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What Happens When a Fortune 500 Company takes on a new source of accreditation in building their human capital? …It encouraged the Project Management Institute (PMI) to host a Business Roundtable in …

What Happens When a Fortune 500 Company takes on a new source of accreditation in building their human capital? …It encouraged the Project Management Institute (PMI) to host a Business Roundtable in London, U.K. (August 2007), “which was attended by 20 high-level executives from aerospace and defense, engineering, construction, the oil and gas industries,” helping to form a career framework influenced by half-a-decade of field experience in accreditation at one of the worlds most recognized companies. See how accreditation can help your organization place and promote your most valuable resource—human capital; create a measurable competitive advantage; move the dial in serving your customers. This text book helps sets the foundation to help you leverage innovation capital; customer capital; organizational capital.

ISBN-13: 978-0-9645638-2-7


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  • 1. A Guide to the Accreditation Management Body of Knowledge (AMBOK® Guide)2012 EDITION
  • 2. A Guide to theAccreditation Management Body of Knowledge (AMBOK® Guide) b d ™ dialogue p bound press enabling the vision of mind and ideas™
  • 3. PUBLISHED BYdialogue bound press1601 159th AVE NEBellevue, Washington 98008-2753Copyright © 2012All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should beobtained from the author prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrievalsystem, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights andPermissions Department, or email; jensenPMP@hotmail.com.Library of Congress Cataloging-in Publication DataJensen, Christian A. A Guide to the Accreditation Management Body of Knowledge: AMBOK® Guide / Christian A. Jensen Includes endnotes, glossary and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-9645638-2-7 ISBN-10: 0-9645638-2-7 1. Accreditation. 2. Assessment. 3. Capability. 4. Certification. 5. Competitive Advantage. 6. Intellectual Property. 7. Product Management. 8. Corporate Universities. 9. Credentialing. 10. Customer Driven-Focused Development. 11. Human Resources. 12. Performance Engineering. 13. Human Capital.Printed in the United States of America. ®AMBOK is a registered trademark; the Accreditation Management Framework™ (AMF) andAVediaControls™ are trademarks; AMBOK.COM and AMBOK.ORG are registered Internetdomains; property of Christian A. Jensen, Bellevue, Washington, 98008.The author offers discounts on this textbook when ordered in quantity; also available in alicensed portable document format (PDF) for businesses that prefer their own on-premiseprinting and binding; also available in .DOC format for further customization.Production coordination and printing: Cover Art:Production coordination—Guy M. Ricci Artist—Omar ValdesPrinting—Paragon Media Titled: What we see…what we knowBindery—Letterpress Services 425.698.761755 South Atlantic, Suite 100 valdesomar@Hotmail.comSeattle, WA 98134206.808.7600www.ParagonGroup.com .First printing, October 2011
  • 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSSECTION 1 – ACCREDITATION MANAGEMENT ........................................... 1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 1 ® The Purpose of the AMBOK Guide ..................................................................... 1 ® Audience for the AMBOK Guide ......................................................................... 1 Accreditation ....................................................................................................... 2 Definition ...................................................................................................... 2 Examples of Accreditation ............................................................................ 2 Examples of Accreditation through Concise Use Cases ................................ 3 Benefits of Accreditation .............................................................................. 9 Individual Accreditation ................................................................................ 9 Organizational Accreditation ........................................................................ 9 Product and Services Accreditation ............................................................ 10 AMBOK® Guide Focus: the Accreditation Provider .................................... 10 Accreditation Management ............................................................................... 11 Definition .................................................................................................... 11 Example of Organizational Accreditation Management ............................. 11 Summary ............................................................................................................ 15SECTION 2 – KNOWLEDGE AREAS ............................................................ 19 Knowledge Area Map ........................................................................................ 19 1. ASSESSMENT ..................................................................................... 21 2. CERTIFICATION .................................................................................. 25 3. COMPETENCY .................................................................................... 29 4. CORRELATION .................................................................................... 31 5. EDUCATION ....................................................................................... 35 6. ETHICS................................................................................................ 41 7. EXPERIENCE ....................................................................................... 43 8. LICENSE .............................................................................................. 49 9. REGISTRATION ................................................................................... 53 10. REGULATION ...................................................................................... 59SECTION 3 – PROCESS AREAS .................................................................. 67 Accreditation Delivery Framework™ (ADF) ....................................................... 67 The ADF and other Frameworks and Methodologies ........................................ 68 0. ASSURANCE AND GOVERNACE .......................................................... 71 1. DEFINITION PHASE ............................................................................ 73 2. IMPLEMENTATION PHASE ................................................................. 79 3. SUPPORT PHASE ................................................................................ 85 External & Supplementary Documentation ....................................................... 87SECTION 4 – GETTING STARTED ............................................................... 91 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 91 Accreditation Proof-of-Concept......................................................................... 91 Summary ............................................................................................................ 96GLOSSARY .............................................................................................. 99INDEX ................................................................................................... 105 AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  Page i
