2.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS The op amp is an electronic unit that behaves like a voltage-controlled voltage source. An op amp is an active circuit element designed to perform mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, differentiation, and integration. The op amp is an electronic device consisting of a complex arrangement of resistors, transistors, capacitors, and diodes. Typical op amp package
3.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS A typical one is the eight-pin dual in-line package (or DIP), shown above, Pin or terminal 8 is unused, and terminals 1 and 5 are of little concern to us. The five important terminals are: The inverting input, pin 2. The noninverting input, pin 3. The output, pin 6. The positive power supply V+, pin 7. The negative power supply V−, pin 4. A typical op amp: (a) pin configuration, (b) circuit symbol.
4.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS Powering the op amp. Power supplies are often ignored in op amp circuit diagrams for the sake of simplicity, the power supply currents must not be overlooked. By KCL, The equivalent circuit of the non ideal op amp. The differential input voltage vd is given by Thus, the output vo is given by A is called the open-loop voltage gain because it is the gain of the op amp without any external feedback from output to input.
5.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS A practical limitation of the op amp is that the magnitude of its output voltage cannot exceed |VCC|. In other words, the output voltage is dependent on and is limited by the power supply voltage. op amp can operate in three modes, depending on the differential input voltage vd : Positive saturation, vo = VCC. Linear region, −VCC ≤ vo = Avd ≤ VCC. Negative saturation, vo = −VCC. We will assume that our op amps operate in the linear mode
6.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS A 741 op amp has an open-loop voltage gain of 2×105, input resistance of 2 MΩ, and output resistance of 50Ω . The op amp is used in the circuit. Find the closed-loop gain vo/vs . Determine current i when vs = 2 V.
7.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS If the same 741 op amp in Example 1 is used in the circuit below, calculate the closed-loop gain vo/vs . Find io when vs = 1 V
8.
IDEAL OP AMP An op amp is ideal if it has the following characteristics: Infinite open-loop gain, A ≈ ∞. Infinite input resistance, Ri ≈ ∞. Zero output resistance, Ro ≈ 0. An ideal op amp is an amplifier with infinite open-loop gain, infinite input resistance, and zero output resistance.
9.
IDEAL OP AMP Two important characteristics of the ideal op amp are: The currents into both input terminals are zero: This is due to infinite input resistance. An infinite resistance between the input terminals implies that an open circuit exists there and current cannot enter the op amp. But the output current is not necessarily zero. The voltage across the input terminals is negligibly small; i.e., Thus, an ideal op amp has zero current into its two input terminals and negligibly small voltage between the two input terminals.
10.
IDEAL OP AMP A 741 op amp has an open-loop voltage gain of 2×105, input resistance of 2 MΩ, and output resistance of 50Ω . The op amp is used in the circuit. Find the closed-loop gain vo/vs . Determine current i when vs = 2 V.
11.
IDEAL OP AMP If the same 741 op amp in Example 1 is used in the circuit below, calculate the closed-loop gain vo/vs . Find io when vs = 1 V.
12.
Inverting Amplifier An inverting amplifier reverses the polarity of the input signal while amplifying it. An equivalent circuit for the inverter The inverting amplifier In this circuit, the noninverting input is grounded, vi is connected to the inverting input through R1, and the feedback resistor Rf is connected between the inverting input and output. Our goal is to obtain the relationship between the input voltage vi and the output voltage vo.
13.
Inverting Amplifier Applying KCL at node 1, But v1 = v2 = 0 for an ideal op amp, since the noninverting terminal is grounded. Hence, or Notice that the gain is the feedback resistance divided by the input resistance which means that the gain depends only on the external elements connected to the op amp.
14.
Inverting Amplifier Example: Refer to the op amp in Fig. 1. If vi = 0.5 V, calculate: (a) the output voltage vo, and (b) the current in the 10 k resistor. Solution: (a) Using the previous equation, (b) The current through the 10-k resistor is Figure 1
15.
Inverting Amplifier Example: Determine vo in the op amp circuit shown in Fig. 2. Solution: Applying KCL at node a, But va = vb = 2 V for an ideal op amp, because of the zero voltage drop across the input terminals of the op amp. Hence, Figure 2 Notice that if vb = 0 = va, then vo = −12, as expected
16.
Inverting Amplifier Practice Problem Two kinds of current-to-voltage converters (also known as transresistance amplifiers) are shown in Figures below. (a) Show that for the converter in Fig. (a), (b) Show that for the converter in Fig. (b),
17.
Noninverting Amplifier A noninverting amplifier is an op amp circuit designed to provide a positive voltage gain. In this case, the input voltage vi is applied directly at the noninverting input terminal, and resistor R1 is connected between the ground and the inverting terminal. We are interested in the output voltage and the voltage gain. Figure 3 Application of KCL at the inverting terminal give: But v1 = v2 = vi . Hence, or The voltage gain is Av = vo/vi = 1 + Rf /R1, which does not have a negative sign. Thus, the output has the same polarity as the input.
18.
Noninverting Amplifier Notice that the gain depends only on the external resistors. Notice that if feedback resistor Rf = 0 (short circuit) or R1 = ∞ (open circuit) or both, the gain becomes 1. Under these conditions (Rf = 0 and R1 =∞), the circuit in Fig. 3 becomes that shown in Fig. 4, which is called a voltage follower (or unity gain amplifier) because the output follows the input. Thus, for a voltage follower Figure 4: The voltage follower. A voltage follower used to isolate two cascaded stages of a circuit.
19.
