<ul><li>Status Offenses --acts that when committed by juveniles that are grounds for apprehension and perhaps state custody. Adults would not be charged for these acts. Examples: Smoking, drinking, truancy, curfew violations, running away from home. </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile Delinquency --Illegal acts committed by juveniles. Adults would also be charged for these offenses. Murder, robbery, theft, rape, etc. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
<ul><li>The main goal of the juvenile justice system is REHABILITATION rather than punishment </li></ul><ul><li>For status offenders and first-time offenders, diversion programs are the first choice. These include probation, treatment, and restitution. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
<ul><li>Juvenile delinquents seen as "hardened" are more likely to be transferred to adult court. </li></ul><ul><li>Some transfers are automatic, depending on the seriousness of the offense. </li></ul><ul><li>In Minnesota, juveniles as young as 14 can be tried as adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Judges in twenty-four states can do "reverse transfers"--decide to send juveniles transferred to adult court back to juvenile court. </li></ul>
<ul><li>If a person stays in juvenile court, they will go through adjudication instead of arraignment and trial. There are no juries during adjudication. The process is closed to the public. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of sentencing, a juvenile who is determined to be delinquent will go through a disposition hearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Potential placements include probation (most common), residential treatment programs, and juvenile corrections facilities--"training schools". These often include aftercare. </li></ul><ul><li>When making decisions in disposition hearings, judges primarily consider the needs of the child. </li></ul><ul><li>http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/largechart.cfm </li></ul>
<ul><li>-Placement programs end (In some cases they last until age 21). If still detained by this age, individuals are released. </li></ul><ul><li>-Juvenile records are sealed. (Adult records are permanent). </li></ul>
<ul><li>Are individuals competent to stand trial as adults at age 14? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: Juveniles are more impulsive, more likely to engage in risky behavior, and less likely to consider the long-term consequences of their actions. They are also more susceptible to peer pressure than adults and are more likely to be arrested as part of a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Even if they can understand the difference between right and wrong, can they adequately understand the legal matters involved in a trial? </li></ul><ul><li>Roper vs. Simmons (2005)--the Supreme Court ruled that no person can be executed for a murder they commit while under the age of 18. </li></ul>
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