Adverbs An adverb answers these questions: How? In what manner? patiently, boldly, slowly, softly, enthusiastically When?recently, later, finally, daily, again, formerly Where?outside, here, down, forward, up, away To what extent? To what degree? extremely, very, too, rarely, completely, frequently
Adverbs—Modify Verbs• Place the adverb before or after the verb that is modified.When businesses knowingly deceive customers, they are violating ethical standards.Do not illegally copy paper or electronic documents.
Adverbs—Modify Adjectives• Place the adverb immediately before the adjective.The courtesy of greeting others within your own firm is universally acceptable in the United States.In some countries, greetings are very expressive and elaborate.Downsizing is becoming an increasingly popular way for businesses to lower expenses.
Adverbs—Modify Other Adverbs• Place the adverb immediately before the adverb being modified.We very precisely judged the commute time to our new client’s office.Ruby did extremely well on the ethics section of her real estate exam.
Descriptive Adjectives Before Nouns• Add ly to an adjective root to form the majority of adverbs.Adjective Adverbcautious cautiouslyextreme extremelyperfect perfectlyskillful skillfully
Noun Base Used to Form Adjectives Ending in ly• Use root words to identify words ending in ly as adjectives or adverbs.• Noun Adjectivebrother brotherlyneighbor neighborlyearth earthlyworld worldlylove lovely
Adverbs Formed From Adjectives Ending in y• Change the y to i and add ly to an adjective ending in y to form an adverb.• Adjective Adverbbusy busilyeasy easilyheavy heavilymerry merrily
Adverbs Formed From Adjectives Ending in ible or able• Drop the final e on adjectives that end in able or ible before adding the y to form the adverb.• Adjective Adverbforcible forciblyterrible terriblypossible possibly
Adverbs Formed From Adjectives Ending in ic• Add ally to adjectives ending in ic to form the adverb.• Adjective Adverbchronic chronicallylogic logicallymagic magicallyscenic scenically
Do Not Hyphenate Adverbs Ending in lya carelessly written memoa richly deserved awardan internationally recognized signa highly successful business
Verbs—Action Versus Linking• Use an adverb to modify action verbs.Tucker intentionally withheld confidential information.The employee thoughtlessly made an inappropriate comment to Julie.• Use an adjective, not an adverb, after a linking verb to describe the subject.The manager felt bad about the dependence on temporary workers.Karen seems distraught over the missing computer disk.
Verbs—Both Linking and ActionClarify the intent of the sentence beforemaking a decision about such verbs as look,taste, or feel.Use adverbs when these words are actionwords.Use adjectives when these words function aslinking verbs.
One-Syllable Adverbs¢ Add er to the positive form for its comparative degree.¢ Add est to the positive form for its superlative degree. Positive Comparative Superlative fast faster fastest late later latest soon sooner soonest
Two-Syllable Adverbs¢ Add er or the word more or the word less before the positive form for the comparative degree.¢ Add est or the word most or the word least for the superlative degree. Positive Comparative Superlative quickly more quickly (quicker) most quickly (quickest) nearly more nearly most nearly
Three-Syllable Adverbs¢ Add the word more or the word less before the positive form to form its comparative degree.¢ Add the word most or the word least before the positive form to form its superlative degree. Positive Comparative Superlative efficiently more efficiently most efficiently dangerously more dangerously most dangerously Reliably more reliably most reliably
Irregular Adverbs• Use irregular comparisons for some adverbs. Positive Comparative Superlative well better best badly worse worst
Absolute Adverbs• Some adverbs do not allow for comparisons no now past basically there here partly sometimes too very annually
Double Negatives• Double negatives are two negative words used in a sentence. This combination gives the clause a positive meaning rather than the intended negative meaning. Incorrect I have not seen no evidence of employee theft. Correct I have seen no evidence of employee theft. I have not seen any evidence of employee theft.
Adverb Clauses¢ Use subordinating conjunctions such as after, although, before, because, if, unless, when, and while to introduce dependent adverb clauses.¢ Place the adverb clause as closely as possible to the words modified.
Adverb Clauses• Use commas after introductory adverb clauses that precede independent clauses. Although he broke no laws, his actions were still unethical.• Do not use commas to set aside adverb clauses that follow independent clauses. Plan to arrive 10 minutes before the meeting begins. We will start the meeting after serving refreshments.