The idea of imprisonment as an appropriate response to crime has only been widespread for about 200 years. Money payments, corporal punishment, and slave labor had been in common use prior to that time.
The US introduced the first penitentiary systems, with mottos like “labor, silence, penitence.”
In 1870, the prison reform movement began, and a number of reformatories were opened. These sought to reform prisoners, reward good behavior, and teach them a trade. This movement started falling out of favor by 1910.
Prisons are now usually called correctional facilities . An idea that grew out of the reformatory movement and became popular in the 1960s was treatment in the community, which mainly took two forms: parole and probation .