Noninverting Amplifier Example: For the op amp circuit in Fig. 5, calculate the output voltage vo. Solution: We may solve this in two ways: using superposition and using nodal analysis. METHOD 1: Using superposition, we let vo = vo1 + vo2 where vo1 is due to the 6-V voltage source, and vo2 is due to the 4-V input. To get vo1, we set the 4-V source equal to zero. Under this condition, the circuit becomes an inverter. Hence it gives, Figure 5 To get vo2, we set the 6-V source equal to zero. The circuit becomes a noninverting amplifier so that Thus, vo = vo1 + vo2 = −15 + 14 = −1 V
20.
Noninverting Amplifier METHOD 2: Applying KCL at node a, But va = vb = 4, and so or vo = −1 V, as before.
21.
Noninverting Amplifier Practice Problem Calculate vo in the circuit shown
22.
Summing Amplifier A summing amplifier is an op amp circuit that combines several inputs and produces an output that is the weighted sum of the inputs. It takes advantage of the fact that the inverting configuration can handle many inputs at the same time. We keep in mind that the current entering each op amp input is zero. Applying KCL at node a gives, i = i1 + i2 + i3 (1) But Figure 6: The summing amplifier (2) We note that va = 0 and substitute Eq. (1) into Eq. (2). We get Indicates that the output voltage is a weighted sum of the inputs
23.
Summing Amplifier Example: Calculate vo and io in the op amp circuit in Fig. 7. Solution: This is a summer with two inputs. Using the previous Eq; The current io is the sum of the currents through the 10-k and 2-k resistors. Both of these resistors have voltage vo = −8 V across them, since va = vb = 0. Hence, Figure 7
24.
Summing Amplifier Practice Problem Calculate vo and io in the op amp circuit shown
25.
Difference Amplifier A difference amplifier is a device that amplifies the difference between two inputs but rejects any signals common to the two inputs. Difference (or differential) amplifiers are used in various applications where there is need to amplify the difference between two input signals. Applying KCL to node a, or (3) Applying KCL to node b, Figure 8: Difference amplifier. (4) or But va = vb. Substituting Eq. (3) into Eq. (4) yields (5) or
26.
Difference Amplifier Since a difference amplifier must reject a signal common to the two inputs, the amplifier must have the property that vo = 0 when v1 = v2. This property exists when Thus, when the op amp circuit is a difference amplifier, Eq. (5) becomes If R2 = R1 and R3 = R4, the difference amplifier becomes a subtractor, with the output
27.
Difference Amplifier Example: Design an op amp circuit with inputs v1 and v2 such that vo = −5v1+3v2. Solution: The circuit requires that vo = 3v2 − 5v1 (6) This circuit can be realized in two ways. DESIGN 1 If we desire to use only one op amp, we can use the op amp circuit of Fig. 8. Comparing Eq. (6) with Eq. (5), Also,
28.
Difference Amplifier DESIGN 2 If we desire to use more than one op amp, we may cascade an inverting amplifier and a two-input inverting summer, as shown in Fig. 9. For the summer, or If we choose R1 = 10 k and R3 = 20 k, then R2 = 50 k and R4 = 20 k. vo = −va − 5v1 (7) and for the inverter, va = −3v2 (8) Combining Eqs. (7) and (8) gives vo = 3v2 − 5v1 Figure 9 which is the desired result. In Fig. 9, we may select R1 = 10 k and R2 = 20 k or R1 = R2 = 10 k.
29.
Difference Amplifier Practice Problem Design a difference amplifier with gain 4.
30.
Difference Amplifier Example: An instrumentation amplifier shown is an amplifier of low level signals used in process control or measurement applications and commercially available in single-package units. Show that
31.
Difference Amplifier Solution: Recognize that amplifier A3 is a difference amplifier. Thus, Since the op amps A1 and A2 draw no current, current i flows through the three resistors as though they were in series. Hence, But; and va = v1, vb = v2. Therefore Thus;
32.
Difference Amplifier Practice Problem Obtain ioin the instrumentation amplifier circuit shown.
33.
Cascading op amp Circuit A cascade connection is a head-to-tail arrangement of two or more op amp circuits such that the output of one is the input of the next. When op amp circuits are cascaded, each circuit in the string is called a stage; the original input signal is increased by the gain of the individual stage. Op amp circuits have the advantage that they can be cascaded without changing their input-output relationships. This is due to the fact that each (ideal) op amp circuit has infinite input resistance and zero output resistance. A = A1A2A3
34.
Cascading op amp Circuit Example: Find vo and io in the circuit in Fig. 10. Solution: This circuit consists of two noninverting amplifiers cascaded. At the output of the first op amp, Figure 10 At the output of the second op amp, But vb = va = 100 mV. Hence, The required current io is the current through the 10-k resistor.
35.
Cascading op amp Circuit Example: If v1 = 1 V and v2 = 2 V, find vo in the op amp circuit of Fig. 11. Solution: The circuit consists of two inverters A and B and a summer C as shown in Fig. 11. We first find the outputs of the inverters. Figure 11 These become the inputs to the summer so that the output is obtained as
36.
Cascading op amp Circuit Practice Problem Determine vo and io in the op amp circuit in Fig. A. If v1 = 2 V and v2 = 1.5 V, find vo in the op amp circuit of Fig. B. Figure B Figure A
37.
CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS
38.
CAPACITORS A capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulator (or dielectric). A capacitor is a passive element designed to store energy in its electric field. When a voltage source v is connected to the capacitor, the source deposits a positive charge q on one plate and a negative charge −q on the other. The capacitor is said to store the electric charge. The amount of charge stored, represented by q, is directly proportional to the applied voltage v so that Figure 13: A capacitor with applied voltage v. Figure 12: A typical capacitor. q = Cv (9)
39.
