(c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB   1EXERCISE 5B: PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITYAND BIOMASS DETERMINATION IN APHYTOPLANKTON...
Outline2   I.           Introduction           I.           Definition           II.          Objectives           III.   ...
Primary Productivity (def.)3       The rate at which primary producers        assimilate solar energy in a community     ...
Light – and – Dark Bottle4    Method       Common Ecological tool of measuring        Photosynthesis is aquatic community...
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)5       Colinvaux (1986) defined NPP as the energy        input less respiration       Ene...
Gross Primary Productivity6       Total amount of Energy fixed by        photosynthesis       Synonymous to Energy Input...
Net Amount of Oxygen Fixed7       Difference between Initial Amount of Dissolved        Oxygen and the Final Amount of Di...
Chlorophyll a8       p ho to s y nthe tic p ig m e nt tha t participates directly in        the light reactions, which co...
Objectives of the Experiment9       Determine net primary productivity, community        respiration and gross primary pr...
Materials Used:10        90% Acetone        12 DO bottles (light)        6 DO bottles (dark)        3 – 1 L bottles   ...
Materials Used:11        Centrifuge        Improvised Black Box        15 – mL centrifuge tubes                 (c) Mr....
12   Site Location and Description     Molawin Creek Location (According to Exercise 4A): 14°9.9’ N 121° 14.3’     East, U...
Aerial View13           (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
Aerial View14           (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
SHADE AREA     STUDY SITE:     MOLAWIN CREEK15            SUNNY AREA              (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
Area where the bottles are16     submerged for 30 minutes.            (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
Methodology (LDB Technique)17           (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
Methodology(Algal Biomass18     Technique)           (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
MTD. (Spectro – photometric19     det. )           (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
20   Computations        (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
Table 5B.1 Dissolved Oxygen Concentration.                                                                         Dissolv...
Computations for NPP, CR and GPP                  Site 1 (Sunny):    Site 2 (Shade):                   Computations for GP...
Table 5B.3. Data on the optical densities of replicate samples from two                                        Table 5B.4....
COMPUTATIONS FOR Chl a (mg/ m³)                                                        SIT                      SITE 1 SUN...
GUIDE QUESTIONS25        Compare the two sites based on the value of a) NPP,         b) CR and c) GPP. What conclusions c...
GUIDE QUESTIONS26        What is the basis of the influence of substrate         composition on the NPP and the CR?     ...
GUIDE QUESTIONS27        What other environmental factors may have influenced the results but were not addressed in      ...
Continuation.28        Other factors include nutrient availability and depth. Nutrients are essential         for phytopl...
Continuation.29        However, light is not always directly related to photosynthetic activity,         because harmful ...
GUIDE QUESTIONS30        Compare the algal biomass in the two stations.        Algal Biomass is higher in sunny area nea...
GUIDE QUESTIONS31        Was there any evident parallelism in the results         obtained in the biomass determination a...
GUIDE QUESTIONS32        Why are the photosynthetic rates and algal         biomass measured from the amount of         c...
So, Why is the sea BLUE?33        Two way answer (proven to be valid).        1. Physicist Answer        2. Biologist o...
References/Literature Cited34        Berkman Hambrook, J.A. and M.G.Canova (n.d.) A a l                       lg         ...
