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Nontraditional Learning Theories and Practices.

Nontraditional Learning Theories and Practices.

Embodied / Somatic Learning
Spirituality

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    Choi nontraditional ch8_10_ver1.5 Choi nontraditional ch8_10_ver1.5 Presentation Transcript

    • HRE 590: ADULT EDUCATION & PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). NON-TRADITIONAL LEARNING Ch. 8: Embodied, Spiritual, and Narrative Learning Ch. 10: Critical Theory, Postmodern, and Feminist Jeonghwan (Philip) Choi 2011 Ph.D. candidate, Human Resource Education, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
    • NON-TRADITIONAL LEARNING?
      • Learning is define as a mental process that takes place in the mind (the Brain) especially in Western heritage. But the role of “body” and “spirit” are considered in adult learning recently.
      Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi).
      • In modern Western philosophy, learning is believed as mental process occurs in one’s brain. But feminists, multicultural theorists, and adult educators aware the role of the body and the spirit in adult learning education.
      Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). *Source: Merriam & Cafarella (2007) OLD THOUGHTS ON LEARNING What? Who? Theme? Descartes (17 C)
      • “ I [that is, my mind, by which I am what I am] is entirely and truly distinct from my body”
      Separation of the Mind and Body Descartes (1637)
      • “ Body, figure, extension, motion, and place are merely fictions of my mind”
      Body is a faction of mind. Cartesians & Enlightenment Philosophers (18 C)
      • Knowledge could be obtained through “reason” alone; other sources of knowledge such as faith, tradition, and authority, were rejected.
      Focus on “Reason” Early 20 C
      • Learning equates with mental processes, with knowing through thinking or cognition.
      Learning is ‘mental process’ Feminist, Multicultural Theorist, Adult educators (Late 20 C)
      • Aware the role of the body and the spirit in adult learning theory.
      Alternatives
      • Reclaiming the body in learning contributes to a broader theory of learning. Many theorists view the body as a source of knowledge. This recognition leads to ‘critical social theory (Crowdes, 2000); Educational equity (Matthews (1998), and meaning and sense-making theories.
      Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). *Source: Merriam & Cafarella (2007) EMBODIED OR SOMATIC LEARNING What? Who? Theme? Beckett & Morris (2001, p. 36)
      • The focus of learning and education is “a change in a mental state, from one of ignorance, to one of knowledge in Western education.” [Abstract knowledge >> Material learning]
      Privileging “Abstract Knowledge & Learning” than Concrete & Material learning. H. Benson (2004)
      • NO. The “New Science of Body” (Newsweek, Sept. 27, 2004) article states that “Because the relationship between emotion and health is turning out to be more interesting, and more important, than most of us could have imagined” (Herbert Benson et al, 2004).
      Rejection of the Body? Merriam et al. (2007)
      • Embodied or somatic learning is Non-cognitive learning in experience. (i.e. a function of gendered subjectivity, white gown for scientists, calligraphy, dancing).
      Reclaiming the Body in Learning Amann (2003), Dirkx (2001)
      • Embodied learning has a strong emotional or feeling dimension. “There is no such thing as a behavior or thought, which is not impacted in some way by emotion (Mulvihill, 2003, p. 322).
      Affective Learning Brockman (2001)
      • Knowing through the body is more fundamental than what we know through culture.
      Somatic epistemology for education
      • Spirituality is related with ‘meaning-making’ in learning. To foster spirituality in adult learning, space, dialogue, mentoring relationship, story-telling, and authentic self are required.
      Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). *Source: Merriam & Cafarella (2007)
      • “ Spirituality is more personal belief and experience of a divine spirit or higher purpose, about how we construct meaning, and what we individually and communally experience and attend to and honor as the sacred in our lives.”
      • Spirituality and religion are not the same.
      • It is about an awareness and honoring of wholeness and interconnectedness of all thing.
      • It is fundamentally about meaning-making
      • It is always present in the learning environment.
      • It constitutes moving toward greater authenticity or to a more authentic self.
      • It is about how people construct knowledge through largely unconscious and symbolic processes.
      • Spiritual experience most often happen by surprise.
      SPIRITUALITY AND LEARNING What? Who? Theme? Merriam (2007)
      • “ I felt a sense of peace and of being “present” that I had not experienced before; the fact that I had just turned sixty seemed not to matter and my angst about it evaporated.” (e.g. Flow or life force)
      Spiritual learning Experience (Korean Meditation Retreat) Tisdell (2003, p. 29) Defining Spirituality Assumptions of spirituality Lemkow (2005), Capra (2003)
      • Spirit is derived from a Latin word meaning ‘breath’ or ‘win’ – like respiration or inspiration. Thus, spirit is an ‘invisible force or a source that moves everything from within”
      Spirit = Psyche = Ruah = Anima = Atman = Breath Feminist, Multicultural Theorist, Adult educators (Late 20 C)
      • Necessary conditions for spiritual development: safe, supportive, open “sacred” space; dialogue (mentoring); Visualization; story-telling.
      Fostering Spirituality in Adult Learning?
      • Narrative learning is the use of stories in the construction of meaning. Using
      • narrative as storying the curriculum, story-telling, autobiography, journal writing, adult educators facilitate learners development and transformation.
      Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). *Source: Merriam & Cafarella (2007) NARRATIVE LEARNING What? Who? Theme? Jonassen & Hernadez-Serrano (2002, p. 66)
      • Narrative is “the oldest and most natural form of sense making”, and they have a place in adult learning because stories enable us to make meaning of our lives.
