How to use microscope (basic biology) unm


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How to use microscope (basic biology) unm

  1. 1. , RATIFICATION PAGE Complete report of basic biology practicum with title ’’ How To Use Microscope’’ that arranged by : Name : Jeny ayu hardiah ningrum Registrasion Number : 1114040162 Group : III (Three) Class : ICP A After checked by assistant and assistant coordinator so this report was accepted Makassar, November 4th 2011 Assistant Coordinator Assistant ( Djumarirmanto,S.Pd) (Fitri) ID.091404168 CHAPTER I
  2. 2. , INTRODUCTION A.Background Microscope ,this word not new for us,I have use when I in junior high school and senior high school,we had now practicum of microscope is one of practicum in biology department ,biology is one of branch of science wich explained about matter and the energy which has connection with human life and the process of their life,human life concist of seme cell very small,for the first time we must to know how to use the microscope because we just can see cell with use the microscope which can help us to see cell and structure of cell Do this practicum is the challenge for us because we must know components or part of microscope before we do this practicum about microscope, we can not get shadow, but my teacher help me,and my observation have succesed, and this practicum very accostumed but I always try although the tenses in report very hurd, not only present tense but past tens also. light very important for this practicum if don’t have light,I can not see cell and I can not find something This practicum is very interest and it is very challenge, so we have to try and try use it better than past time when we still studied ,I always studied in junior high school and senior high scool because I hope in future I can become a biology teacher.the reasons to do this practicum very many because it is one of the subject which we must know it.seeing happening problem, I interest to do praktikum this and to know more about microscope, therefore of that i hopes more know a lot of about microscope and part. not only sectioned but logistic and way utilizes also need at knows that deep utilize tool not false again. B.Purpose
  3. 3. , The purpose of practicum is the students of University can use the biology microscope and safe to see a simple preparate. C.Benefit The benefit this practicum is the student of university more to know,part of microscope and function.the students can use microscope well more than senior high school,we can know the purpose of this practicum ,the manner to keep the microscope and the right procedure wor k to use microscope.
  4. 4. , CHAPTER II PREVIEW OF LITERATURE Light microscopes is an indispensable technique for cell and molecular biologist to study cellular structures and biological processes in both living and fixed cells.this chapter provides and overview of light microscopy .describes the important parts of the microscope and goes on to explain how to set up a standard research microscope for bright field and phase contrast microscopy.there is also a short section on concfocalmicroscopy,more comprehensive descriptions of the different forms of light microscopy are found elsewhere.Microsopes are instruments that produce an enlarged image of a specimen. The eyepieces and the objectives are the main components of the magnification system of the microscope,the product of the magnification of the objective lens and the ocular give the total magnification of the microscope.the visibility of the magnifed specimen depends on contrast and resolution. Contrast is the difference in light bintensity between an object and its background. some biological samples contain coloured compouns. The key components of the compound microscope consist of : the eyepieces ,body tubes,nose pieces and objectives are part of the magnification system of the microscope.To use a microscope properly,and to get the most out of it ,it is important to understand the purpose and function of each of the microscope’s components (Harris,2006) The simple example of a microscope is a double convex lens of the type that is used as a magnifiying glass .in the late 1500s to dutch spectacle makers developed the compound microscope .their device had two convex lenses placed at either and of a tube and was capable of magnifiying an object to 10 times.its actual size today,developments in microscopy provide scientist with a wide selection of instruments with wich to view the smallest organism and even the components of individual cells.These microscopes range in complexity from the relatively simple models you will use in the laboratory today to highty sophisticated scanning and transmission electron microscopes (Helms R.Dorris ,2006)
  5. 5. , A compound microscope contains two lens system .one is located in the ocular and the other in the objective ,each of the lenses magnifies the object independently .the ocular eyepiece magnification is disagnated in a similar manner,in order to determine the total magnification of acombination a two lenses multiply themanification of your microscope for both low and high power (windell,1975) There are two objectives mounted on a movable stage instead of a movable body tube,on each on side of the arm near the base you will see a large knob and represents both the coarse and fine adjustment,turning the adjustment one quarter turn in either direction represents fine adjustment ,turning it a greater amount represents coarse adjustment (windell,1957). There are two objecteves the nosepiece called the resolving nosepiece.a spring catch enganges the nose piece to hold each objective in position,the shorter objective is the low power objective and is marked 10x.the high power objective is longer and is ,arked 43x or 45x.The microscope is parfocal which means that anobject is in focus when the noce piece is rotated from one position to another .when switching from low to high power watch from the side to see whether or not the objective will touch the slide .if it does touch,lower the stage slightly before placing the objective into position (windell,1957). A microscope is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye. The science of investigating small objects using such an instrument is called microscopy. Microscopic means invisible to the eye unless aided by a microscope. There are many types of microscopes, the most common and first to be invented is the optical microscope which uses light to image the sample. Other major types of microscopes are the electron microscope (both the transmission electron microscope and the scanning electron microscope) and the various types of scanning probe microscope(anonymous a,2011) The first microscope to be developed was the optical microscope, although the original inventor is not easy to identify. An early microscope was made in 1590 in Middelburg, Netherlands. Two eyeglass makers are variously given credit: Hans
  6. 6. , Lippershey (who developed an early telescope) and Zacharias Janssen. Giovanni Faber coined the name microscope for Galileo Galilei's compound microscope in 1625 (Galileo had called it the "occhiolino" or "little eye"). The first detailed account of the interior construction of living tissue based on the use of a microscope did not appear until 1644, in Giambattista Odierna's L'occhio della mosca, or The Fly's Eye. It was not until the 1660s and 1670s that the microscope was used extensively for research in Italy, Holland and England. Marcelo Malpighi in Italy began the analysis of biological structures beginning with the lungs. Robert Hooke's Micrographia had a huge impact, largely because of its impressive illustrations. The greatest contribution came from Antoni van Leeuwenhoek who discovered red blood cells and spermatozoa and helped popularise microscopy as a technique. On 9 October 1676, Leeuwenhoek reported the discovery of micro-organisms. In 1893 August Köhler developed a key technique for sample illumination, Köhler illumination, which is central to modern light microscopy. This method of sample illumination gives rise to extremely even lighting and overcomes many limitations of older techniques of sample illumination. Further developments in sample illumination came from Fritz Zernike in 1953 and George Nomarski 1955 for their development of phase contrast and differential interference contrast illumination which allow imaging of transparent samples. Specialized techniques may exceed this magnification but the resolution is diffraction limited. The use of shorter wavelengths of light, such as the ultraviolet, is one way to improve the spatial resolution of the optical microscope, as are devices such as the near-field scanning optical microscope.Sarfus, a recent optical technique increases the sensitivity of standard optical microscope to a point it becomes possible to directly visualize nanometric films (down to 0.3 nanometre) and isolated nanoobjects (down to 2 nm-diameter). The technique is based on the use of non-reflecting substrates for cross-polarized reflected light microscopy (anonymous b,2011). CHAPTER III PRACTICUM METHOD
  7. 7. , A.Time and Place Day / Date :Monday/October 25th 2011 Time :10.00 A.M until 12.30 P.M Place :Biology laboratory 3th flour at FMIPA UNM B.Tool and Material 1. Tool a. Biology microscope b. Tool box have contents: 1) Object glass 2) Cover glass 3) Petri dish 4) Tweezers 5) Hand pipette c. The equipments are served by the student of university: 1) New razor blade 2) New flannel cloth 3) Cotton cloth 4) Drawing Book 5) Tooth picks 2. Material
  8. 8. , a. The materials are served by laboratory: 1) Flute water 2) Filter paper 3) Cotton or barn b. The materials are served by the student of university: 1) Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 2) Hibiscus tillaceus 3) Cucurbita moschata 4) Allium cepa C.Work produce 1. Prepared the microscope a. Put the microscope on the work table in front of you b. Cleaned up the body of microscope by using flannel eloth. Didn’t shine the lens of microscope with cloth. c. Opened toolbox than took petri dish which have object glass and cover glass. Cleaned up the object glass with cotton cloth or filter paper. d. Only there were microscope, toolbox and is contents, guide book and note book, the materials of practicum on the table, besides it put on the other place which had been served. 2. Straightened up the light for enter to the tube a. Paid attention to your practicum room condition, from where the bright light came (from front, left or right ). Directed the mirror of microscope to the light source. Opened diaphragm or revolved the slab to the medium hole position.
  9. 9. , The microscope which have condenser straightened the position near the stage and used thin mirror. The microscope without condenser used concave mirror. b. Settled the revolver position until the short objective lens looked out to the stage until click sound. c. Brought the tube to down until the objective tip with the stage 5-10 mm or the tube maximize down. d. With the left eye closed the right eye looked the ocular will appeared white round area. If the light didn’t flat, moved mirror position until the light flat. If more dazzled, constricted the diaphragm or the hole of slab. If white round area still hazy, it was need the light, opened diaphragm put on the biggest lab. e. The microscope ready to used for observed the preparate. 3. The method to set the lens distance with preparate a. Revolved the macro meter to the thumb, dropped the tube, objective distance with stage become small. b. Put the object glass which have preserved preparate on the stage so that the material which observed been in the middle in the hole stage. Hold the preparate with stage clips so that it didn’t move. c. Paid attention the objective distance with the object glass not more 10 mm. If the distance loose, the hand revolved macro meter to down the tube while looked from beside objective tip approach the object glass until 5-10 mm. d. Looked from ocular while the hand revolved macro meter to up the tube slowly. Observed the while round area until the shadow appear. If that had done and the shadow had not appeared, it is had past. Repeat again from 3.3.
  10. 10. , if had there was a shadow but still hazy so saw it while turned the micro meter up and down until the shadow clearly visible. e. Looked into the ocular (what increases is used?) and the objective (what increase is used?) counted the shadow increase which we see. f. Put out side the preparat when we had observed. 4. Made simple preparate a. Took the object glass which was cleaned, held everywhere. b. Sprinkled water on the middle. c. Pulped the cotton fibers with tweezers and put it on the middle drops of water. d. One of the hand held cover glass between the thumb and index finger on the contrary side. e. The side of cover glass touched on the object glass near the drops of water with 45 declivity than released it so it cover the drops of water. Reserved the surplus of water which ooze out on the glass side by using filter paper. f. Put on the preparate make on the stage and inspected it like the step 3.2, 3.3,3.4, and 3.5. 5. Changed the magnification a. The 4.6 surveillance had success, 3.4 and 3.5, increased the shadow which measles. Didn’t touch preparate position. b. Revolved until the longest of objective lens (strong) vertical on the stage and click sound (looked the increase).
  11. 11. , c. Looked while turned the micro meter until maesles the shadow whish more big. Inspected the shadow. d. Failed to found the biggest shadow, upward the tube with turned the macro meter contrary direction with the thumb. Revolved again revolved to put the small objective lens on the position from the beginning. Without change preparate position, did the step 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, and continued to 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 until success. e. If would observe another object, so upward the tube. Put out preparate which was observed and cleaned object glass and cover glass. f. Made a new preparate conform with step 4.1 -4.6. g. The end of activity which used the microscope, take note of this metter. 1) Could not store preparate on the atage 2) Cleaned the wet preparate with filter paper. 3) (object glass + cover glass). Stored it in petri dish and put into the tool box. 4) Cleaned the microscope body with flannel cloth. 5) Put the microscope into the microscope box. 6) Cleaned the all epuipments were used with cotton cloth and put into its box. 7) Put each our equipments into box for used at the next practicum.
  12. 12. , CHAPTER IV OBSERVATION RESULT A. Observation result We had done this practicum and got bthe result of it,The microscope,its components and its functions ,the observation result are the result of the practicum.The picture of microscope and its components:
  13. 13. , The information of the picture 1. Ocular lens 2. Macro meter 3. Micro meter 4. Microscope arm 5. Mechanic activator 6. Inclination point 7. Supervisor condenser 8. Mast 9. Base 10. Mirror 11. Diapraghm 12. Condenser 13. Object table 14. Clippers 15. Objective lens 16. Revolver 17. Tube :
  14. 14. , The observation result :
  15. 15. , OBSERVATION PAGE Allium cepa Magnification 10 x 10 Notes: Cell wall Cytoplasm Neucleus Cell membran From internet
  16. 16. , OBSERVATION PAGE Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Magnification 10 x 10 Notes: Trichome star Cell wall Cell membrane Cytoplasm Neucleus stomata From internet
  17. 17. ,
  18. 18. OBSERVATION PAGE Cucurbitha moschata , Magnification 10 x 10 Notes : Neucleus Cytoplasm Cell wall From internet OBSERVATION PAGE Hibiscus tilachius Magnification 10x10 Notes: Trichome star Cell wall Neucleus
  19. 19. , B.Discussion Microscope is one of important tool for activity in biology laboratory,for see small things has some components .like accept a shadow,move the tube up and down,and many function a 1st practicum i have many information from assistant about microscope and I have try use biology microscope.I have see cell of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ,Hibiscus tillaceus ,Cucurbita moschata and Allium cepa and when I see in internet not difference for my research. The component and function of microscope are:The function of ocular lens is to accept a shadow from objective and magnify the shadow.mechanic activator is as the regulator of the place of the object glass on the stage .supervisor condenser is up and down the condenser. base is the place microscope standing.mirror is the captor and the reflection of the light.diaphragm is control the light that will enter to the condenser.condenser is provides a bright from the mirror which will eneter to the hole of stage and many other part.The microscope have objective amd ocular lense which have enlargement of objective lens and ocular lens CHAPTER V
  20. 20. , CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A.Conclusion Student at university can use the biology microscope and safe to see a simple preparate,and the practicum have succes B. Suggestion 1. Suggestion for laboratory I hope for next practicum student can use microscope for each self .and the laboratory can become good place or suitable for practicum. 2. Suggestion for Assistant I hope assistant can give information and directive about practicum ,may be can give time to make the result observation 3. Suggestion for the all friends I hope all friend can hear and can see if assistant and coordinator assistant give information,so we can do practicum BIBLIOGRAPHY
  21. 21. , Anonymous a.2011.Microscope,,accesed at October 30 th 2011 Anonymous b.2011.Microscope,,accesed at October 30 th 2011 Doris,R.doris.2006.Biology in the Robin,Harris.2006.cell biology protocol.Usa:john willey and soon,ltd Tim pengajar,2011.penuntun praktikum biologi dasar.Makassar UNM Windell,john.1975.Intestigations for practicing biology THE ANSWER OF QUESTION 1. The name of mechanic part of the microscop are
  22. 22. , a. Ocular lens b. Objective lens c. Condenser d. Mirror 2. The name of mechanic parts of the microscop are a. Tube b. Revolver c. Stage d. Clippers e. Diaphragm f. Arm g. Mast h. Micro meter i. Macro meter j. Condenser setting k. Mechanic activator 3. The function of mechanic are a) Tube function as the place of ocular lens b) Revolver as place of objective lens c) Stage as the place of object glass
  23. 23. , d) Clippers function to clip the object glass e) Diaphragm as the regulator of the light which enter to condenser f) Arm function to held when we want to move microscope g) Mast function is the place of microscope standing h) Micro meter as the tool for move up and down the tube smoothly i) Macro meter as the tool for move up and down the tube roughly j) Condenser setting if we turn can up and down the condenser k) Mechanic activator function manage the place of object glass on the table 4. When the shadow in the white round area will be shifted to the front left, we must shift the object glass to the opposite direction, because the quality of ocular lens will receive with the objective lens shadow 5. Because it can make the lens of microscope will be broken. And if the lens broken, we can not use it again.
  24. 24. ,