FIONA TO DISCUSS THE OTHER RELATED THEORY POINTS. NOT NECESSARY ON ACTUAL POWERPOINTI will refer back to my slide on theories:As discussed earlier ....
Our scenario uses an enquiry-based child centred approach to learning and links to a number of theories:On elicitation day we used formative assessment techniques (Black and Wiliam) through open questioning (constructivism) to find out what the children already knew and to identify misconceptionsThe lessons will involve children researching their topic through directed discovery (Bruner) which is also part of a constructivist approach. Group work will provide opportunities for scaffolding and the development of knowledge in the ZPD through social constructivism.Theproblem based approach to learning will develop higher order thinking skills (Bloom) to analyse the problem, evaluate the evidence and create new knowledge through assimilation and accomodation (Piaget). Because the children have come up with their own questions they take ownership of finding out the answers and are more enthusiastic. We thought carefully about the depth and relevance of the topic our because the learning outcomes needs to match the level of understanding and capability for a year 4 class (Piaget’s stages of development) For example – can children be expected to learn and understand the principles of sexual reproduction in plants if they have no knowledge (through formal education) of the principles of sexual reproduction?
SCIENCE AND MATHS - AN OVERVIEW
With your hosts: James Ahmed, Fiona Buchanan Jeremy Cotton,Simon Dunkley, Lee Edwards and Charlotte Taverner Module EP305: May14th, Monday morning, 10:00.
Investigation focusing on germination of seeds and healthy growth of plants. (Science) Data collection, interpretation & communication. (Maths) Aims of module: - Elicit questions from the children regarding germination of seeds and growth of plants. - Address various misconceptions about the conditions required for each stage. (Detailed later). - Help children in planning of scientific investigations. - Further knowledge and understanding of mathematical communication, data handling and interpretation. - Address various misconceptions about mathematical communication. (Detailed later).
Their previous and current learning journey is the Amazon. Their current focus in science is the growth of plants. The concept: - Villagers from the Amazon are having issues germinating and growing their seeds. - BBC News report to detail the problems. - The children are to create informative leaflets that can be sent to the village in the Amazon with the best advice on how to germinate and grow the seeds successfully. Leaflets to be informed by scientific and mathematical investigations
SC1: Scientific Enquiry Ideas and evidence in science Investigative skills - Planning - Obtaining and presenting evidence - Considering evidence and evaluating SC2: Life Processes and living things Green plants 3a: Effects of light, water and temperature on plant growth Potential links to: SC2: 3b: The role of the leaf in producing new material for growth Maths MA1: Incorporated throughout the project MA3: - 4b: Choosing and using suitable measuring instruments for a task, and reading scales MA4: - 1a, 1c, 1e, 1f, 1g, 1h: Collecting data and justifying methods - 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f: Looking at drawing graphs and interpreting data Links to Primary National Strategies Answer a question by identifying what data to collect; organise, present, analyse and interpret the data in tables, diagrams, tally charts, pictograms and bar charts using ICT where appropriate. More details on this explained during lessons overview.
Level 3Pupils respond to suggestions and put forward their own ideas about how tofind the answer to a question. They make relevant observations and measurequantities, such as length or mass, using a range of simple equipment. Whereappropriate, they carry out a fair test with some help, recognising andexplaining why it is fair. They provide explanations for observations and forsimple patterns in recorded measurements. They communicate in a scientificway what they have found out and suggest improvements in their work.Level 4Where appropriate, they describe, or show in the way they perform their task,how to vary one factor while keeping others the same. Where appropriate,they make predictions. They select suitable equipment and make a series ofobservations and measurements that are adequate for the task. They recordtheir observations, comparisons and measurements using tables and bar charts.They begin to plot points to form simple graphs, and use these graphs to pointout and interpret patterns in their data. They begin to relate their conclusions tothese patterns and to scientific knowledge and understanding, and tocommunicate them with appropriate scientific language. They suggestimprovements in their work, giving reasons.DfE, (2011)
They will start to grow better in the They will start to darkgrow better under a bright light
Activities all inherently social, working in groups. (Vygotsky in Atherton, 2012b). Activities allow for discussions of ideas the children have and let them choose their questions for investigation. Builds on prior knowledge of plants from year 1/2/3. Social constructivism. (Vygotsky in Atherton 2012b). Tasks are child centred with minimal input from teachers. (Piaget in Atherton 2012a). Children can discuss ideas within their groups to see what they want and need to know. Teachers acting as equals to the children; we need their help to discover the answers.Fisher, R. (1998) Thinking about Thinking: developing metacognition in children“ Directed discovery teaching enables children, under direction to discover, for examplethrough investigation and problem solving, particular strategies and teaching points. Theteacher facilitates transfer of learning by bridging new learning into existing knowledgethrough encouraging reflection and making links.” Tasks are enquiry based. Ideas formed by children‟s own interests rather than teacher led “Today we are going to be…”Bruner, J.S. (1966) Towards a theory of instruction“ The learner is the participant in the educational process responding to external stimuli byselecting, interpreting and evaluating information.”Bruner, 1996, proposed that an important aim of education should be to stimulate anddevelop expertise in the process of learning rather than memorising the facts and theconcepts.
Assimilation and Accommodation Piaget (in Atherton 2012a)Social Constructivism and ZPD Vygotsky (in Atherton 2012b) Directed Discovery Bruner Higher Order Thinking Skills and constructivism Bloom
Elicitation recapped. Very brief summary of original ideas. Introduction of concept / context - BBC News report. (Shown earlier). Discussion on what the best course of action will be to help Chief Cotton from the Amazon: They plan their own investigation using the “Planning Plant” What might we want to investigate? - How will we investigate it? - What will we measure? - How will we measure it? Start the investigation - Child centred based on questioning - Positioning of seeds in various conditions - Investigation setup - key areas: germination and growth conditionsSharp, J., Peacock, G., Johnsey, R., Simon, S. and Smith, R. (2007). Primary Science: Teaching theory andpractice.“When they have had some experience of science activities children can do more systematic planningof their investigations. Many teachers have found planning sheets helpful to structure this and to supportchildren.” (p.16).