CAPACITORS Capacitance is the ratio of the charge on one plate of a capacitor to the voltage difference between the two plates, measured in farads (F). 1 farad = 1 coulomb/volt. Although the capacitance C of a capacitor is the ratio of the charge q per plate to the applied voltage v, it does not depend on q or v. It depends on the physical dimensions of the capacitor. where A is the surface area of each plate, d is the distance between the plates, and is the permittivity of the dielectric material between the plates.
40.
CAPACITORS Three factors determine the value of the capacitance: 1. The surface area of the plates—the larger the area, the greater the capacitance. 2. The spacing between the plates—the smaller the spacing, the greater the capacitance. 3. The permittivity of the material—the higher the permittivity, the greater the capacitance. Figure 14: Circuit symbols for capacitors: (a) fixed capacitor, (b) variable capacitor.
41.
CAPACITORS To obtain the current-voltage relationship of the capacitor, we take the derivative of both sides of Eq. (9). Since differentiating both sides of Eq. (9) gives The voltage-current relation of the capacitor can be obtained by integrating both sides of Eq. (11). We get where v(t0) = q(t0)/C is the voltage across the capacitor at time t0. (10) (11) (12) (13) or
42.
CAPACITORS The instantaneous power delivered to the capacitor is The energy stored in the capacitor is therefore Figure 14: Current-voltage relationship of a capacitor. (14) (15)
43.
CAPACITORS We note that v(−∞) = 0, because the capacitor was uncharged at t = −∞. Thus, Using Eq. (9), we may rewrite Eq. (16) as (16) (17)
44.
CAPACITORS Important properties of a capacitor:
A capacitor is an open circuit to dc – when voltage across a capacitor is not changing with time (i.e., dc voltage), the current through the capacitor is zero.
45.
The voltage on a capacitor cannot change abruptly -The capacitor resists an abrupt change in the voltage across it. According to Eq. (11), a discontinuous change in voltage requires an infinite current, which is physically impossible.
46.
The ideal capacitor does not dissipate energy. It takes power from the circuit when storing energy in its field and returns previously stored energy when delivering power to the circuit.
47.
A real, non ideal capacitor has a parallel-model leakage resistance. The leakage resistance may be as high as 100 M and can be neglected for most practical applications.
CAPACITORS Example: (a) Calculate the charge stored on a 3-pF capacitor with 20 V across it. (b) Find the energy stored in the capacitor. Solution: Figure 15: Circuit model of a nonideal capacitor. (a) Since q = Cv, (b) The energy stored is q = 3 × 10−12 × 20 = 60 pC
48.
CAPACITORS Example: The voltage across a 5-μF capacitor is v(t) = 10 cos 6000t V.Calculate the current through it. Solution: By definition, the current is Example: Determine the voltage across a 2-μF capacitor if the current through it is i(t) = 6e−3000t mA. Assume that the initial capacitor voltage is zero. Solution:
49.
CAPACITORS Example: Determine the current through a 200-μF capacitor whose voltage is shown in Fig. 16. Solution: The voltage waveform can be described mathematically as Figure 16 Since i = C dv/dt and C = 200 μF, we take the derivative of v to obtain Figure 17 Thus the current waveform is as shown in Fig. 17.
50.
CAPACITORS Example: Obtain the energy stored in each capacitor in Fig. 18(a) under dc conditions. Solution: Under dc conditions, we replace each capacitor with an open circuit, as shown in Fig. 18(b). The current through the series combination of the 2-k and 4-k resistors is obtained by current division as Figure 18(a) Hence, the voltages v1 and v2 across the capacitors are v1 = 2000i = 4 V v2 = 4000i = 8 V and the energies stored in them are Figure 18(b)
51.
SERIES AND PARALLEL CAPACITORS Applying KCL to Fig. 19(a), i = i1 + i2 + i3 +· · ·+iN But ik = Ck dv/dt . Hence, where Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3 +· · ·+CN Figure 19: (a) Parallel-connected N capacitors, (b) equivalent circuit for the parallel capacitors. The equivalent capacitance of N parallel connected capacitors is the sum of the individual capacitances .
52.
SERIES AND PARALLEL CAPACITORS Applying KVL to the loop in Fig. 20(a), v = v1 + v2 + v3 +· · ·+vN Figure 20: (a) Series-connected N capacitors, (b) equivalent circuit for the series capacitor. The equivalent capacitance of series connected capacitors is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual capacitances.
53.
SERIES AND PARALLEL CAPACITORS Example: Find the equivalent capacitance seen between terminals a and b of the circuit in Fig. 21. Solution: The 20-μF and 5-μF capacitors are in series; their equivalent capacitance is Figure 21 This 4-μF capacitor is in parallel with the 6-μF and 20-μF capacitors; their combined capacitance is This 30-μF capacitor is in series with the 60-μF capacitor. Hence, the equivalent capacitance for the entire circuit is
54.
SERIES AND PARALLEL CAPACITORS Example: For the circuit in Fig. 22, find the voltage across each capacitor. Solution: The two parallel capacitors in Fig. 6.18 can be combined to get 40+20 = 60 mF. This 60-mF capacitor is in series with the 20-mF and 30-mF capacitors. Thus, Figure 22 This is the charge on the 20-mF and 30-mF capacitors, because they are in series with the 30-V source. The total charge is q = Ceqv = 10 × 10−3 × 30 = 0.3 C Figure 23:Equivalent circuit
55.
SERIES AND PARALLEL CAPACITORS Having determined v1 and v2, we now use KVL to determine v3 by v3 = 30 − v1 − v2 = 5 V Alternatively, since the 40-mF and 20-mF capacitors are in parallel, they have the same voltage v3 and their combined capacitance is 40 + 20 = 60 mF. This combined capacitance is in series with the 20-mF and 30-mF capacitors and consequently has the same charge on it. Hence
56.
