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    method and approaches of teaching method and approaches of teaching Presentation Transcript

    • Demonstration Method
    • • The teacher shows how to operate, manipulate an equipment while the class observes.• Demonstration is a learning activity which is performed by student, a group of 3 to 4 members or a teacher while the rest become observers.
    • Guidelines for itsEffective Use
    • Before1. The Demonstrator/s must be well selected.2. When planning the activity make sure that the materials are easily available.3. Get ready with the equipment and tools to be used.4. The demonstrator must try several times before the activity5. The observers must be prepared and motivated to ensure concentration throughout the activity.6. The demonstrator must be ready with on the spot revisions such as alternative step or substitute material.7. Arrange the observer around the demonstration area8. Give question or pointers depending on the kind of demonstration
    • During1. The place must be quiet2. Extreme care must be taken in performing some delicates steps3. The activity must be interrupted by unnecessary announcements or noise in the surroundings.4. They are allowed to take down notes or record some data which may be analyzed after
    • After1. Allow some question which bothered them during demonstration.2. An examination of observed data and all information recorded follows.3. Have an analysis of trends, pattern or uniform occurrence that can help in arriving at a conclusion.4. The conclusion or summary must be cooperatively undertaken by whole class.5. Asses by way of a short test, an oral evaluation or a performance of one of the steps.
    • Advantages1. It follow systematic procedure, hence student will be able to learn from a well tried procedure since the demonstrators are selected and adjudged to be skilled.2. The use of expensive equipment and machines will be maximized.3. Possible wastage of time, effort and resources will be avoided since the demonstration is supposed to be well planned in advance.4. It will not result to trial and error learning as what happens with unplanned learning activities.5. The findings are reliable and accurate since the procedure has been tried before.6. The value of confidence is developed among the demonstration for such hands on demonstration7. Curiosity and keen observing ability are instilled among the observers.
    • Guided/ExploratoryAproach
    • Inquiry Approach“ we will never be able to help children learn if we tell them everything they need to know. Rather, we must provide them with opportunities to explore, inquire and discover new learnings.”
    • Instructional Characteristics1. Investigative processesSuch as:• Inferring• Measuring• Predicting• Classifying• Analyzing• Experimenting• Formulating conclusion
    • 2. The procedure in gatheringinformation is not prescribed by theteachers.
    • 3. The children are highly motivated tosearch, hence active participation is thebest indicator of inquisitiveness.
    • 4. The answers arrived at are genuineproducts of their own efforts.
    • 5. Focused questions before, during andafter are critical ingredients thatprovide direction and sustain action.
    • Outcomes of InquiryTeaching
    • 1. Because of its emphasis processes ofgathering information, teacher arelikely to doubt whether they aregaining a clear understanding ofcontent being introduced
    • 2. Its dependence on first handexperience with objects andphenomena occurring in theenvironment is certainly in agreementwith the most often cited theory ofPiaget on intellectual development
    • 3. The inquiry approach 4. A deep sense of which predominantly responsibility is allows some degree of developed when freedom develops children are left to initiative and manage their own divergent thinking. learning, be it in pursuit of answers, mastery of content or simple solving problem that confronts them instanly
    • 6. Experiencing 7. Participation in success in inquiry activities discovery lessons strengthen one’s build up the intellectual children’s feeling capabilities. of confidence.
    • How to facilitateInquiry Teaching
    • 1. Arrange for an 2. Choose tools ideal room setting . equipment that can easily be manipulated.
    • 3. The materials to be 4. The used or examined question/problem is to must lean easily to be answered should the processes to be originate from them, employed and the followed by end product desired. formulation of hypothesis.
    • 5. The procedure 6. At the completion of should be likewise the activity , require an be planned by evaluation of steps them. undertaken as to its effectiveness and the clarity of the results.
    • 7. Above all, teacher herself shouldinternalize her changed role to thatof a guide, facilitator and counselor
    • Problem SolvingMethodIs a teaching strategy that employs the scientificmethod in searching for information
    • 1. Sensing and defining the problem
    • 2. Formulating hypothesis
    • 3. Testing the likely hypothesisBy:ObservingConducting experimentCollecting and organizing data
    • 4. Analysis, interpretation andevaluation of evidence
    • 5. Formulate conclusion
    • Advantages
    • 1. This approach is 2. The scientific most effective in method can developing skill in likewise be used employing the effectively in other science processes. non-science subjects.
    • 5. A keen sense of 6. The students responsibility, become originality and appreciative and resourcefulness grateful for are developed achievement of scientist.
    • 3. The student’s 4. Problem solving active involvement develops higher resulting in order thinking meaningful skills. experiences as a strong motivation to follow the scientific procedure
    • 7. Critical thinking , 8. The students open mindedness learn to accept the and wise judgment opinion and evidence shared by others.
    • Project Method Teaching method the requires the students to present in concrete form the results of informationgathered about a concept, principle or innovation.
    • Advantages1. It is teaching 2. Constructing strategy that projects develops emphasizes student’ “learning by manipulate skills doing”
    • 3. The planned 4. It can be design of the employed project tests the among students students originality in who are weak in choosing materials oral to be used. communications .
    • 5. The completed 6. it instills the project add to values of initiative, one’s feeling of industry and accomplishment creativity and satisfaction
    • 7. Working on a 8. In addition. project in group Learning a develop spirit of concept, students cooperation and become productive sharing ideas. and enterprising.
    • Guidelines for its effective use1. Assign the project to a 2. The student must be clear student who is capable about the objectives of the and interested. project including the criteria that must used in evaluating the finished project.
    • 3. The design of the 4. The material must project must be be carefully carefully checked selected as to before the student suitability and starts. durability to avoid wastage.
    • 5. There should 6. Give recognition be minimal and simple awards supervision as for well constructed soon as the project to add to construction is students feeling of going on. confidence and accomplishment.
    • Metacognitive approachBeyond
    • • Therefore, a metacognition approach is an approach that goes beyond cognition.• An approach that makes our students think about their thinking• It has something to do with our students monitoring their own cognitive processes as are engaged in their cognitive task.
    • Example• making the students conscious of their thought processes while they are thinking .
    • Example• Have our student describe what is going on in their mind.
    • The End