Culture and Worldview influence one's perception of the environment.
Two Worldviews 1 . Relativists - Ethics vary within a social context 2. Universalists - There are objective notions of right and wrong that hold across all cultures. Ethical Standard - Criteria that help us differentiate between what's right and wrong.
Ethical Perspectives 1. Anthropocentrism - a. Human centered view of the environment b. Ignores the rights of non-human entities c. Measures costs and benefits solely according to their human impact
Ethical Perspectives 2. Biocentrism - Ascribes values to actions, entities, or properties on the basis of their effects on all living things or on the integrity of the biotic community..
Ethical Perspectives 3. Ecocentrism - Considers actions in terms of their benefit or harm to the integrity of whole ecological systems.
Deep Ecology - The self realization that humans are inseparable from nature. We should protect all other living things as we would protect ourselves. Arne Neass
· The well-being and flourishing of human and nonhuman life on Earth have value in themselves. ·Richness and diversity of life forms contribute to the realization of these values. ·Humans have no right to reduce this richness and diversity except to satisfy vital human needs. ·The flourishing of nonhuman life requires a decrease in the human population. ·Present human interference with the nonhuman world is excessive, and the situation is rapidly worsening. ·Policies must be changed to affect basic economic, technological, and ideological structures. ·The change is mainly that of appreciating life quality rather than adhering to higher standard of living. ·Those who subscribe to the foregoing points have an obligation to try to implement the necessary changes.
Ecofeminism - Arguement that a worldview traditionally associated with women (interrelationships and cooperation) is more compatable with nature. Environmental Justice - (EPA) "The fair treatment of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies."