Complete report of basic biology practicum with title ’’ How To Use
Microscope’’ that arranged by :
: Jeny ayu hardiah ningrum
: III (Three)
: ICP A
After checked by assistant and assistant coordinator so this report was
Makassar, November 4th 2011
Microscope ,this word not new for us,I have use when I in junior high school
and senior high school,we had now practicum of microscope is one of practicum in
biology department ,biology is one of branch of science wich explained about
matter and the energy which has connection with human life and the process of
their life,human life concist of seme cell very small,for the first time we must to
know how to use the microscope because we just can see cell with use the
microscope which can help us to see cell and structure of cell
Do this practicum is the challenge for us because we must know components
or part of microscope before we do this practicum about microscope, we can not
get shadow, but my teacher help me,and my observation have succesed, and this
practicum very accostumed but I always try although the tenses in report very
hurd, not only present tense but past tens also. light very important for this
practicum if don’t have light,I can not see cell and I can not find something
This practicum is very interest and it is very challenge, so we have to try and
try use it better than past time when we still studied ,I always studied in junior high
school and senior high scool because I hope in future I can become a biology
teacher.the reasons to do this practicum very many because it is one of the subject
which we must know it.seeing happening problem, I interest to do praktikum this
and to know more about microscope, therefore of that i hopes more know a lot of
about microscope and part. not only sectioned but logistic and way utilizes also
need at knows that deep utilize tool not false again.
The purpose of practicum is the students of University can use the biology
microscope and safe to see a simple preparate.
The benefit this practicum is the student of university more to know,part of
microscope and function.the students can use microscope well more than senior
high school,we can know the purpose of this practicum ,the manner to keep the
microscope and the right procedure wor k to use microscope.
PREVIEW OF LITERATURE
Light microscopes is an indispensable technique for cell
biologist to study cellular structures and biological processes in both living and fixed
cells.this chapter provides and overview of light microscopy .describes the important
parts of the microscope and goes on to explain how to set up a standard research
microscope for bright field and phase contrast microscopy.there is also a short section
on concfocalmicroscopy,more comprehensive descriptions of the different forms of
light microscopy are found elsewhere.Microsopes are instruments that produce an
enlarged image of a specimen. The eyepieces and the objectives are the main
of the magnification system of the microscope,the product of the
magnification of the objective lens and the ocular give the total magnification of the
microscope.the visibility of the magnifed specimen depends on contrast and
resolution. Contrast is the difference in light bintensity between an object and its
background. some biological samples
contain coloured compouns. The key
components of the compound microscope consist of : the eyepieces ,body tubes,nose
pieces and objectives are part of the magnification system of the microscope.To use a
microscope properly,and to get the most out of it ,it is important to understand the
purpose and function of each of the microscope’s components (Harris,2006)
The simple example of a microscope is a double convex lens of the type that
is used as a magnifiying glass .in the late 1500s to dutch spectacle makers developed
the compound microscope .their device had two convex lenses placed at either and of
a tube and was capable of magnifiying an object to 10 times.its actual size
today,developments in microscopy provide scientist with a wide selection of
instruments with wich to view the smallest organism and even the components of
individual cells.These microscopes range in complexity from the relatively simple
models you will use in the laboratory today to highty sophisticated scanning and
transmission electron microscopes (Helms R.Dorris ,2006)
A compound microscope contains two lens system .one is located in the
ocular and the other in the objective ,each of the lenses magnifies the object
independently .the ocular eyepiece magnification is disagnated in a similar manner,in
order to determine the total magnification of acombination a two lenses multiply
themanification of your microscope for both low and high power (windell,1975)
There are two objectives mounted on a movable stage instead of a movable
body tube,on each on side of the arm near the base you will see a large knob and
represents both the coarse and fine adjustment,turning the adjustment one quarter turn
in either direction represents fine adjustment ,turning it a greater amount represents
coarse adjustment (windell,1957).
There are two objecteves the nosepiece called the resolving nosepiece.a spring
catch enganges the nose piece to hold each objective in position,the shorter objective
is the low power objective and is marked 10x.the high power objective is longer and
is ,arked 43x or 45x.The microscope is parfocal which means that anobject is in focus
when the noce piece is rotated from one position to another .when switching from
low to high power watch from the side to see whether or not the objective will touch
the slide .if it does touch,lower the stage slightly before placing the objective into
A microscope is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked
eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy.
Microscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope. There are many types
of microscopes, the most common and first to be invented is the optical microscope which
uses light to image the sample. Other major types of microscopes are the electron microscope
(both the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope) and the
various types of scanning probe microscope(anonymous a,2011)
The first microscope to be developed was the optical microscope, although the
original inventor is not easy to identify. An early microscope was made in 1590 in
Middelburg, Netherlands. Two eyeglass makers are variously given credit: Hans
Lippershey (who developed an early telescope) and Zacharias Janssen. Giovanni
Faber coined the name microscope for Galileo Galilei's compound microscope in
1625 (Galileo had called it the "occhiolino" or "little eye"). The first detailed account
of the interior construction of living tissue based on the use of a microscope did not
appear until 1644, in Giambattista Odierna's L'occhio della mosca, or The Fly's Eye.
It was not until the 1660s and 1670s that the microscope was used extensively for
research in Italy, Holland and England. Marcelo Malpighi in Italy began the analysis
of biological structures beginning with the lungs. Robert Hooke's Micrographia had a
huge impact, largely because of its impressive illustrations. The greatest contribution
came from Antoni van Leeuwenhoek who discovered red blood cells and
spermatozoa and helped popularise microscopy as a technique. On 9 October 1676,
Leeuwenhoek reported the discovery of micro-organisms. In 1893 August Köhler
developed a key technique for sample illumination, Köhler illumination, which is
central to modern light microscopy. This method of sample illumination gives rise to
extremely even lighting and overcomes many limitations of older techniques of
sample illumination. Further developments in sample illumination came from Fritz
Zernike in 1953 and George Nomarski 1955 for their development of phase contrast
and differential interference contrast illumination which allow imaging of transparent
samples. Specialized techniques may exceed this magnification but the resolution is
diffraction limited. The use of shorter wavelengths of light, such as the ultraviolet, is
one way to improve the spatial resolution of the optical microscope, as are devices
such as the near-field scanning optical microscope.Sarfus, a recent optical technique
increases the sensitivity of standard optical microscope to a point it becomes possible
to directly visualize nanometric films (down to 0.3 nanometre) and isolated nanoobjects (down to 2 nm-diameter). The technique is based on the use of non-reflecting
substrates for cross-polarized reflected light microscopy (anonymous b,2011).
A.Time and Place
Day / Date :Monday/October 25th 2011
:10.00 A.M until 12.30 P.M
:Biology laboratory 3th flour at FMIPA UNM
B.Tool and Material
a. Biology microscope
b. Tool box have contents:
c. The equipments are served by the student of university:
New razor blade
New flannel cloth
a. The materials are served by laboratory:
Cotton or barn
b. The materials are served by the student of university:
1. Prepared the microscope
Put the microscope on the work table in front of you
b. Cleaned up the body of microscope by using flannel eloth. Didn’t shine the
lens of microscope with cloth.
c. Opened toolbox than took petri dish which have object glass and cover glass.
Cleaned up the object glass with cotton cloth or filter paper.
d. Only there were microscope, toolbox and is contents, guide book and note
book, the materials of practicum on the table, besides it put on the other place
which had been served.
2. Straightened up the light for enter to the tube
a. Paid attention to your practicum room condition, from where the bright light
came (from front, left or right ). Directed the mirror of microscope to the light
source. Opened diaphragm or revolved the slab to the medium hole position.
The microscope which have condenser straightened the position near the stage
and used thin mirror. The microscope without condenser used concave mirror.
b. Settled the revolver position until the short objective lens looked out to the
stage until click sound.
c. Brought the tube to down until the objective tip with the stage 5-10 mm or the
tube maximize down.
d. With the left eye closed the right eye looked the ocular will appeared white
round area. If the light didn’t flat, moved mirror position until the light flat. If
more dazzled, constricted the diaphragm or the hole of slab. If white round
area still hazy, it was need the light, opened diaphragm put on the biggest lab.
e. The microscope ready to used for observed the preparate.
3. The method to set the lens distance with preparate
a. Revolved the macro meter to the thumb, dropped the tube, objective distance
with stage become small.
b. Put the object glass which have preserved preparate on the stage so that the
material which observed been in the middle in the hole stage. Hold the
preparate with stage clips so that it didn’t move.
c. Paid attention the objective distance with the object glass not more 10 mm. If
the distance loose, the hand revolved macro meter to down the tube while
looked from beside objective tip approach the object glass until 5-10 mm.
d. Looked from ocular while the hand revolved macro meter to up the tube
slowly. Observed the while round area until the shadow appear. If that had
done and the shadow had not appeared, it is had past. Repeat again from 3.3.
if had there was a shadow but still hazy so saw it while turned the micro meter
up and down until the shadow clearly visible.
e. Looked into the ocular (what increases is used?) and the objective (what
increase is used?) counted the shadow increase which we see.
f. Put out side the preparat when we had observed.
4. Made simple preparate
a. Took the object glass which was cleaned, held everywhere.
b. Sprinkled water on the middle.
c. Pulped the cotton fibers with tweezers and put it on the middle drops of water.
d. One of the hand held cover glass between the thumb and index finger on the
e. The side of cover glass touched on the object glass near the drops of water
with 45 declivity than released it so it cover the drops of water. Reserved the
surplus of water which ooze out on the glass side by using filter paper.
f. Put on the preparate make on the stage and inspected it like the step 3.2,
3.3,3.4, and 3.5.
5. Changed the magnification
a. The 4.6 surveillance had success, 3.4 and 3.5, increased the shadow which
measles. Didn’t touch preparate position.
b. Revolved until the longest of objective lens (strong) vertical on the stage and
click sound (looked the increase).
c. Looked while turned the micro meter until maesles the shadow whish more
big. Inspected the shadow.
d. Failed to found the biggest shadow, upward the tube with turned the macro
meter contrary direction with the thumb. Revolved again revolved to put the
small objective lens on the position from the beginning. Without change
preparate position, did the step 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, and continued to 5.1, 5.2, 5.3
e. If would observe another object, so upward the tube. Put out preparate which
was observed and cleaned object glass and cover glass.
f. Made a new preparate conform with step 4.1 -4.6.
g. The end of activity which used the microscope, take note of this metter.
1) Could not store preparate on the atage
2) Cleaned the wet preparate with filter paper.
3) (object glass + cover glass). Stored it in petri dish and put into the tool
4) Cleaned the microscope body with flannel cloth.
5) Put the microscope into the microscope box.
6) Cleaned the all epuipments were used with cotton cloth and put into its
7) Put each our equipments into box for used at the next practicum.
A. Observation result
We had done this practicum and got bthe result of it,The microscope,its
components and its functions ,the observation result are the result of the
practicum.The picture of microscope and its components:
The information of the picture
1. Ocular lens
2. Macro meter
3. Micro meter
4. Microscope arm
5. Mechanic activator
6. Inclination point
7. Supervisor condenser
13. Object table
15. Objective lens
Magnification 10 x 10
Microscope is one of important tool for activity in biology laboratory,for see
small things structure.it has some components .like accept a shadow,move the tube
up and down,and many function other.like a 1st practicum i have many information
from assistant about microscope and I have try use biology microscope.I have see cell
of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ,Hibiscus tillaceus ,Cucurbita moschata and Allium cepa
and when I see in internet not difference for my research.
The component and function of microscope are:The function of ocular lens is
to accept a shadow from objective and magnify the shadow.mechanic activator is as
the regulator of the place of the object glass on the stage .supervisor condenser is up
and down the condenser. base is the place microscope standing.mirror is the captor
and the reflection of the light.diaphragm is control the light that will enter to the
condenser.condenser is provides a bright from the mirror which will eneter to the hole
of stage and many other part.The microscope have objective amd ocular lense which
have enlargement of objective lens and ocular lens
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
Student at university can use the biology microscope and safe to see a simple
preparate,and the practicum have succes
1. Suggestion for laboratory
I hope for next practicum student can use microscope for each self .and the
laboratory can become good place or suitable for practicum.
2. Suggestion for Assistant
I hope assistant can give information and directive about practicum ,may be
can give time to make the result observation
3. Suggestion for the all friends
I hope all friend can hear and can see if assistant and coordinator assistant
give information,so we can do practicum
Anonymous a.2011.Microscope,www.wikipedia.com,accesed at October 30 th 2011
Anonymous b.2011.Microscope,www.wikipedia.com,accesed at October 30 th 2011
Doris,R.doris.2006.Biology in the laboratory.city:publisher
Robin,Harris.2006.cell biology protocol.Usa:john willey and soon,ltd
Tim pengajar,2011.penuntun praktikum biologi dasar.Makassar UNM
Windell,john.1975.Intestigations for practicing biology
THE ANSWER OF QUESTION
1. The name of mechanic part of the microscop are
a. Ocular lens
b. Objective lens
2. The name of mechanic parts of the microscop are
h. Micro meter
i. Macro meter
j. Condenser setting
k. Mechanic activator
3. The function of mechanic are
a) Tube function as the place of ocular lens
b) Revolver as place of objective lens
c) Stage as the place of object glass
d) Clippers function to clip the object glass
e) Diaphragm as the regulator of the light which enter to condenser
f) Arm function to held when we want to move microscope
g) Mast function is the place of microscope standing
h) Micro meter as the tool for move up and down the tube smoothly
i) Macro meter as the tool for move up and down the tube roughly
j) Condenser setting if we turn can up and down the condenser
k) Mechanic activator function manage the place of object glass on the table
When the shadow in the white round area will be shifted to the front left, we
must shift the object glass to the opposite direction, because the quality of ocular
lens will receive with the objective lens shadow
5. Because it can make the lens of microscope will be broken. And if the lens
broken, we can not use it again.