      Narratives are stories.
      • Meaning than discrete facts
      • Coherence than logic
      • Sequence than category
      • Understanding than predictability and control” (p. 419).
      Narrative Knowing Rossiter & Clark (2007)
      • Cultural: Socio-cultural milieu, Taken-for-granted assumptions.
      • Familial
      • Individual
      • Organizational
      • Knowledge could be obtained through “reason” alone; other sources of knowledge such as faith, tradition, and authority, were rejected.
      Surrounding Narratives Clark (2005), Baumgartner (1999), Dominice (2000)
      • Storying of the curriculum
      • Story telling
      • Autobiography, Blogging
      • (Reflective) Journal writing
      Methods Rossiter & clark (2007), Brooks & Clark (2001)
      • Meaning-making through narrative for adult development
      • Resolving ‘disoriented dilemma’ through narrative. Narratives of transformative learning are compelling because of their affective, somatic, and spiritual dimensions.
      Connecting to Adult Development & Transformational Learning
    • CRITICAL THEORY, POSTMODERN, AND FEMINIST PERSPECTIVES
      • Adult Learning is influenced by psychology, with its focus on individual learners, their growth and development, and their learning in and out of formal setting. But learning cannot be separated from ‘social contexts’ which oppress individual learners. Questioning and critiquing taken-for-granted worldviews, structures, and institutions of society are the first steps in changing oppressive and nonemancipatory practices.
      Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). PROVOKING TRUTH OR COMFORTABLE MYTH?
      • There are five common themes in questioning and critiquing contemporary adult education: Race, Class, Gender, Power & Oppression, and Knowledge and Truth.
      Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). *Source: Merriam & Cafarella (2007)
      • People other than White European Americans are marginalized in the U.S. society. As globalization and enhancing economic mobility, race discrimination becomes world wide phenomena.
      • Critical race theory (CRT) challenge and transform relationship among race, racism, power, privilege, and oppression.
      • Class-based analysis emphasizes class struggle, alienation, and revolutionary activity.
      • The central issue of adult education is how to conceptualize interconnections between imperialism, class, gender, and race-ethnicity.
      • “ Women are not born but they are made” - Simone de Beauvoir
      • Gender is a outcome of socialization and structural oppression.
      • “ Radical educators regard the world and its constituent societies as full of contradictions and marked by imbalances of power and privilege”
      • Poverty, illiteracy, inadequacy are results of larger social issues.
      • In power relations perspective, there are three major orientation: critical theory, postmodernism, and feminist pedagogy.
      COMMON THEMES What? Who? Theme? Ianinska, Wright & Rocco (2003, p. 176) Race Youngman (1996) Class Tisdell (2005, p. 254) Gender Nesbit (1998, p. 174) Power and Oppression Merriam & Cafarella (2007) Knowledge and Truth
      • In modern Western philosophy, learning is believed as mental process occurs in one’s brain. But feminists, multicultural theorists, and adult educators aware the role of the body and the spirit in adult learning education.
      Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). *Source: Merriam & Cafarella (2007)
      • Critical theory contributes to the field of adult education with...
        • present a framework for understanding of knowledge (technical, practical, and emancipatory knowledge)
        • identify process of formulating learning communities
        • exhibit relationship between life-world and system.
      • Challenging ideology; Contesting hegemony; Unmasking power; Overcoming alienation; Learning liberation; Reclaiming reason; Practicing democracy.
      • Transition from “scientific, industrial, and social program, institutions, actions, and artifacts for the universal foundations of truth, morality, and aesthetics” to “fragmentation, disintegration, malaise, meaninglessness, nondogmatic, tentative, and nonideological”.
      • Deconstructing teacher-student relationship.
      • Fragmented ‘Self’: Aesthetic, spiritual, affective, and experiential aspects of the “self” become as important as the rational.
      • Critiques to postmodernism: Pessimistic, extreme relativism, lack of a moral center.
      • Feminist pedagogy grounds on “liberal, radical, psychoanalytic, Black, Marxist, and postmodern feminist theories. the role of the body and the spirit in adult learning theory. categorizes
      • Feminist pedagogy has most directly addressed the practice of adult education in particular the teaching-learning transaction in the classroom.
      KNOWLEDGE & TRUTH What? Who? Theme? Welton (1993), Brookfield (2001, 2002, 2005) Critical Theory & Adult Learning Seven Learning Tasks in Critical Theory Bagnall (1995), Rosenau (1992), Kilgore (2004) Postmodernism and Adult Learning Postmodern Pedagogy Lee & Johnson-Bailey (2004). Feminist pedagogy and Adult Learning
    • DISCUSSION
      • Question: Are these nontraditional theories applicable to adult education research & practices? In what ways?
      Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). What can HRD researchers do if the application of these nontraditional learning approaches are not accepted in the field of HRD?
      • Can embodied (somatic) learning, spirituality, and narrative learning come along with current learning practices in legitimated organizations such as schools and workplaces? How to evaluate them?
      • Critical theory, postmodern theory, and feminist theory are criticized for their ambiguous technical jargons, references, and phrasing; pessimism, extreme relativism, lack of moral center; and dualism.
    • QUESTIONS? Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). Jeonghwan (Philip) Choi, MBA, ME Ph.D. Candidate, Human Resource Education, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Homepage: Integral Leadership Center (http://leadershipcenter.tistory.com) E-mail: jchoi52@illinois.edu If you have any questions, please contact the author.
    • END OF DOCUMENT