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Y Gymraeg mewn oes ddigidol/The Welsh Language in a Digital Age
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Y Gymraeg mewn oes ddigidol/The Welsh Language in a Digital Age

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Cyflwyniad gan Dr Jeremy Evas, Ysgol y Gymraeg, Prifysgol Caerdydd 11/12/12

Cyflwyniad gan Dr Jeremy Evas, Ysgol y Gymraeg, Prifysgol Caerdydd 11/12/12
A presentation by Dr Jeremy Evas, School of Welsh, Cardiff University, 11/12/12.

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    Y Gymraeg mewn oes ddigidol/The Welsh Language in a Digital Age Y Gymraeg mewn oes ddigidol/The Welsh Language in a Digital Age Presentation Transcript

    • Seminar Research Ymchwil: Y Seminar:Gymraeg Mewn The Welsh Oes Ddigidol Language In a Digital Age Jeremy Evas 11/12/12
    • Cyfrifiad 2011 Census
    • GIDS (Joshua Fishman)• Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale• Stage 8: most vestigial users of Xish are sociallly isolated old folks and Xish needs to be re-assembled from their mouths and memories and taught to demographically unconcentrated adults• Stage 7: most users of Xish are a socially integrated and ethnolinguistically active population but they are beyond child-bearing age• Stage 6: the attainment of intergenerational informal oralcy and its demographic concentration and institutional reinforcement• State 5: Xish literacy in home, school and community, but without taking on extra-communal reinforcement of such literacy• Stage 4: Xish in lower education (types a and b) that meets the requirements of compulsory education laws• Stage 3: use of Xish in the lower work sphere (outside of the Xish neighborhood/community) involving interaction between Xmen and Ymen• Stage 2: Xish in lower governmmental services and mass media but not in the higher spheres of either• Stage 1: some use of Xish in higher level educational, occupational, governmental and media efforts (but without the additional safety provided by political independence)
    • David Crystal Language Death • increase their prestige within the dominant community • increase their wealth • increase their legitimate power in the eyes of the dominant community • have a strong presence in the education system • can write down the language • can make use of electronic technology
    • David Crystal Language Death • An endangered language will progress if its speakers can make use of electronic technology... (Nid datganiad ffeithiol/Not a statement of fact) • To some extent, this is a hypothetical postulate...the internet in particular offers endangered languages...a fresh set of opportunities whose potential has hardly begun (2000:141-2)
    • Colled Flynyddol 3,000 Lost p.a.-20k (2011)
    • Papurau Lliw/Coloured Paper
    • Seminar Heddiw/Today’s Seminar • Sut orau y gellir • How best to annog pobl i encourage people to ddefnyddio use technology in technoleg drwy’r Welsh Gymraeg • Welsh language • Gwasanaethau/ services/interfaces rhyngwynebau • Technology to Cymraeg increase the amount • Technoleg i of Welsh in the ehangu’r Gymraeg linguistic landscape yn y dirwedd
    • Diglossia • Dwy iaith, yn yr un • Two languages in the diriogaeth, yn cael same territory, used by eu defnyddio gan yr the same speakers, for un siaradwyr, at different purposes. wahanol ddibenion. • One of the languages • Mae statws uwch has higher status than gan un o’r ieithoedd. the other.
    • •H(igh)•L(ow)
    • Diglossia Enghraifft H L Sermon in church or mosque X Instructions to servants/ waiters/ workmen/ clerks X Personal letter X Speech in parliament/ political speech/ university lecture X Conversation with family/ friends/ colleagues X News broadcast X Radio ‘soap opera’ X Newspaper editorial/ news story/ caption on picture X Caption on political cartoon X Poetry X Folk literature X Functional Distribution of/Dosraniad ffwythiannol ‘H’ + ‘L’ (Ferguson, C.A. (1959) ‘Diglossia’, Word, 15, 325-40).
