gather any necessary props 38
  • 39. f) Practice script and rehears the entire performance being sure to focus on drama Creating A Dramatic Legend The Script__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 39
  • 40. A Knight’s TaleEvery evening for the first 10 – 15 minutes of dinner you are asked to reflect onyour experiences throughout the day. You can write about what you saw, thingsyou learned, and how you felt during your different activities during the day. Thisjournal will help document your experiences throughout the trip, and will be a greatresource for your final project when we return to school. Sunday___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 40
  • 41. A Knight’s TaleEvery evening for the first 10 – 15 minutes of dinner you are asked to reflect onyour experiences throughout the day. You can write about what you saw, thingsyou learned, and how you felt during your different activities during the day. Thisjournal will help document your experiences throughout the trip, and will be a greatresource for your final project when we return to school. Monday___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 41
  • 42. A Knight’s TaleEvery evening for the first 10 – 15 minutes of dinner you are asked to reflect onyour experiences throughout the day. You can write about what you saw, thingsyou learned, and how you felt during your different activities during the day. Thisjournal will help document your experiences throughout the trip, and will be a greatresource for your final project when we return to school. Tuesday___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 42
  • 43. A Knight’s TaleEvery evening for the first 10 – 15 minutes of dinner you are asked to reflect onyour experiences throughout the day. You can write about what you saw, thingsyou learned, and how you felt during your different activities during the day. Thisjournal will help document your experiences throughout the trip, and will be a greatresource for your final project when we return to school. Wednesday___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 43
  • 44. A Knight’s TaleEvery evening for the first 10 – 15 minutes of dinner you are asked to reflect onyour experiences throughout the day. You can write about what you saw, thingsyou learned, and how you felt during your different activities during the day. Thisjournal will help document your experiences throughout the trip, and will be a greatresource for your final project when we return to school. Thursday – Overall Reflection___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 44
  • 45. A Week Without Walls Self EvaluationRead the expectation and rate yourself on the 1 – 7 scale.Expectation Evaluation 1 – 7Team Work & RelationshipsI worked very well with all group members and I did my share of theworkload. I had positive relationships with every member of the groupincluding the chaperones. I went out of my way to treat the guides,locals, chaperones, and other students with respect.ResponsibilityI was good about being on time and taking care of myself. I had theproper materials needed for the trip and for each daily activity, andnever had to be reminded to pick up my things. I made good, safechoices.AttitudeI showed enthusiasm and a positive attitude towards all of theactivities. I appreciated different ideas and experiences. I did notcomplain because something went wrong, but tried to be flexible, helpfuland positive.FocusWhen it was time to work on my student booklet I got right to work. Iused my time effectively and did my best work on all of the activities.BehaviorI was well behaved, always used my best manners and polite language,and was able to make this trip a positive experience.ListeningI listened well to my chaperones, guides, and other students. I listenedcarefully to directions given by chaperones and followed directions thefirst time they were given. 45
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