INDUCTORS An inductor consists of a coil of conducting wire. An inductor is a passive element designed to store energy in its magnetic field Any conductor of electric current has inductive properties and may be regarded as an inductor. But in order to enhance the inductive effect, a practical inductor is usually formed into a cylindrical coil with many turns of conducting wire If current is allowed to pass through an inductor, it is found that the voltage across the inductor is directly proportional to the time rate of change of the current. Using the passive sign convention, Figure 24: Typical form of an inductor. where L is the constant of proportionality called the inductance of the inductor. The unit of inductance is the henry (H).
57.
INDUCTORS Inductance is the property whereby an inductor exhibits opposition to the change of current flowing through it, measured in henrys (H). The inductance of an inductor depends on its physical dimension and construction. Formulas for calculating the inductance of inductors of different shapes are derived from electromagnetic theory and can be found in standard electrical engineering handbooks. where N is the number of turns, is the length, A is the cross-sectional area, and μ is the permeability of the core. The current-voltage relationship
58.
INDUCTORS Integrating gives or where i(t0) is the total current for −∞ < t < t0 and i(−∞) = 0. The idea of making i(−∞) = 0 is practical and reasonable, because there must be a time in the past when there was no current in the inductor. Figure 25: Circuit symbols for inductors: (a) air-core, (b) iron-core, (c) variable iron core. Figure 26: Voltage-current relationship of an inductor.
59.
INDUCTORS The power delivered to the inductor is The energy stored is Since i(−∞) = 0,
60.
INDUCTORS Important properties of an inductor. An inductor acts like a short circuit to dc - the voltage across an inductor is zero when the current is constant. The current through an inductor cannot change instantaneously - important property of the inductor is its opposition to the change in current flowing through it. Like the ideal capacitor, the ideal inductor does not dissipate energy - energy stored in it can be retrieved at a later time. The inductor takes power from the circuit when storing energy and delivers power to the circuit when returning previously stored energy. A practical, non ideal inductor has a significant resistive component - due to the fact that the inductor is made of a conducting material such as copper, which has some resistance. This resistance is called the winding resistance Rw, and it appears in series with the inductance of the inductor.
61.
INDUCTORS Example: The current through a 0.1-H inductor is i(t) = 10te −5t A. Find the voltage across the inductor and the energy stored in it. The nonideal inductor also has a winding capacitance Cw due to the capacitive coupling between the conducting coils. Cw is very small and can be ignored in most cases, except at high frequencies. Figure 27: Circuit model for a practical inductor. Solution: Since v = Ldi/dt and L = 0.1 H, The energy stored is
62.
INDUCTORS Example: Find the current through a 5-H inductor if the voltage across it is Also find the energy stored within 0 < t < 5 s. Solution: The power p = vi = 60t 5, and the energy stored is then Alternatively, we can obtain the energy stored
63.
INDUCTORS Example: Consider the circuit in Fig. 28(a). Under dc conditions, find: (a) i, vC, and iL, (b) the energy stored in the capacitor and inductor. Solution: (a) Under dc conditions, we replace the capacitor with an open circuit and the inductor with a short circuit, as in Fig. 28(b). It is evident from Fig. 28(b) that The voltage vC is the same as the voltage across the 5- resistor. Hence, vC = 5i = 10 V (b) The energy in the capacitor is Figure 28 and that in the inductor is
64.
SERIES AND PARALLEL INDUCTORS Applying KVL to the loop, v = v1 + v2 + v3 +· · ·+vN Substituting vk = Lk di/dt results in where Figure 29: (a) A series connection of inductors, (b) equivalent circuit for the series inductors. The equivalent inductance of series-connected inductors is the sum of the individual inductances.
65.
SERIES AND PARALLEL INDUCTORS Using KCL, i = i1 + i2 + i3 +· · ·+iN Figure 30: (a) A parallel connection of N inductors, (b) equivalent circuit for the parallel inductors.
66.
SERIES AND PARALLEL INDUCTORS SUMMARY where The equivalent inductance of parallel inductors is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocals of the individual inductances.
67.
SERIES AND PARALLEL INDUCTORS Example: Find the equivalent inductance of the circuit shown in Fig. 31. Solution: The 10-H, 12-H, and 20-H inductors are in series; thus, combining them gives a 42-H inductance. This 42-H inductor is in parallel with the 7-H inductor so that they are combined, to give Figure 31 This 6-H inductor is in series with the 4-H and 8-H inductors. Hence, Leq = 4 + 6 + 8 = 18 H
68.
SERIES AND PARALLEL INDUCTORS Example: For the circuit in Fig. 32, i(t) = 4(2 − e−10t ) mA. If i2(0) = −1 mA, find: (a) i1(0); (b) v(t), v1(t), and v2(t); (c) i1(t) and i2(t). Solution: (a) From i(t) = 4(2 − e−10t ) mA, i(0) = 4(2 − 1) = 4 mA. Since i = i1 + i2, i1(0) = i(0) − i2(0) = 4 − (−1) = 5 mA (b) The equivalent inductance is Leq = 2 + 4 //12 = 2 + 3 = 5 H Thus, and Since v = v1 + v2, v2(t) = v(t) − v1(t) = 120e −10t mV Fig.32
69.
SERIES AND PARALLEL INDUCTORS (c) The current i1 is obtained as Similarly, Note that i1(t) + i2(t) = i(t). i(t) = 8 – 4e-10t = 4(2 – e-10t) mA
70.
RL and RC Circuits FIRST-ORDER CIRCUITS
71.