35     ANY QUESTIONS???     VIOLENT REACTIONS???        (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Primary Productivity and Biomass Determination in a Phytoplankton Community

4,882 views
4,569 views

Published on

Exercise 5B: Primary Productivity and Biomass Determination in a Phytoplankton Community

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,882
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Primary Productivity and Biomass Determination in a Phytoplankton Community

  1. 1. (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB 1EXERCISE 5B: PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITYAND BIOMASS DETERMINATION IN APHYTOPLANKTON COMMUNITY Acos, Roy Luister Autor, Jovel Marie Caballes, Denisse Abbie Cadiente, Lordan Delos Reyes, Jeoffrey Sanga Lagajino, Stephen Samaniego, Kate Group 1 Biocoenosis BIO 150 U-2L 2nd Semester A.Y 2011-12
  2. 2. Outline2 I. Introduction I. Definition II. Objectives III. Materials IV. Study Site Description V. Methodology II. Analysis and Discussion I. Light – and – Dark Bottle method II. Algal biomass III. Computations I. Dissolved Oxygen Concentration II. Carbon Fixed III. Optical Densities IV. Chlorophyll a Computed Amounts III. Guide Questions IV. Question and Answer Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB (c) Mr. Jeoffrey
  3. 3. Primary Productivity (def.)3  The rate at which primary producers assimilate solar energy in a community (Exploring Ecology Manual)  The rate at which biomass is produced per unit area by plants, the primary producers. It can be expressed either in units of energy (e.g. J m−2 day−1) or dry organic matter (e.g. kg ha−1 year−1) or carbon (e.g. g C m−2 year−1) (Begon, 2006). (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  4. 4. Light – and – Dark Bottle4 Method  Common Ecological tool of measuring Photosynthesis is aquatic community.  According to Colinvaux (1986), the Original method is devised by Gaarder and Gran in1927 and the determination process of Dissolved Oxygen content is measured by titration using Potassium permanganate (or Wrinkler Method). (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  5. 5. Net Primary Productivity (NPP)5  Colinvaux (1986) defined NPP as the energy input less respiration  Energy left after removal of R or respiratory heat  Mathematically defined as NPP = GPP - R (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  6. 6. Gross Primary Productivity6  Total amount of Energy fixed by photosynthesis  Synonymous to Energy Input (Colinvaux, 1986) (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  7. 7. Net Amount of Oxygen Fixed7  Difference between Initial Amount of Dissolved Oxygen and the Final Amount of Dissolved Oxygen (Exercise 5A, Exploring Ecology Manual). Photosynthesis  The process of conversion of Light Energy to Chemical Energy that is being stored in the form of Glucose or other Sugars on different parts of the plant (Campbell, 2009). (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  8. 8. Chlorophyll a8  p ho to s y nthe tic p ig m e nt tha t participates directly in the light reactions, which convert solar energy to chemical energy (Campbell, 2009). Biomass  Mass of organisms per unit area per unit of time (Exer 5A)  The total mass of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a particular habitat (Campbell, 2009). (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  9. 9. Objectives of the Experiment9  Determine net primary productivity, community respiration and gross primary productivity in the aquatic environment  Perform the method of using chlorophyll a to estimate algal biomass in a body of water  Explain the differences between the two microsites based on the amount of algal biomass observed  Explain the relationship between phytoplankton primary productivity and algal biomass (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  10. 10. Materials Used:10  90% Acetone  12 DO bottles (light)  6 DO bottles (dark)  3 – 1 L bottles  Spectrophotometer  Stopwatch  Glass Grinder or mortar and pestle (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  11. 11. Materials Used:11  Centrifuge  Improvised Black Box  15 – mL centrifuge tubes (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  12. 12. 12 Site Location and Description Molawin Creek Location (According to Exercise 4A): 14°9.9’ N 121° 14.3’ East, UPLB Origin: Mount Makiling (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB Drainage: Laguna de Bay
  13. 13. Aerial View13 (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  14. 14. Aerial View14 (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  15. 15. SHADE AREA STUDY SITE: MOLAWIN CREEK15 SUNNY AREA (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  16. 16. Area where the bottles are16 submerged for 30 minutes. (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  17. 17. Methodology (LDB Technique)17 (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  18. 18. Methodology(Algal Biomass18 Technique) (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  19. 19. MTD. (Spectro – photometric19 det. ) (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  20. 20. 20 Computations (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  21. 21. Table 5B.1 Dissolved Oxygen Concentration. Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) Stations IB LB DBB R1 R2 R3 MEAN R1 R2 R3 MEAN R1 R2 R3 MEAN 1 9.4 9 9.1 9.2 13.4 13 10.8 12.4 11.9 9.9 10 10.6 2 9.1 9.9 8.3 9.1 11 14.6 11.8 12.5 9 12.8 11 10.9 Table 5B.2 Computed amount of Carbon Fixed. Computed Values from mean IB, LB and DB (mg/L) per hour Stations GPP as Carbon fixed (mg/m³) per hour NPP CR GPP 1 6.4 -2.8 3.6 1350 2 6.8 -3.6 3.2 120021 (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  22. 22. Computations for NPP, CR and GPP Site 1 (Sunny): Site 2 (Shade): Computations for GPP (mg/m³ per hour) SITE 122 (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  23. 23. Table 5B.3. Data on the optical densities of replicate samples from two Table 5B.4. Compusites Stations Chlorophyll a (mg/m³) STATIONS Site 1 MEAN MEAN MEAN 0.08 1.168 (Sunny) Site 1 Site 2 0.005 0.006 0.011 0.04 0.576 (Shade) (Shade) Site 2 0.007 0.002 0.013 (Sunny) Computations for SITE 1 SUNNY: SIT 23 (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  24. 