    • Steve Eaves 13/11/12 • ‘Dim traddodiad o • ‘There is no tradition ddisgwyl na derbyn of expecting or gwasanaethau receiving Welsh Cymraeg’ language services’Vieuzac Grégoire Arnold Eaves
    • Cwestiynau i chi/Questions for you • Beth yw • What are the goblygiadau implications hyn ar gyfer for technoleg a’r technology Gymraeg? and Welsh?
    • Technoleg: rhyddid mynegiantTechnology: freedom of expression[Tr: these people who think they’re saving the Welsh language.The exact type of people who make people not want to speakWelsh].
    • Dadansoddi Sentiment Analysis “Welsh Language” 38 Cadarnhaol/Positive 62 Negyddol/Negative
    • Mythau/Myths• Rhy ddrud! • Too expensive• Rhy anodd • Too difficult• Technegwyr di- Gymraeg • Non Welsh speaking• Dim modd ei technicians defnyddio ar • Can’t be used on a rwydwaith network• Smo ‘Nghymrâg i’n • My Welsh is kitchen ddigon da Welsh• Saesneg yw Iaith • English is the TG language of IT
    • Gwirionedd?/Truth? • Mae’r technegwyr • The tecchies wedi cloi ein have locked our peiriannau. Allwn machines. We ni ddim llwytho can’t install unrhyw beth anything on them. arnynt. • I didn’t have a • ‘Nag o’n i’n clue any of this gwybod bod y was available peth ar gael...
    • Cwestiynau i chi/Questions for you • Ai codi • Is awareness raising ymwybyddiaeth yw’r a means of dull o gynyddu increasing the use defnydd of Welsh language gwasanaethau/rhyn services/interfaces? gwynebau • And/or is it all to do Cymraeg? with attitudinal • Ai newid agweddau change? yw’r dull o’i wneud?
    • Mind the [attitude] Gap...
    • Fill the gap with knowledge?Llenwi’r bwlch â gwybodaeth?• 14/03/2007 Arolwg ar hybu technoleg yn Gymraeg• 13/06/2008 Hybu Technoleg Gwybodaeth Cyfrwng Cymraeg: Ailymweld â Phrosiect Hyrwyddo Technoleg 2007 yn Ynys Môn• 22/08/2008 Prosiect Hyrwyddo Defnyddio Technoleg Cymraeg: Gwynedd a Chonwy• 23/10/2008 Prosiect Hyrwyddo Defnyddio Technoleg Cymraeg: Gwynedd a Chonwy (Deudraeth Cyf.)
    • Deudraeth (1) • Roedd y mwyafrif o • The majority of gleientiaid a clients who agreed gytunodd i roir [Meddalwedd to install [W Lang Cymraeg] ar eu software] were cyfrifiaduron â rhai initially doubtful and amheuon worried that [...] their cychwynnol ac yn pryderu [...] a computers would fyddain arafu eu slow down, lose cyfrifiaduron, colli information, crash. gwybodaeth, achosi chwalfa.