THE SOURCE-FREE RC CIRCUIT A source-free RC circuit occurs when its dc source is suddenly disconnected. The energy already stored in the capacitor is released to the resistors Our objective is to determine the circuit response, which, for pedagogic reasons, we assume to be the voltage v(t) across the capacitor. Since the capacitor is initially charged, we can assume that at time t = 0, the initial voltage is with the corresponding value of the energy stored as Applying KCL at the top node of the circuit
72.
THE SOURCE-FREE RC CIRCUIT Integrating both sides, we get Taking powers of e produces But from the initial conditions, v(0) = A = V0. Hence, This shows that the voltage response of the RC circuit is an exponential decay of the initial voltage. The natural response of a circuit refers to the behavior (in terms of voltages and currents) of the circuit itself, with no external sources of excitation.
73.
THE SOURCE-FREE RC CIRCUIT The rapidity with which the voltage decreases is expressed in terms of the time constant, denoted by the lower case Greek letter tau, τ . The time constant of a circuit is the time required for the response to decay by a factor of 1/e or 36.8 percent of its initial value. This implies that at t = τ : or In terms of the time constant: The power dissipated in the resistor is The energy absorbed by the resistor up to time t is
74.
THE SOURCE-FREE RC CIRCUIT In Figure shown below, let vC(0) = 15 V. Find vC, vx , and ix for t > 0 Refer to the circuit below. Let vC(0) = 30 V. Determine vC, vx , and io for t ≥ 0.
75.
THE SOURCE-FREE RC CIRCUIT The switch in the circuit below has been closed for a long time, and it is opened at t = 0. Find v(t) for t ≥ 0. Calculate the initial energy stored in the capacitor. If the switch in the circuit below opens at t = 0, find v(t) for t ≥ 0 and wC(0).
76.
THE SOURCE-FREE RL CIRCUIT Our goal is to determine the circuit response, which we will assume to be the current i(t) through the inductor. We select the inductor current as the response in order to take advantage of the idea that the inductor current cannot change instantaneously. At t = 0, we assume that the inductor has an initial current I0, or with the corresponding energy stored in the inductor as Applying KVL around the loop: Rearranging terms and integrating gives Taking the powers of e, we have
77.
THE SOURCE-FREE RL CIRCUIT Time constant for the RL circuit is: Thus, The power dissipated in the resistor is: The energy absorbed by the resistor is:
78.
THE SOURCE-FREE RL CIRCUIT Assuming that i(0) = 10 A, calculate i(t) and ix (t) in the circuit shown. Find i and vx in the circuit shown. Let i(0) = 5 A. The switch in the circuit shown has been closed for a long time. At t = 0, the switch is opened. Calculate i(t) for t > 0.
79.
THE SOURCE-FREE RL CIRCUIT For the circuit shown, find i(t) for t > 0. In the circuit shown, find io, vo, and i for all time, assuming that the switch was open for a long time. Determine i, io, and vo for all t in the circuit shown. Assume that the switch was closed for a long time.
80.
Singularity functions are functions that either are discontinuous or have discontinuous derivatives. SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS
81.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS Singularity functions are functions that either are discontinuous or have discontinuous derivatives. Singularity functions (also called switching functions) are very useful in circuit analysis. They serve as good approximations to the switching signals that arise in circuits with switching operations. The three most widely used singularity functions in circuit analysis are the unit step, the unit impulse, and the unit ramp functions. The unit step function u(t) is 0 for negative values of t and 1 for positive values of t. In mathematical terms, (7.24) Figure 7.23 The unit step function.
82.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS The unit step function is undefined at t = 0, where it changes abruptly from 0 to 1. It is dimensionless, like other mathematical functions such as sine and cosine. Figure 7.23 depicts the unit step function. If the abrupt change occurs at t = t0 (where t0 > 0) instead of t = 0, the unit step function becomes (7.25) which is the same as saying that u(t) is delayed by t0 seconds, as shown in Fig. 7.24(a). To get Eq. (7.25) from Eq. (7.24), we simply replace every t by t − t0. If the change is at t = −t0, the unit step function becomes (7.26) meaning that u(t) is advanced by t0 seconds, as shown in Fig. 7.24(b).
83.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS Figure 7.24 (a) The unit step function delayed by t0, (b) the unit step advanced by t0. We use the step function to represent an abrupt change in voltage or current, like the changes that occur in the circuits of control systems and digital computers. For example, the voltage (7.27) may be expressed in terms of the unit step function as (7.28)
84.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS If we let t0 = 0, then v(t) is simply the step voltage V0u(t). A voltage source of V0u(t) is shown in Fig. 7.25(a); its equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 7.25(b). It is evident in Fig. 7.25(b) that terminals a-b are short circuited (v = 0) for t < 0 and that v = V0 appears at the terminals for t > 0. Similarly, a current source of I0u(t) is shown in Fig. 7.26(a), while its equivalent circuit is in Fig. 7.26(b). Notice that for t < 0, there is an open circuit (i = 0), and that i = I0 flows for t > 0. Figure 7.25 (a) Voltage source of V0u(t), (b) its equivalent circuit.
85.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS The unit impulse function δ(t) is zero everywhere except at t = 0, where it is undefined. The derivative of the unit step function u(t) is the unit impulse function δ(t), which we write as (7.29) Figure 7.26 (a) Current source of I0u(t), (b) its equivalent circuit.
86.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS The unit impulse function—also known as the delta function—is shown in Fig. 7.27. (7.30) where t = 0− denotes the time just before t = 0 and t = 0+ is the time just after t = 0. For this reason, it is customary to write 1 (denoting unit area) beside the arrow that is used to symbolize the unit impulse function, as in Fig. 7.27. The unit area is known as the strength of the impulse function. When an impulse function has a strength other than unity, the area of the impulse is equal to its strength. The unit impulse may be regarded as an applied or resulting shock. It may be visualized as a very short duration pulse of unit area. This may be expressed mathematically as Figure 7.27 The unit impulse function.