24. COMPUTATIONS FOR Chl a (mg/ m³) SIT SITE 1 SUNNY24 (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  25. 25. GUIDE QUESTIONS25  Compare the two sites based on the value of a) NPP, b) CR and c) GPP. What conclusions can you draw from the results in each of the three variables?  Table 5B.2 summarizes the NPP, CR, and GPP values of the two microsites. Site/Station I has lower NPP and higher CR while Site2 (shade) has higher NPP value and lower CR. In the effect, the site 1 (sunny) has the highest GPP value compared with that of shade area. Thus, can be accounted with, in sunny area, where the most phytoplankton reside due to abundant supply of Oxygen. (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  26. 26. GUIDE QUESTIONS26  What is the basis of the influence of substrate composition on the NPP and the CR?  Phytoplanktons require nutrients to survive aside from gathering sunlight in order to survive. The more they have nutrients, the more oxygen they can produce. This can also contribute to the oxygen availability for the community to respire. These nutrients are the chemical elements nitrogen and phosphorus. These nutrients are like fertilizers to plants that enable phytoplankton to produce proteins, nucleic acids and other parts essential for survival and reproduction. Some phytoplankton, like diatoms, require silicon or silicic acid in order to produce siliceous shells that are part of their outer covering. Phytoplankton also need trace metals like iron, copper, zinc and cobalt. The substrate is the main source of these nutrients. Due to the weathering of rocks, the nutrients are chipped of and are readily used by phytoplankton. Sandy areas have a fine composition and thus having ready-to-use nutrients. Unlike to those of the rocky areas, the nutrients are few because of Reyes, UPLB (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos the minerals that are not yet weathered.
  27. 27. GUIDE QUESTIONS27  What other environmental factors may have influenced the results but were not addressed in the experiment? Explain why such factors would play a role in the rate of photosynthesis.  These results were influenced by the following environmental factors, type and concentration of organisms, age of the community, amount of nutrients and depth. There are three types of organisms observed in this study, producers such as phytoplankton which includes microscopic algae and photosynthetic bacteria; consumers such as zooplankton and heterotrophic protists and decomposers which feeds on detritus. In relevance to the type of species, producers are the sole source of primary productivity in a community while all organisms present in a community contribute to respiration. As defined by Odum (1971), primary productivity is the rate at which radiant energy is stored by photosynthetic and chemosynthetic activity of producers in the form of organic substances. The concentration of organism also affect the productivity of a community, a high concentration such as phytoplankton biomass would increase productivity while an increase in heterotrophic organism would favor respiration and a decrease in productivity as grazing would be dominant. Wurts (2001) emphasized that both phytoplankton and zooplankton have high metabolic rates and respiratory rates as a function of their size and high surface to volume ratio. The age of the community is also a determinant factor, a -youngReyes, UPLB would have a higher rate (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga Delos community of photosynthesis than an aged one. Thus, the age of the community is
  28. 28. Continuation.28  Other factors include nutrient availability and depth. Nutrients are essential for phytoplankton growth and reproduction. The lack of these essential macro- and micronutrients would hinder growth, metabolism as well as productivity. Wurts (2001) noted that phytoplankton growth is stimulated by concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus. However, excessive amount could also bring ill-effects to the community because each species of phytoplankton has a particular response to different concentrations of limiting nutrients. Ponds such as the ones used in the study, artificial ponds, are classified according to nutrient concentrations – those with highest concentrations and productivity are called eutrophic waters, while those with the lowest concentrations and productivity are oligotrophic and those that are intermediate are mesotrophic. (Smith and Smith, 1998) Hence, there is a direct relationship between nutrient availability and productivity.  Depth also exists as a determinant factor in aquatic system productivity. It is a fact that light is a vital factor in photosynthesis and light quantity declines with depth. An inverse relationship exists between depth and light. Depth α(c) Mr.1 /Primary Productivity UPLB Depth α Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, and 1 /Light
  29. 29. Continuation.29  However, light is not always directly related to photosynthetic activity, because harmful rays such as UV are present in the surface which causes photoinhibition among surface phytoplankton thus to limit surface productivity. In relation to depth, surface productivity is limited by light and low nutrient availability. It gradually increases and declines to a point called compensation depth, where productivity is equivalent to the rate of respiration. The compensation depth is also the end of the euphotic zone or the zone of primary productivity, in which photosynthetic activity is highly observed. Significantly, Wurts (2001) noted that in an aquatic system, the environmental carrying capacity still persist as the biological limit for pond productivity and the availability of dissolved oxygen is the major determinant of pond biomass. Wurts also noted that nutrient availability and light exist as important factors in the productivity of aquatic systems. However, as phytoplankton density increases too much, light would be limited in the surface and could cause changes in the total pond productivity. This would also limit photosynthetic oxygen production even (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB though respiration continuously increases.
