The influence (basic biology) unm
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The influence (basic biology) unm

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The influence (basic biology) unm The influence (basic biology) unm Document Transcript

  • RATIFICATION PAGE Complete report of Basic Biology practicum with title ’’The Iinfluence of Temperature to organism activity’’ that arranged by : Name : Jeny ayu hardiah ningrum ID : 1114040162 Group : III (Three) Class : ICP A After checked by Assistant and Assistant Coordinator so this report was accepted Makassar, December 2011 Assistant Coordinator , Assistant, Djumarirmanto,S.Pd. Firdaus ID.091404183
  • CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background Temperature is one factor that important for living thing, temperature can make human die, if human can not do adaptation in enviroment, and temperature also influence chemical reaction in the body, example if we live in cold temperature, we always ever be urinate that was caused chemical reaction in the body very slow, because cold temperature trouble reaction, so also in hot temperature we always fell heat and get sweat because chemical reaction in hot temperature work very fast or actively. Temperature in this world always changed, and also influence bounding oxygen, because always changed, therefore organism must have adaptation characteristic in a new environmentally or acclimatization, if can not adaptation in environment, and it move to place have different temperature from the first place it can die, not only animal but all living thing that live in the world, because temperature in different place also different, like in mountain region, very cold and usually descend rain, and different with beach region usually make skin brown because very heat, I don’t know why, maybe in mountain region have many tree, meanwhile in beach region don’t have many tree. This practicum is done to prove warm temperature and cold temperature influence chemical reaction in body or not, so to known about temperature we use Cyprinus carpio and contain in warm water and see movement operculum, then entered in fresh water and added ice cubes, then fresh water as control for known usually, and after practicum we can know if attempt that we do correspond to theory or not, because usually after done practicum the result unegual with theory.
  • B. Purpose The purpose of practicum is the students can compare the speed of used oxygen by organisms in the different temperature. C. Benefit 1. To the student: known about speed of used oxygen by organisms in the different temperature and the factor which influence the different speed of used oxygen by organisms. 2. To the society: can add knowledge about temperature that agree if they will maintain fish in aquarium 3. To the environment: maintain animal are not destroyed
  • CHAPTER II PREVIEW OF LITERATURE Temperature is one of them enviroment physical factor that appear, easily measured and very diverse, temperature has an important in the regulating biological activity of organism, both animal or plant. This was mainly due to temperature affects the speed of chemical reactions in the body and determine metabolic activity, example respiration. As metter same with other factor, temperature have time tolerated of organism, this problem is described in the study of ecology “law of shelford tolerance”, with relatively simple tools, experiment on influence of respiration activity of the organism is not difficult (Tim Pengajar, 2011). One of the clearest example of homeostasis in animals is seen in the birds and mammals with regard to the regulation of body temperature. You will recall that only these animals are warm-blooded. The homeostatic mechanism involved is a temperature regulating center located in the hypothalamus of the brain. It is small mass of nerve cells which connect with effectors at surface of the body, and it is axtremely sensitive to changes in temperature. In man for example, it responds differently to temperatures above and below about 98,6 degrees Fahrenheit. Let us suppose that aroom where the temperature is 100 degrees. As soon as body temperature increases, the temperature regulating center sends nervous impulses to the sweat glands of the skin, causing them to secrete moisture to the outer surface of the body (Slate, 1974). Animals can have either a variable or a constant body temperature. An animal whose body temperature varies with its environment is called a poikilotherm (from the Greek poikilos, varied). In contrast, a homeotherm has a relatively constant body temperature. For example, the largemouth bass is a poikilotherm, and the river otter isa homeotherm. From the descriptions of ectotherms and endotherms, it might seem that all ectotherms are poikilothermic and all endotherms are homeothermic.