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SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS For example, an impulse function 10δ(t) has an area of 10. Figure 7.28 shows the impulse functions 5δ(t + 2), 10δ(t), and −4δ(t − 3). Figure 7.28 Three impulse functions.
88.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS The unit ramp function is zero for negative values of t and has a unit slope for positive values of t. Integrating the unit step function u(t) results in the unit ramp function r(t); we write (7.34) (7.35) Figure 7.29 shows the unit ramp function. In general, a ramp is a function that changes at a constant rate. Figure 7.29 The unit ramp function.
89.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS The unit ramp function may be delayed or advanced as shown in Fig. 7.30. For the delayed unit ramp function,
90.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS Figure 7.30 ; The unit ramp function: (a) delayed by t0, (b) advanced by t0.
91.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS Example 1: Express the voltage pulse in Fig. 7.31 in terms of the unit step. Calculate its derivative and sketch it. Solution: The type of pulse in Fig. 7.31 is called the gate function. It may be regarded as a step function that switches on at one value of t and switches off at another value of t . The gate function shown in Fig. 7.31 switches on at t = 2 s and switches off at t = 5 s. It consists of the sum of two unit step functions as shown in Fig. 7.32(a). From the figure, it is evident that Figure 7.31
92.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS Figure 7.32 (a) Decomposition of the pulse in Fig. 7.31, (b) derivative of the pulse in Fig. 7.31.
93.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS Express the sawtooth function shown in Fig. 7.35 in terms of singularity functions. Solution: There are three ways of solving this problem. The first method is by mere observation of the given function, while the other methods involve some graphical manipulations of the function. Figure 7.35 METHOD 1: By looking at the sketch of v(t) in Fig. 7.35, it is not hard to notice that the given function v(t) is a combination of singularity functions. So we let v(t) = v1(t) + v2(t)+· · · (7.7.1)
94.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS The function v1(t) is the ramp function of slope 5, shown in Fig. 7.36(a); that is, v1(t) = 5r(t) (7.7.2) Figure 7.36 Partial decomposition of v(t) in Fig. 7.35.
95.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS Since v1(t) goes to infinity, we need another function at t = 2 s in order to get v(t). We let this function be v2, which is a ramp function of slope −5, as shown in Fig. 7.36(b); that is, Adding v1 and v2 gives us the signal in Fig. 7.36(c). Obviously, this is not the same as v(t) in Fig. 7.35. But the difference is simply a constant 10 units for t > 2 s. By adding a third signal v3, where we get v(t), as shown in Fig. 7.37. Substituting Eqs. (7.7.2) through (7.7.4) into Eq. (7.7.1) gives v2(t) = −5r(t − 2) (7.7.3) v3 = −10u(t − 2) (7.7.4) v(t) = 5r(t) − 5r(t − 2) − 10u(t − 2)
96.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS Figure 7.37 Complete decomposition of v(t) in Fig. 7.35.
97.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS METHOD 2 A close observation of Fig. 7.35 reveals that v(t) is a multiplication of two functions: a ramp function and a gate function. Thus, v(t) = 5t [u(t) − u(t − 2)] = 5tu(t) − 5tu(t − 2) = 5r(t) − 5(t − 2 + 2)u(t − 2) = 5r(t) − 5(t − 2)u(t − 2) − 10u(t − 2) = 5r(t) − 5r(t − 2) − 10u(t − 2) the same as before.
98.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS METHOD 3: This method is similar to Method 2. We observe from Fig. 7.35 that v(t) is a multiplication of a ramp function and a unit step function, as shown in Fig. 7.38. Thus, v(t) = 5r(t)u(−t + 2) If we replace u(−t) by 1 − u(t), then we can replace u(−t + 2) by 1 − u(t − 2). Hence, v(t) = 5r(t)[1 − u(t − 2)] which can be simplified as in Method 2 to get the same result. Figure 7.38 Decomposition of v(t) in Fig. 7.35.
99.
SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS Given the signal
100.
The step response of a circuit is its behavior when the excitation is the step function, which may be a voltage or a current source. STEP RESPONSE OF CIRCUIT
101.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RC CIRCUIT Since the voltage of a capacitor cannot change instantaneously, Integrating both sides and introducing the initial conditions: Applying KCL, we have For t > 0, Rearranging terms gives
102.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RC CIRCUIT
That is known as the complete response of the RC circuit to a sudden application of a dc voltage source, assuming the capacitor is initially charged.
If we assume that the capacitor is uncharged initially, we set V0 = 0 so that or The current through the capacitor is obtained using i(t) = C dv/dt. We get or Rather than going through the derivations above, there is a systematic approach—or rather, a short-cut method—for finding the step response of an RC or RL circuit. Where: and
103.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RC CIRCUIT
The natural response or transient response is the circuit’s temporary response that will die out with time.
104.
The forced response or steady-state response is the behavior of the circuit a long time after an external excitation is applied.
The complete response of the circuit is the sum of the natural response and the forced response. Therefore, Thus, to find the step response of an RC circuit requires three things:
105.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RC CIRCUIT The switch in Figure below has been in position A for a long time. At t = 0, the switch moves to B. Determine v(t) for t > 0 and calculate its value at t = 1 s and 4 s.
106.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RC CIRCUIT
107.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RC CIRCUIT In Figure below, the switch has been closed for a long time and is opened at t = 0. Find i and v for all time.
