Instructional development models specifically address challenges that are often called upon to produce materials and strategies to support teaching and learning within environments that would seem to defy the probability of a successful outcome.
These are models that convey graphically, sometimes with extensive supporting text, the complex process by which educators develop instructional solutions. Models, as applied in thecontext of instructional design, can be used by to educators to convey between individuals meaning ofcomplex concepts, relationships, and processes, and facilitate study and research
SELECTING CONTENT Some schools provide teachers with curriculum guides, syllabi or course outlines to ease the problem of determining the scope and sequence of the subject-matter content to be taught.
3 STEPS TO CONSIDER: First Step. Identification of the topi Topic areas are broad aspects of the content within a subject area.
Second Step. Identifying major Goals of Instructor
Goals refer to broad and general statements.
Third Step. Generalization
Generalizations are very specific that it gives the teacher a definite subject-matter to be discussed
SETTING UP OF OBJECTIVES Instructional objectives describe the learning products or what the students are to expected to be able to do after being taught by the teacher. Objectives should be expressed in beahavioral terms to facilitate accurate evaluation of the learner’s performance.
Preparing the Setting for Learning and Selecting Instructional Strategies
PREPARING THE SETTING FOR LEARNING Good classroom management is a term generally used to describe the maintenance of a healthy learning environment
INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS It is a planned sequence of learning activities or lesson covering a period of several weeks and centered around some major concepts, themes or topics It may be made-up of series of mainly content-orientedlessons or semi-individualized laboraroty-oriented, experience-centered unit assigments or any variety of combinations
DEVELOPING INSTRUCTIONAL UNITS Choosing the topic of theme. Selecting instructional goals or objectives organized into general and specific objectives. Preparing an outline of subject-matter content. Planning the learning activities Organizing the activities into a plan. Securing and preparing the materials needed for the activities Planning and preparing the evaluation materials and exercise
CHOOSING THE TOPIC OR THEME Teaching guides or syllabiusually provides teachers with an organozed and logically-arranged sets of topics to be taken up.
SELECTING INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS Two Types: General Objectives – These are general statements of what the teacher hopes to accomplish through the study of the unit. It is usually the bird’s eye view of the unit. Specific Objectives – may be prepared in behavioral terms. It will be helpful to put these objectives under the appropriate headings: cognitive, psychomotor, and affective.
PREPARING AN OUTLINE OF SUBJECT-MATTER CONTENT This will help in making clear the subject-matter content to be covered by the different learning activities and in visualizing the organizations of the unit.
PLANNING THE LEARNING ACTIVITES These activities should be planed very carefully because on them depends the success of the accomplishment of the objectives. Two Types: basic activities for students- serves as provisions for the students who may not be academically inclined optional related activities – designed for students who may accomplish basic activities within a short period of time
ORGANIZING ACTIVITES INTO PLAN Three Phases: Initiation or Introduction Phase – sometimes called as the approach and is designed to: Stimulate interest and curiosity of the students in the units Introduce what the unit is all about Show relationship of the present unit with the previous Elicit suggestions from the learners for possible activities to undertake.
Development Phase – activities and strategies that the teacher plans to develop key ideas in the unit. This stage gives opportunity for learners to take the basic and optional activities as planned by the teacher with possible modifications based in the suggestions of the students. Culminating Phase – Summarizes the various parts of the unit. It is during this phase that major or key ideas of the unit are highlighted, reviewed, and integrated.
SECURING AND PREPARING THE MATERIALS Includes list of reading material, pamphlets and newspapers, collection of audio-visual material and bibliography of books to be used. These materials are sure to provide students: with source when they forget their assignments Total picture of what to expect that they do Definite assignments so that students do not need to wait for the teacher for new assignments Definite directions to eliminate misinterpretations
PREPARING FOR EVALUATION Checklists, rating scales, role-playing situations and group discussions can serve as evaluation exercises as well as unit tests.
LESSON PLANS This refers to a more specific plans for a given period. It describes in details what the teacher and students will do on a day to implement the unit objectives.
THE LESSON PLAN FORMAT Objectives or Targets Content or Subject- matter and materials Procedure or strategy Evaluations or application Assignment or agreement and special reminders
Objectives or targets – definite statements of what to are to be learned in the lesson. To formulate instrucitonal objectives, in behavioral terms, the teacher has to use verbs indicating observable behavior. Content or Subject-Matter and Materials – indicates the subject-matter that the teacher believes will help attain his objectives as well as materials and illustrations he may need. Procedure or Strategy – Documents the occurrence of activites that the teacher and his students are going to do during the period. Assignments or Agreement and special Reminders - the effectiveness of assignments will determine the success of the new lesson the next day.
Motivating Students And Guiding the Learning Activities
MOTIVATION Motivation is defined as something that stimulates, energizes, directs and sustain behavior or anything that arouses and sustains people to do whatever it is they do . It underlies the student’s behavior. It is usually responsible for the discipline and control of problems and consequently lack of effective learning in the classroom.