    • Deudraeth (2) • Wedi goresgyn y • Having overcome pryderon hyn [...] these worries [...] roedd y mwyafrif o ddefnyddwyr yn frwd most users were iawn, ac wediu very plesio bod modd enthusiastic, and newid iaith mor pleased with the hawdd wrth ddefnyddio’r ease of language [Meddalwedd switching using the Cymraeg]. [W Lang Technology]
    • Cymreigio 1. Gosodiadau dyddiad a rhanbarthMicrosoft Region and language settings In Welsh 2. Locale y porwr Browser locale 3. Bysellfwrdd Estynedig y Deyrnas Unedig United Kingdom Extended Keyboard 4. Pecyn Rhyngwyneb Cymraeg MS Office MS Office Welsh Language Interface Pack 5. Pecyn Rhyngwyneb Cymraeg Windows Windows Welsh Language Interface Pack
    • Beaufort 2007 (N=504)
    • Economeg Ymddygiadol/Behavioural Economics • Behavioural economists Fogg, Chanasyk, Quihuis, Moraveji, Hreja and Nelson (2011), posit that ‘believing that information leads to action’ is one of the ten most common mistakes of behavioural changing techniques.Fogg, B.J., Chanasyk, K., Quihuis, M., Moraveji, N., Hreja; J., & Nelson, M. (2010). Top 10 Mistakes inBehaviour Change. Persuasive Tech Lab, Stanford University: http://www.slideshare.net/captology/stanford-6401325
    • Saernïo’r Dewis/Choice Architecture
    • Hergwd a’r Gymraeg/Nudge and Welsh • ...peidied neb â meddwl bod • …let no-one think that the yr hawl i’r Gymraeg a right to use Welsh and chynyddu defnydd o’r iaith increasing Welsh language bob amser yn mynd law yn use always go hand in hand. llaw. Nac ychwaith y bydd Nor that a new Welsh deddf iaith newydd yn language act will contribute cyfrannu rhyw lawer at adfer substantially to language yr iaith os na roddir sylw revival unless detailed manwl i sut y gellir ‘nydjio’ attention is given to how the trwch y boblogaeth Gymraeg majority of Welsh speakers ei hiaith i fanteisio ar unrhyw can be ‘nudged’ into taking gyfleoedd newydd a ddaw yn advantage of the resultant ei sgil. Yn ogystal â’r opportunities [to use the hawl, mae angen yr hergwd. language]. As well as rights, Roy Thomas, Barn, 566, 3/2010, 20. a nudge is needed.
    • Cynnig Rhagweithiol/Active Offier
    • Crynodeb:GwasanaethauSummary: Services • Mae angen mwy • We need more than nag ‘ar gael neu ar ‘Welsh available/on gais’ request’ • Mae angen i’r • The computer/ cyfrifiadur/gwefan/se website/organisation fydliad gynnig dewis needs to proactively hawdd i chi a and unbegrudgingly hynny’n offer you an easy rhagweithiol, ac yn language choice ddiwarafun • And remember it
    • ‘Safonau’: 1 egwyddor greiddiol‘Standards’: 1 core principle • Mae angen mwy • ‘Available’ is not nag ‘ar gael’ o ran enough for Welsh gwasanaethau language services Cymraeg • Services need to be • Mae angen cynnig offered, without gwasanaethau heb needing to be fod yn rhaid gofyn requested amdanynt • ‘Active offer’ is • Mae angen ‘cynnig needed rhagweithiol’
    • • O’r cychwyn cyntaf, mae’r • The National Assembly Cynulliad Cenedlaethol has from the outset seen wedi ceisio arwain y itself as leading the way ffordd o ran defnyddio in the use of technology technoleg i ddarparu in the provision of gwasanaethau...mae parliamentary llawer o gyrff seneddol services…there have eraill wedi ymweld... been many visits from other parliamentaryT35 Adolygiad o Wasanaethau DwyieithogCynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru institutions … p34 Review of Bilingual Services in the National Assembly for Wales
    • CAT• Computer assisted translation• Cyfieithu â chymorth cyfrifiadur
    • Google Translate? • Rhan o ateb • Merely part of a ehangach yn unig wider solution
    • (Nid Google Translate wnaeth hyn/not done by Google Translate )
    • £0=Cof Cyfieithu/Translation Memory‘TM’
    • Beth yw Cof Cyfieithu?What is Translation Memory? • Mae’n cofio • It remembers cyfieithiadau! translations • Erm, ac felly? • Erm, so what? • Dileu ailadrodd • Deletion of repetition • Sicrhau ansawdd • Ensures quality • Rhannu adnoddau • Share resources • Goblygiadau mawr • Big implications for i’r sector cyhoeddus public sector
    • Cyngor Sir Llanunrhywle 2015/Anywhere County Council 2015?