108.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RC CIRCUIT
109.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RC CIRCUIT
110.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RL CIRCUIT Let the response be the sum of the natural current and the forced current, Natural response is always a decaying exponential, that is, The forced response is the value of the current a long time after the switch in Fig.(a) is closed. The entire source voltage Vs appears across R. Thus, the forced response is Substituting the equation gives
111.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RL CIRCUIT Since the current through the inductor cannot change instantaneously, Thus at t = 0 Substituting for A, we get Thus, to find the step response of an RL circuit requires three things:
112.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RL CIRCUIT If I0 = 0, then The voltage across the inductor is obtained from using v = Ldi/dt. We get or
113.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RL CIRCUIT Find i(t) in the circuit below for t > 0. Assume that the switch has been closed for a long time.
114.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RL CIRCUIT
115.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RL CIRCUIT At t = 0, switch 1 in Figure below is closed, and switch 2 is closed 4 s later. Find i(t) for t > 0. Calculate i for t = 2 s and t = 5 s.
116.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RL CIRCUIT
117.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RL CIRCUIT
118.
STEP RESPONSE OF AN RL CIRCUIT
119.
FIRST-ORDER OP AMP CIRCUITS For the op amp circuit in Fig. 7.55(a) , find vo fort > 0, given that v(0) = 3 V. Let Rf = 80 kΩ, R1 = 20 kΩ, and C = 5 μF. Figure 7.55
120.
FIRST-ORDER OP AMP CIRCUITS
121.
FIRST-ORDER OP AMP CIRCUITS
122.
A second-order circuit is characterized by a second order differential equation. It consists of resistors and the equivalent of two energy storage elements. SECOND-ORDER CIRCUITS
123.
FINDING INITIAL AND FINAL VALUES The switch in the circuit below has been closed for a long time. It is open at t = 0. Find: (a) i(0+), v(0+), (b) di(0+)/dt , dv(0+)/dt , (c) i(∞), v(∞). Solution: (a) If the switch is closed a long time before t = 0, it means that the circuit has reached dc steady state at t = 0. At dc steady state, the inductor acts like a short circuit, while the capacitor acts like an open circuit, so we have the circuit in Fig.(a) at t = 0−. Thus,
124.
FINDING INITIAL AND FINAL VALUES (b) At t = 0+, the switch is open; the equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig. (b). The same current flows through both the inductor and capacitor. Hence,
125.
FINDING INITIAL AND FINAL VALUES (c) Fort > 0, the circuit undergoes transience. But as t ->∞, the circuit reaches steady state again. The inductor acts like a short circuit and the capacitor like an open circuit, so that the circuit becomes that shown in Fig.(c), from which we have
126.
FINDING INITIAL AND FINAL VALUES In the circuit shown, calculate: (a) iL(0+), vC(0+), vR(0+),(b) diL(0+)dt , dvC(0+)/dt , dvR(0+)/dt , (c) iL(∞), vC(∞), vR(∞). Solution: (a) For t < 0, 3u(t) = 0. At t = 0−, since the circuit has reached steady state, the inductor can be replaced by a short circuit, while the capacitor is replaced by an open circuit as shown in Fig.(a). From this figure we obtain
127.
FINDING INITIAL AND FINAL VALUES For t > 0, 3u(t) = 3, so that the circuit is now equivalent to that in Fig.(b). Since the inductor current and capacitor voltage cannot change abruptly, Although the voltage across the 4- resistor is not required, we will use it to apply KVL and KCL; let it be called vo. Applying KCL at node a in Fig.(b) gives Eq.1 Applying KVL to the middle mesh in Fig.(b) yields Since vC(0+) = −20 V, it implies that Eq.2 Thus; eq. 1 substitute eq. 2
128.
FINDING INITIAL AND FINAL VALUES (b) Since L diL/dt = vL, But applying KVL to the right mesh in Fig.(b) gives Since vo(0+) = 4 and iL(0+) = 0, iC(0+) = 4/4 = 1 A. Then Hence, Similarly, since C dvC/dt = iC, then dvC /dt = iC /C. We apply KCL at node b in Fig.(b) to get iC: To get dvR(0+)/dt , we apply KCL to node a and obtain
129.
FINDING INITIAL AND FINAL VALUES Taking the derivative of each term and setting t = 0+ gives Eq. 3 We also apply KVL to the middle mesh in Fig.(b) and obtain From Eqs. 3 and 4, we get Again, taking the derivative of each term and setting t = 0+ yields We can find diR(0+)/dt although it is not required. Since vR = 2iR, Substituting for dvC(0+)/dt = 2 gives 1 Eq. 4 2 3 2 3
130.
FINDING INITIAL AND FINAL VALUES (c) As t ->∞, the circuit reaches steady state. We have the equivalent circuit in Fig.(a) except that the 3-A current source is now operative. By current division principle,
131.
THE SOURCE-FREE SERIES RLC CIRCUIT Consider the series RLC circuit shown. The circuit is being excited by the energy initially stored in the capacitor and inductor. The energy is represented by the initial capacitor voltage V0 and initial inductor current I0. Thus, at t = 0, Eq. 1 Eq. 2 Applying KVL around the loop, To solve such a second-order differential equation requires that we have two initial conditions, such as the initial value of i and its first derivative or initial values of some i and v. The initial value of i is given in Eq. 2. We get the initial value of the derivative of i from Eqs. 2 and 3; that is, Eq. 3 To eliminate the integral, we differentiate with respect to t and rearrange terms. We get Eq. 4 This is a second-order differential equation and is the reason for calling the RLC circuits second-order circuits. Eq. 5
132.