  • Actually, there is no fixed relationship between the source of heat and the stability of body temperature. For example, many ectothermic marine fishes and invertebrates inhabit waters with such stable temperatures that their body temperature varies less than that ofen dot herms such as humans and other mammals. Conversely, the body temperature of a few endotherms varies considerably. For example, bats and humming birds may periodically enter an inactive state in which they maintain a lower body temperature. It is a common misconception that ectotherms are "coldblooded and endotherms are "warm-blooded” Ectotherms do not necessarily have low body temperatures. In fact, when sitting in the sun, many ectothermic lizards have higher body temperatures than mammals. Thus, the terms cold-blooded and warm-blooded are misleading and have been dropped from the scientific vocabulary (Champbell, 2008). Temperature is a physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold. Objects of low temperature are cold, while various degrees of higher temperatures are referred to as warm or hot. Heat spontaneously flows from bodies of a higher temperature to bodies of lower temperature. No net heat will be exchanged between bodies of the same temperature; such bodies are said to be in "thermal equilibrium". The temperature of a substance varies with the microscopic speed of the fundamental particles that it contains, raised to the second power; that is, it is proportional to the mean kinetic energy of its particles. However any increase in temperature upon receiving external kinetic energy as heat is also inversely proportional to heat capacity. Temperature can be thought of as the "concentration" of kinetic energy relative to its heat capacity. A higher heat capacity implies a higher entropy in which to "spread out" the kinetic energy. A hot object must at least either have a smaller heat capacity or a larger kinetic energy than a cold object. Quantitatively, temperature is measured with thermometers, which may be calibrated to a variety of temperature scales. Many physical properties of materials including the phase (solid, liquid, gaseous or plasma), density, solubility, vapor pressure, and electrical conductivity depend on the temperature. Temperature also
  • plays an important role in determining the rate and extent to which chemical reactions occur. This is one reason why the human body has several elaborate mechanisms for maintaining the temperature at 310 K, since temperatures only a few degrees higher can result in harmful reactions with serious consequences. Temperature also determines the thermal radiation emitted from a surface. One application of this effect is the incandescent light bulb, in which a tungsten filament is electrically heated to a temperature at which significant quantities of visible light are emitted (Anon., 2011). Movement of water air is another feature of the physical environment. All these factors ramify and interlock, both in water and in air movement helps to determine the distribution of temperature, and air movement is a crucial element for rainfall. Winds and currents also influence organisms more directly in many ways. Innumerable land plants, among them the conifers and many grasses, are wind pollinated. The animals in swift-flowing streams can remain there only by anchoring themselves somehow or by making headway against the current. Most animals in following fresh water have eggs that sink to the bottom, below the current, although many marine animals have floating, drifting eggs (Simpson, 1965). The mutation showed a five fold increase for a 100C rise in temperature when reaction was made for the shortened life span at the higher temperature. Temperature coefficient (Q10) for most developmental processes or chemical reactions is the order of 2 or 3, so the temperature coefficient forations is somewhat higher. It has also been found that temperature shocks (exposing organisms to sublethal but abnormally high or low temperatures for limited periods) mutation rates. Although temperature has been shown to influence spontaneous mutation reateses, it has been found that over a wide range of temperatures (100C to 500C in barley and 80C to 340C drosophila) there is no effect of temperature on X-ray-induced mutation rates. This fact, when considered in relation to the effect of temperature alone on mutation rates, suggest a difference in the way in which their effects are produced (Merrell, 1975).