Hierarchy of Needs by Maslow may help the teacher in solving problems with regards to motivating students
GENERAL APPROACHESTHAT SEEM TO DEVELOP POSITIVE MOTIVATION Building up of student’s self-esteem Utilizing student’s present motives. Making potential learning seem worthwhile. Helping students establish suitable tasks and objectives Keeping up pace Creating a receptive mood
Building up students’ Self-Esteem – To build one’s self-esteem and gain recognition of the peer group, one needs a feeling of success. Thus, teachers should provide opportunities for success even to the least successful students and give due recognition to them in a tangible way. Using Present Motives – Present motives includes the interest, attitudes and ideals, curiosity, needs for security, need for action and adventure, desire for play and fun, and need for friendship. Making learning seem Worthwhile – Teacher should make efforts to show that the students are valuable to them. Intrinsic motivation is most effective in bringing about learning. It stimulates individual to undertake activities to satisfy deeply felt personal needs.
Extrinsic Motivation refers to conditions that impels an individual to accomplish a task because of rewards available in the environment. Establishing Appropriate Goals – Students should be made to see both their long-term goals (provides the over-all direction to their behavior) and short-term goals (responsible for stimulating students everyday). Keeping up the Pace of the Class – Making students participate their own learning and helping in their learning can be a good source of motivation. Provide challenging yet not discouraging tasks, these will make the students work harder. Creating a Receptive Mood – tuning the mind sets of the students through intriguing questions.
GUIDING LEARNING ACTIVITIES Refers to techniques and strategies which can provide variety in the approaches of the teacher. Recitation Open-Text recitation Lecture Informal Teacher Talks Questions Practice and Review Inquiry and Discovery Teaching Role-Playing Teacher Demonstration Field Trips Resource Persons
3 types of Evaluation: Summative evaluation refers to the evaluation the teachers undertakes at the end of the unit or the course in order to grade students and judge his own teaching success. Formative evaluation refers to the evaluation the teacher performs in the course of his teaching to find out how well he is doing and what he needs to do next Diagnostic evaluation refers to the evaluation the teacher does at the beginning to determine the different levels to which the students belong to serve as basic for grouping them into slow, average, or fast group.
TOOLS FOR MEASUREMENT AND EVALUTION Observation and Work Samples – Actual observation and examination of work samples are the two of the bases for evaluating the student’s performance. Rating Scales – Rating scales are used for evaluating skills, procedures, and personal social behavior. Checklist - It indicates the presence or absence of characteristics. It is most useful in evaluating products and procedures. Tests – These are systematic procedures for measuring the results or effects of instruction on learning.
Types of Tests: Standard survey tests aim to measure the attainment process or status of the students or the school. Standard achievement tests aim to measure the student’s achievement as a result of instruction in a given subject or subjects. Diagnostic test aim to locate weaknesses and difficulties to students and if possible, the causes of such difficulties in the performance. Inventory test aim to measure the degree of mastery before the teaching of the subjects. Informal or teacher-made tests aim to measure the achievement, progress, weakness of defects of an individual student
OBJECTIVE TYPE TESTS: Completion Items most useful in assessing student thinking at the lower cognitive levels of knowledge and comprehension. Matching items are also used to measure student’s thinking at the levels of knowledge and comprehension. Multiple-choice Items have the capacity to test not only for knowledge and comprehension but also for some higher-level thinking abilities. True-False Items are generally used yo assess knowledge level thinking. They can be prepared and graded relatively.
GRADING AND REPORTING STUDENT Recognized and accepted as one of the most difficult responsibilities of the teacher is grading and reporting the progress of students in their school work. The most important purpose that should be kept in mind is that reports should facilitate the educational development o each student in relation to his ability.
DETERMINING PROMOTION AND RETENTION Help each child become the best person he is capable o being, considering his natural abilities and regardless his socio-economic background.
MOTIVATING PUPILS One o the most popular techniques used by teachers to stimulate students to learn is the school mark or grade. MANNERS IN WHICH STUDENTS MOTIVATION ARE AEECTED BY GRADES: The standard his performance is compared to Parents’ and friends attitudes towards grades The teacher’s emphasis on grades
PLANNING CURRENT SCHOOLWORK The grades they receive every grading period can serve as basis or current planning schoolwork because the grades reflect the areas wherein the students are weak or strong.
Evaluation is systematic determination of merit, worth, and significance of something or someone using criteria against a set of standards. Here the objectives is being evaluated. Evaluation could come in many forms example of which is the paper-pencil test.
ANALYZE LEARNERS General characteristics: This is a description of a class as a whole. This includes such information as the number of students, grade or age level, gender, socio-economic factors, exceptionalities and cultural or ethnic or other types of diversity.
Entry Competencies: This is a description of the types of knowledge expected of the learners. Learning Styles: This is a description of the learning stylistic preferences of the individual members of the class.
Use behaviors that reflect real world concerns.
Objectives are descriptions of the learning outcomes and are written using the ABCD format.
The ABCD format:
AUDIENCE. Who is the audience? BEHAVIOR. What do you want them to do?
CONDITION. Under what circumstances or conditions are the learners to demonstrate the skill being taught? DEGREE. How well do you want them to demonstrate their mastery?