Required subject knowledge: Conditions for germination of seeds. Conditions required for healthy growth. Definition of “Germination” Knowledge about healthy growth of plants. Prior knowledge of children‟s learning to remove misconceptions.Misconceptions identified from school visit: Seeds need light to germinate No difference between germination and growth of plants. (Many had not heard of germination at all. They believed germination and growth is one process.) Plants suck food from ground and from other plants.(See „Elicitation Tree‟)
Very brief recap on the conditions we selected to test for germination. Recap the meaning of germination. Planning for measurement and communication of data: - How should the data be recorded? - Interpreting the collected data - Choosing appropriate graphs and input on creation of these graphs - Choice of scale and importance of units - WHY might we measure this?Sharp, J., Peacock, G., Johnsey, R., Simon, S. and Smith, R. (2007). Primary Science: Teaching theory andpractice.“Children need to see the purpose for measuring in their investigations. They should be helped to thinkabout what they are going to measure and how they can do so.” (p.17).
Required subject knowledge: Appropriate units of measure for size of cress seeds. Knowledge of different types of graph and when / why you would use them. How the use of the mathematics solve the specific problem. How to facilitate understanding of interpretation of data and communication of data.Misconceptions identified from school visit: Aware of Line Graphs but not aware of when and how to use them. Unaware of when and how to use each type of graph. Only fully familiar with Bar Graphs. Children very good on maths and units of measure. Teacher advises we can introduce new mathematical ideas.
Check our experiment – measure and record any changes as per yesterdays input. Interpret the data and present in appropriate fashion. Creation of leaflet to show the best conditions for the Amazon man. Potential presentation of some leaflets to class. Return to „Elicitation Tree‟. New ideas put into tree on leaf shaped post-it notes. Analogy: New knowledge is new growth on tree.
Summary – MA1 works throughout project:MA1: Problem SolvingMA1: CommunicatingMA1: ReasoningFormulates and clarifies questions.Interpret the graphs.Answers original question by deciding and planning whatdata is needed. (PNS)Communicates the data to a specific audience. (Amazonman) (PNS)Potential extension tasks: Creating charts using ICT and use avideo diary to document further growth once we have left.(Stop Motion Animation).
Formative assessment (Black and Wiliam, 1998) through elicitation on the initial visit and open questioning during first teaching session. Allows to identify any misconceptions and plan for the elimination of these during the module. Open questioning – constructivist approach. (Piaget in Atherton 2012a). Peer and self assessment. Discussion of ideas.Sharp, J., Peacock, G., Johnsey, R., Simon, S. and Smith, R. (2007). Primary Science: Teaching theory andpractice.“Especially effective types of questions are those that which: - reviewed children’s own grasp of science concepts being drawn upon in an investigation - encouraged speculation and willingness to seek evidence - prompted children to explain what they might do next or what they have found out” (p.22).Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the Black Box. Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment.“Opportunities for pupils to express their understanding should be designedinto any piece of teaching, for this will initiate the interaction wherebyformative assessment aids learning.” (p.7).
“Elicitation / Knowledge Tree” Post-it-notes: Orange and green leaf style Concept Cartoons Investigation Plant Video for concept Cress seeds Trays / Petri dishes / Containers Interactive White Board Sorting activity for elicitation Maths sheet regarding units of measure for elicitation Pre-planted seeds to show/measure germination
Atherton J (2012a) Learning and Teaching; Piagets developmental theory [online], Available<http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm >[Accessed 10th May 2012]Atherton, J. (2012b) Learning and Teaching; Constructivism in learning : Vygotsky [online],Available:<http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/constructivism.htm> [[Accessed 10th May 2012]Atherton, J. (2012c) Blooms taxonomy [online], Available: <http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm> [Accessed 10thMay 2012]Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the Black Box. Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment. London: GL Assessment, part of theGranada Learning GroupBruner, J.S. (1996). Towards a theory of instruction. Cambridge Mass.: Belkap Press.Fisher, R. (1998). „Thinking about Thinking: developing metacognition in children, Early Child Development and Care, Vol 141 (1998) pp1-15. [online]. Available: <http://www.teachingthinking.net/thinking/web%20resources/robert_fisher_thinkingaboutthinking.htm>. [AccessedMay 2012].DfE. (2011). Maths: Key Stage 2 Curriculum. MA3. [online]. Crown copyright. Available:<http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/teachingandlearning/curriculum/primary/b00199044/mathematics/ks2/ma3>. [Accessed May2012].DfE. (2011). Maths: Key Stage 2 Curriculum. MA4. [online]. Crown copyright. Available:<http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/teachingandlearning/curriculum/primary/b00199044/mathematics/ks2/ma4>. [Accessed May2012].DfE. (2011). Science: Key Stage 2 Curriculum. [online]. Crown copyright. Available:<http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/teachingandlearning/curriculum/primary/b00199179/science/ks2>. [Accessed May 2012].Science and Plants for Schools and Field Studies Council (2007), Plants for primary pupils: Living processes and what plants need to grow[online], Available: URL< http://www.saps.org.uk/primary/teaching-resources/236-living-processes-and-what-plants-need-to-grow>[Access date: 13th May 2012]Sharp, J., Peacock, G., Johnsey, R., Simon, S. and Smith, R. (2007). Primary Science: Teaching theory and practice. Exeter: Learning Matters.