    • Sector Cyhoeddus Cymru (SCC) 20?? TheWelsh Public Sector (WPS) Translation 20?? Prifysgolion a 22 Awdurdod Cholegau/ Lleol/Local Universities & Authorities Colleges Cof Cyfieithu Cenedlaethol National Translation Others/Eraill Memory & Chyfieithu Peirianyddol/ Machine Translation Cynulliad Llywodraeth Cenedlaethol GIG/NHS Cymru/Welsh Cymru/National Assembly for Wales Government
    • SCC/WPS 2020?
    • Meta.Net Strategic ResearchAgenda for Multilingual Europe • [the] divide due to language borders and language barriers has not gained much public attention. Yet, it raises a very pressing question: Which European languages will thrive in the networked information society and which are doomed to disappear? (8-9) • What is Europe’s fallback plan in case the language-related services provided by US companies that we rely upon are suddenly switched off? (10)
    • Cwmwl Trawsieithyddol/Translingual Cloud • The goal is a multilingual European society, in which all citizens can use any service, access all knowledge, enjoy all media and control any technology in their mother tongues. This will be a world in which written and spoken communication is not hindered anymore by language barriers and in which even specialised high-quality translation will be affordable. • The citizen, the professional, the organisation, or the software application in need of cross-lingual communication will use a single, simple access point for channelling text or speech through a gateway that will instantly return the translations into the requested languages in the required quality and desired format. • Behind this access point will be a network of generic and special-purpose services combining automatic translation or interpretation, language checking, post-editing, as well as human creativity and quality assurance, where needed, for achieving the demanded quality.
    • Cwmwl Trawsieithyddol/Translingual Cloud • The expected breakthroughs will include: – High-quality text translation and reliable speech translation – Translation technology that facilitates reuse and constant improvement of modules) – Seemingly creative translation skills by analogy- driven transfer models – Automatic subtitling and voice over of films
    • Cwmwl Trawsieithyddol/Translingual Cloud• Political decision makers will be able to analyse public deliberation and opinion formation processes in order to react swiftly to ongoing debates or important, sometimes unforeseen events
    • Crynodeb/Summary• Cyfle i arloesi: Cof • An opportunity to Cyfieithu + innovate: Chyfieithu Translation Memory Awtomatig + + Machine Chyfieithwyr Translation + Proffesiynol + Professional Rhannu’r cof yn Translators + Public gyhoeddus Sharing of• Cyflawni mwy am lai Memories o£ • Achieve more with• Arbedion maint fewer £
    • Y Camau Nesaf/Next Steps• Parhau ac ehangu prif ffrydio • Continue and expand the policy Technoleg Cymraeg i bolisi mainstreaming of Welsh language• Rhyngwynebau Cymraeg yn un technology o feini prawf arolygu ysgolion • Welsh language interfaces as a (Estyn) criterion for Estyn inspections of• Cynllun Gweithredu’r Gweinidog schools i gael ei gyhoeddi y flwyddyn • Ministerial Action Plan on nesaf Technology to be published next• Dogfen Cyngor Comisiynydd y year Gymraeg  Codau Ymarfer y • Welsh Language Commissioner’s Comisiynydd o dan Fesur y Advice Document on Technology  Gymraeg (Cymru) 2011 Code of Practice on Technology• Llawer iawn o bethau eraill under Welsh Language (Wales)• Ymchwil Measure 2011 • A whole load of other things • Research
    • Cwestiynau i chi/Questions for you • A oes modd • Can a language be normaleiddio iaith heb normalised yet not ei ‘hachub’? ‘saved’ from • A oes modd ‘achub’ extinction? iaith heb • Can a language be normaleiddio? ‘saved’ without being • A ydym yn ffidlan â normalised? Facebook gan • Are we fiddling with anwybyddu Facebook whilst problemau mwy ignoring more serious difrifol? problems?
    • Diolch am wrando/Thanks for listeningEvasJ@caerdydd.ac.uk/EvasJ@cardiff.ac.uk