Use the following questions to assess objectives: Does the objective will allow you to do the following with your lesson? 1. Identify what the expectations are for the learner
2. Identify the necessary requirements for the learning environment 3. Assess learning 4. Determine needs for appropriate media or materials
How would you classify your objective? Is the learning outcome primarily: 1. Cognitive? 2. Affective? 3. Psychomotor /motor skill? 4. Interpersonal? 5. Intrapersonal?
SELECT, MODIFY, DESIGN METHODS, MEDIA, AND MATERIALS This is the step where the instructor will build a bridge between the audience and the objectives.
You need to decide what method you will primarily use: a lecture, group work, a field trip, etc. What media you will use: photos, multimedia, video, a computer?
1. Media should be selected on the basis of student need.
2. We must consider the total learning situation. 3. Should follow learning objectives. 4. Must be appropriate for the teaching format. 5. Should be consistent with the students’ capabilities and learning styles.
6. Should be chosen objectively. 7. Should be selected in order to best meet the learning outcomes. 8. No single medium is the total solution. 9. Does it match the curriculum? 10. Is it accurate and current?
11. Does it contain clear and concise language? 12. Will it motivate and maintain interest? 13. Does it provide for learner participation? 14. Is it of good technical quality?
15. Is there evidence of its effectiveness? 16. Is it free from objectionable bias and advertising? 17. Is a user guide or other documentation included?
UTILIZE METHODS, MEDIA, AND MATERIALS Plan of how you are going to implement your media and materials. In order to utilize materials correctly there are several steps to create good student- centered instruction:
1. Preview the material 2. Prepare the material 3. Prepare the environment 4. Prepare the learners 5. Provide the learning experience
REQUIRE LEARNER PARTICIPATION Describe how you are going to get each learner “actively and individually” involved in the lesson. Example, games, group work, presentations, skit, etc.
EVALUATE AND REVISE Describe how you will measure whether or not the lesson objectives were met. Were the media and instruction effective?
Evaluate the student performance: How will you determine whether or not they met the lesson’s objective? The evaluation should match the objective. Some objectives can be adequately assessed with a pen and a paper test.
Evaluate media components: How will you determine the media effectiveness? Evaluate Instructor performance: How will you determine whether or not your own performance as instructor/facilitator was effective?
Dale (1938) taught teachers that they should help their students learn how the media effects us, and to critically evaluate it.
Teachers must evaluate the benefit of the learning vs. the amount of time required in the lesson
How to effectively use instructional media to helping students move from concrete to abstract thought.
The Cone of Experience is a visual device to aid teachers in the selection of instructional media
The Cone is based on the movement from concrete experiences to abstract experiences
The literal interpretation of the Cone has resulted in misconceptions of its use
The Cone has practical applications in classroom instruction
The Advent of Active Learning * Most of the time, in a typical classroom setting, students are involved only passively in learning, i.e., in listening to the instructor, looking at the occasional overhead or slide, and reading (when required) the text book.
It is involving students directly and actively in the learning process itself. This means that instead of simply receiving information verbally and visually, students are receiving and participating and doing.
The Cone of Learning According to Ronald A. Berk in his book "Professors are from Mars. Students are from Snickers”, the only way to get 100% retention of information is by : hearing, seeing, doing, smelling, feeling, tasting, inhaling, injecting and purchasing on credit
ADVANTAGES OF ACTIVE LEARNING student-faculty interaction, student-student interaction, academic achievement (i.e., grades), communication skills,
higher-level thinking skills, teamwork, attitude towards the subject and motivation to learn
The reason why it works is that: individual students may get stuck on a problem and give up, whereas groups of students tend to keep going,
students become exposed to alternative problem-solving strategies, students are much less fearful of generating and answering questions among themselves than individually and directly to the instructor in class
THE THREE-TIERED MODEL OF LEARNING Jerome Bruner, a constructivist, proposed three systems of processing information by which people understand their world.
He suggested that people respond to the environment through action or patterned motor acts, through conventialized imagery and perception, and through language and reason. These capabilities formed the basis for the three modes of representation:
Enactive representation refers to a mode of representing past events through appropriate motor responses.
Iconic representation enables the perceiver to summarize events by the select organization of percepts and images
Symbolic representation comes about with the acquisition of a symbol system that represents things by design features that include remoteness and arbitrariness (language, musical notation, mathematical notation)
Sequence and instruction The enactive through iconic to symbolic sequence of intellectual development suggests appropriate sequences for instruction (obviously sequences in that manner).
In order to determine the proper sequencing of material, the designer must know something about the learner's prior knowledge and dominant modes of thinking.
Are they capable, for example, of thinking symbolically? Also, Bruner indicated that sequence cannot be determined in absence of knowing the criterion on which final learning will be judges (both of these are reminiscent of behavioral/cognitive goals of learner analysis and task analysis).
IMPLICATIONS TO INSTRUCTION 1.)instruction are to use manipulables and tactile instructional strategies with young children to teach concepts with which learners have no prior experience
2.)instruction are to accompany instruction with diagrams and other strategies that appeal to the imagination 3.) instruction are to use familiar symbol systems when teaching new concepts in a subject with the learner already has prior experience