  • CHAPTER III PRACTICUM METHOD A. Time and Place Day / Date : Monday/December 12th 2011 Time : at 10.50 A.M until 12.30 P.M Place : Biology laboratory 3rd floor at FMIPA UNM B. Tool and Material 1. Tools a. Thermometer b. Stopwatch c. Beaker glass 1000 ml and 50 ml or toples 2. Material a. Cyprinus carpio b. Ice cubes c. Fresh water d. Warm water C. Work produce 1. Entered 2 Cyprinus carpio into becker glass contained fres water and aclimatisation
  • 2. Took 1 Cyprinus carpio and entered into becker glass (A) that contained fresh water and ice cubes water (150C), and counted and write the frequency of the movement operculum every 1 minutes during 5 minutes. 3. Took 1 Cyprinus carpio and entered into becker glass (B) that contained fresh water (280C), and counted and write the frequency of the movement operculum every 1 minutes during 5 minutes. 4. Took 1 Cyprinus carpio and entered into becker glass (C) that contained warm water (400C), and counted and write the frequency of the movement operculum every 1 minutes during 5 minutes. Fresh water (control) 280C Warm water 400C 5. Wrote the result observation in the table. Cold water 150C
  • CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION A. Observation Result Becker Temperature Time (Minute) Average 1 2 3 4 5 A 150C – 120C 92 90 54 46 40 64 B 280C – 280C 103 92 61 55 49 72 C 400C – 390C 50 33 23 21 21 29 B. Data analysis Graph of movement operculum at Cyprinus carpio Graph of movement operculum at Cyprinus carpio 110 1, 103 100 movement operculum 1. 90 Beaker A Beaker B Beaker C 2, 92 2, 90 1, 92 80 70 3, 61 60 50 4, 55 3, 54 1, 50 5, 49 4, 46 40 5, 40 2, 33 30 3, 23 20 0 1 2 3 time (minute) 4, 21 4 5, 21 5 6
  • 2. The analysis from result to find average than use formula V= a. Becker glass A b. Becker glass B c. Becker glass C C. Discussion The first experiment we take Cyprinus carpioand fill in cold water have temperature 150C, see movement operculum up to five minute each one minute, and first minute it is 92, second minute it is 90, third minute it is 54, fourth minute it is 46, and fifth minutes is 40, and finally we checked temperature and changed as 120C. Second experiment we take Cyprinus carpio and fill in fresh water or fish water of aqurium have temperature 280C, see movement operculum up to five minute each one minute, and first minute it is 103, second minute it is 92, third minute it is 61, fourth minute it is 55, and fifth minutes is 49 finally we checked temperature and changed as 280C, and third experiment we take Cyprinus carpioand fill in warm water have temperature 400C, see movement operculum up to five minute each one minute, and first minute it is 50, second minute it is 33, third minute it is 23, fourth minute it is 21, and fifth minutes is 21, and finally we checked temperature and changed as 390C. and on this attempt we can see, operculum move on fresh water more a lot of and than cold water and the latest is warm water, reverse equal with cognitive, suppose faster warm water and cold water slows, that water high temperature therefore movement operculum frequency
  • also getting quick and if water temperature low therefore operculum movement frequency will slow too, because oxygen content on water that high temperature is less so to get oxygen Cyprinus carpio open and close operculum, different with cold water done less movement operculum, but in fresh water normal because temperature in the body same with environment.
  • CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion After done practicum, we can compare the speed of used oxygen by organisms in the different temperature, and according to the result we find movement operculum in fresh water faster and warm water is slow, different with the theory , in warm water movement operculum faster, cold water slow and fresh water normal. B. Suggestion 1. Suggestion for laboratory I hope for next practicum tools and materials that need for practicum must complete and better in order practicum is success. 2. Suggestion for Assistant I hope assistant could give attention for practican about different water 3. Suggestion for the all friends I hope all practican be carefull, and if take tools you must slow.
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY Anon., 2011. Temperature. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature. Accessed at December 16th 2011. Champbell, Neil A, 2008. Biology. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings Merrell, David J. 1975. An Introduction to Genetics. New York: Ww. Norton and Company, inc Simpson, George Gaylord. 1965. Life An Introduction to biology. New York:Harcourt Slate, Audrey nelson. 1974. Principles of biology. New York: Harper and Row Publisher Tim Pengajar, 2011. Penuntun praktikum biologi dasar. Makassar: UNM
  • APPENDIX 1. Why happened to different movement frequency fish operculum at different water temperature? Because fish must done aclimatitation if find new place because have different temperature in water and temperature determine movement (open close) operculum. 2. What temperature in frequency have movement (open close) operculum highest? 280C 3. What temperature in frequency have movement (open close) operculum lowest? 400C 4. Why happened different movement (open close) frequency at fish base according to water temperature? Because happened different temperature in the body and extern body, water high temperature (warm) therefore movement operculum frequency also getting quick and if water low temperature (cold) therefore operculum movement frequency will slow too, because oxygen content on water that high temperature is less so to get oxygen Cyprinus carpio open and close operculum, different with cold water done less movement operculum, but in fresh water normal because temperature in the body same with environment.