  30. 30. GUIDE QUESTIONS30  Compare the algal biomass in the two stations.  Algal Biomass is higher in sunny area near the riffle / rocky boulders, shallow area  Chlorophyll provides an estimate for measuring algal weight and volume, and acts as an empirical link between nutrient concentration and other biological phenomena in aquatic ecosystems. Nutrients and other chemicals in a watershed, together with factors such as temperature and light, affect the biomass production of algae in streams and lakes. Algal production, in turn, affects the entire biological structure of an ecosystem.  CHL a provides a measure of the amount of active algal biomass (as periphyton) present per area of stream bottom, or a measure of  phytoplankton from a volume of water. CHL a is a photosynthetic pigment present in all green plants and occurs in the chloroplast of most plant Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB (c) cells.  http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter7/7.4.pdf
  31. 31. GUIDE QUESTIONS31  Was there any evident parallelism in the results obtained in the biomass determination and the NPP and/or GPP? Explain why there were / were not parallel. YES, the results obtained show that the amount of biomass and NPP/GPP value of sunny area has higher value compared to the shady area because of the large amount of sunlight that affects the rate of photosynthesis. Therefore, the higher the NPP/GPP value, the higher the amount of biomass. (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  32. 32. GUIDE QUESTIONS32  Why are the photosynthetic rates and algal biomass measured from the amount of chl(orophyll) A considered as functional attributes of a phytoplankton community?  Phytoplankton serve as a food source in the aquatic environment. They undergo photosynthesis in order to be able to produce food. Photosynthetic rates and algal biomass are important functional attributes of a phytoplankton community because these factors help in determining things about food production in the community. Since they undergo photosynthesis in order to produce food, knowing the photosynthetic rate would help in knowing how fast food is produced in the community. Algal biomass provides a useful measure of the production and use of resources in the community. It also determines how much of the food is left for the next level of organism in the aquatic food chain. (Source, n.d)? (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB  Algal Biomass measured is a functional attribute since it will determine
  33. 33. So, Why is the sea BLUE?33  Two way answer (proven to be valid).  1. Physicist Answer  2. Biologist or Ecologist Answer (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB
  34. 34. References/Literature Cited34  Berkman Hambrook, J.A. and M.G.Canova (n.d.) A a l lg Bio m a s s I ic a to rs . Retrieved March 06, 2012 from nd http://water.usgs.gov/owq/FieldManual/Chapter7/7.4.pdf  Campbell, N. A. et. al. 2009. Bio lo g y . 8th ed. San Francisco, CA: USA. Pearson’s Benjamin Cummings, Inc.  Colinvaux. P. 1986. Ec o lo g y . 1st ed. USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.  Cuevas, V.C. et. al. 2010. Ex p lo ring Ec o lo g y : La bo ra to ry M nua l. Environmental Biology Division, Institute of a Biological Sciences, CAS, UPLB.  Spokes, L. Phy to p la nkto ns a nd N utrie nts in the O c e a ns . (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB Retrieved March 7, 2012 from
  35. 35. 35 ANY QUESTIONS??? VIOLENT REACTIONS??? (c) Mr. Jeoffrey Sanga - Delos Reyes, UPLB

×