THE SOURCE-FREE SERIES RLC CIRCUIT Our experience in the preceding chapter on first-order circuits suggests that the solution is of exponential form. So we let Eq. 8 This quadratic equation is known as the characteristic equation of the differential Eq.4. The two roots of Eq.8 are Eq. 6 where A and s are constants to be determined. Substituting Eq.6 into Eq.4and carrying out the necessary differentiations, we obtain Eq. 9 Eq. 10 A more compact way of expressing the roots is Eq. 7 Since i = Aest is the assumed solution we are trying to find, only the expression in parentheses can be zero: Eq. 11
133.
THE SOURCE-FREE SERIES RLC CIRCUIT Thus, the natural response of the series RLC circuit is The roots s1 and s2 are called natural frequencies, measured in nepers per second (Np/s),because they are associated with the natural response of the circuit; ω0is known as the resonant frequencyor strictly as the undamped natural frequency, expressed in radians per second (rad/s);and α is the neper frequency or the damping factor, expressed in nepers per second. In terms of αand ω0, Eq.8 can be written as From Eq. 11, we can infer that there are three types of solutions: 1. If α > ω0, we have theoverdamped case. 2. If α = ω0, we have the critically damped case. 3. If α < ω0, we have the underdamped case. The two values of s indicate that there are two possible solutions for i, each of which is of the form of the assumed; that is,
134.
THE SOURCE-FREE SERIES RLC CIRCUIT Overdamped Case (α > ω0) When C > 4L/R2. When this happens, both roots s1 and s2 are negative and real. The response is Critically Damped Case (α = ω0) When α = ω0, C = 4L/R2 and Underdamped Case (α < ω0) For α < ω0,C < 4L/R2. The roots may be written as
135.
THE SOURCE-FREE SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
136.
THE SOURCE-FREE SERIES RLC CIRCUIT In the figure shown, R = 40Ω , L = 4 H, and C = 1/4 F. Calculate the characteristic roots of the circuit. Is the natural response overdamped, underdamped, or critically damped?
137.
THE SOURCE-FREE SERIES RLC CIRCUIT Find i(t) in the circuit shown. Assume that the circuit has reached steady state at t = 0−.
138.
THE SOURCE-FREE SERIES RLC CIRCUIT Eq. 8.4.1
139.
THE SOURCE-FREE SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
140.
THE SOURCE-FREE PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT Taking the derivative with respect to t and dividing by C results in We obtain the characteristic equation by replacing the first derivative by s and the second derivative by s2. The characteristic equation is obtained as Consider the parallel RLC circuit shown above. Assume initial inductor current I0 and initial capacitor voltage V0, The roots of the characteristic equation are Applying KCL at the top node gives
141.
THE SOURCE-FREE PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT Overdamped Case (α > ω0) When L > 4R2C. The roots of the characteristic equation are real and negative. The response is Critically Damped Case (α = ω0) For α = ωO, L = 4R2C. The roots are real and equal so that the responseis Underdamped Case (α < ω0) When α < ω0 , L < 4R2C. In this case the roots are complex and may be expressed as
142.
THE SOURCE-FREE PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT
143.
THE SOURCE-FREE PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT In the parallel circuit shown, find v(t) for t > 0, assuming v(0) = 5 V, i(0) = 0A, L = 1 H, and C = 10 mF. Consider these cases: R = 1.923Ω , R = 5Ω , and RΩ = 6.25Ω .
144.
THE SOURCE-FREE PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT
145.
THE SOURCE-FREE PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT
146.
THE SOURCE-FREE PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT
147.
THE SOURCE-FREE PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT
148.
THE SOURCE-FREE PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT
149.
THE SOURCE-FREE PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT Find v(t) for t > 0 in the RLC circuit of shown.
150.
THE SOURCE-FREE PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT
151.
THE SOURCE-FREE PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT
152.
STEP RESPONSE OF A SERIES RLC CIRCUIT The solution to Eq. (8.40) has two components: the natural response vn(t) and the forced response vf(t); that is, Step response is obtained by the sudden application of a dc source. Consider the series RLC circuit shown above. Applying KVL around the loop for t > 0, The natural response is the solution when we set Vs = 0 in Eq. (8.40). The natural response vn for the overdamped, underdamped, and critically damped cases are: but Substituting for i in Eq. (8.39) and rearranging terms,
153.
STEP RESPONSE OF A SERIES RLC CIRCUIT The forced response is the steady state or final value of v(t). In the circuit shown, the final value of the capacitor voltage is the same as the source voltage Vs . Hence, Thus, the complete solutions for the overdamped, underdamped, and critically damped cases are:
154.
STEP RESPONSE OF A SERIES RLC CIRCUIT For the circuit shown in Figure 8.19, find v(t) and i(t) for t > 0. Consider these cases: R = 5Ω ,R = 4Ω , and R = 1Ω .
155.
STEP RESPONSE OF A SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
156.
STEP RESPONSE OF A SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
157.
STEP RESPONSE OF A SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
158.
STEP RESPONSE OF A SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
159.
STEP RESPONSE OF A SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
160.
STEP RESPONSE OF A SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
161.
STEP RESPONSE OF A SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
162.
STEP RESPONSE OF A SERIES RLC CIRCUIT
163.
STEP RESPONSE OF A PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT The complete solution to Eq. (8.47) consists of the natural response in(t) and the forced response if ; that is, Consider the parallel RLC circuit shown above. We want to find i due to a sudden application of a dc current. Applying KCL at the top node for t > 0, The forced response is the steady state or final value of i. In the circuit shown, the final value of the current through the inductor is the same as the source current Is . Thus, but Substituting for v in Eq. (8.46) and dividing by LC, we get
164.
STEP RESPONSE OF A PARALLEL RLC CIRCUIT In the circuit shown, find i(t) and iR(t) for t > 0.