  • 5. Page ii  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 6. SECTION 1 – ACCREDITATION MANAGEMENTIntroductionThe Accreditation Management Body of Knowledge (AMBOK®) Guide representsthe collective knowledge in the domain of accreditation. Domain referring tothe field of influence and action applied at an individual level and/or at abusiness level. While the concept of accreditation seems to date back to theseventeenth century, its practice has been mostly limited to academic andprofessional interests. It is often based on problems and opportunities such as amarket demand; a business need; a customer request; a technological advance;a legal requirement; or a social need.1 The AMBOK® Guide helps delineateaccreditation so that its application fits many interests and when routinelyapplied, regardless of industry, products or services: it creates a foundation forquality with regard to scope of application and specification; recognition; andfor many organizations a distinct competitive advantage.The Purpose of the AMBOK® GuideThe purpose of the AMBOK® Guide is to identify areas of knowledge thatrepresent proven, recommended and emerging practices in the field ofaccreditation. The AMBOK® Guide is a reference textbook for whichaccreditation, and its management, is structured and practiced. The AMBOK®Guide does not replace or challenge any accreditation body practices, rather,provides a framework for understanding how to create, operate, improve orapply such a body given a common body of knowledge.Audience for the AMBOK® GuideThe audiences for the AMBOK® Guide are individuals wanting to understandhow accreditation is envisioned, and implemented throughout industry;organizations looking to distinguish capability through accreditation as a meansof performance engineering in human capital or as a way of distinguishing goodsand services; or as an avenue to a sustainable competitive advantage. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 1
  • 7. AccreditationDefinitionAt the most fundamental level accreditation can be defined as evidence incapability. It provides evidence that a person, place, thing, quality, or action hasexplicit capability, i.e. the “qualities, abilities, features, etc., that can be used ordeveloped; potential.”2 Accreditation can further be defined as a way “to makeauthoritative, creditable, or reputable; sanction; to regard as true.”3 Accreditation establishes that a person, place, thing, quality, or action holds evidence of capability.Examples of AccreditationConstantly, various forms of accreditation are the topic of news headlines: City granted accreditation as a housing agent; City Program accredited by the National Trust for Historic Preservation; Company obtains ISO 9001/2000 accreditation; Corrugated box manufacture earns Sustainable Forestry Initiative certification; Garage door manufacturer to receive accreditation for testing facility; GetWellNetwork® endorsed by the American Hospital Association; Higher Learning Commission revokes College of Business accreditation; Million records sold—singer receives award of the Platinum® Record; Movie transfer will carry “studio experience” through its THX-certification; NASA grants accreditation for space shuttle coverage; Nurses hold one license in their state of residency; Nursing home fails accreditation to meet standards in clinical care; Reseller accredited to resell and manage camera products and services; State laboratory receives accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025.These examples provide an illustration that accreditation can be attained andlikewise revoked--both actions discussion points in this book. This suggests thata gain or loss of accreditation could impact: enrollment status; entry into a newmarket; financial funding; product or service quality; safe operation of aproduct; securing a vendor position in a bid; terms and conditions ofemployment; etc., i.e. capability yields immediate and sustainable value throughaccreditation. These examples also reinforce the many themes in accreditation:that a person (such as the nurse); a place (such as the laboratory), a thing (thecorrugated box), a quality (the testing facility), or action (the studio soundexperience)—all accredited with evidence of capability. Hence, accreditationgoes far beyond just academic and professional interests and opens new vistasof possibility in providing evidence in capability.Page 2  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 8. Examples of Accreditation through Concise Use CasesTo further illustrate the application of accreditation as evidence of capabilityeach of the following concise use cases (you may wish to become familiar withTable 2-0, the Table of Knowledge Areas and Accreditation Elements). Use Case 1- The Automobile IndustryConsider the automobile industry. According to the U.S. Department ofTransportation (2011), national transportation statics point out that there were10.6 million new vehicle sales in 2009; contrast that with 35.5 million usedvehicle sales.4 This certainly indicates that there is a prosperous market forlesser priced used vehicles in contrast to purchasing a new model. Two popularsport utility vehicle manufactures provide certified pre-owned accreditations toattract the used vehicle consumer (see Table 1-1): note that both are verysimilar in what they offer to the consumer. Here accreditation is single-fold:both companies have created their own programs of inspection (using theAssessment knowledge area)—this service offering is accredited in this case. 5 6 Brand Jeep Land Rover Service Certified Pre-Owned Vehicle Certified Pre-Owned Land Rover Offering - 125-point inspection - 140-point inspection - 8-year / 80,000-mile limited- - 6-year / 75,000-mile limited- warranty warranty - CARFAX report on major - 24/7 roadside assistance accidents, fire or flood damage, or odometer fraudTable 1-1. Accreditation as applied toward used automobile products Use Case 2- The Package Engineering IndustryPackaging generally falls into three categories: 1) consumer, 2) institutional, andindustrial.7 Many companies, like Amazon.com and Wal-Mart, rely on effectiveindustrial packaging for the protection of goods they have shipped tocustomers. Companies that ship goods often look to package engineering tosupport a Box Maker’s Certificate (a round or square certification mark). Thiscertificate provides information about the box capabilities in terms of strengthand construction materials, for example: the Burst Test is the ability for a box towithstand specific environmental forces; the Combined Weight and Facingsrelates to stackability; Size Limit is the maximum length of the box to stillwarrant certification; and the Gross Weight Limit is the maximum total weightthat can be placed in the box. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 3
  • 9. Use Case 3 – The Public Sector Security ClearanceConsider the security clearance found in the public sector. The proposed U.S.defense budget for fiscal year 2008 is $481 billion and there are currently94,212 job seekers8 looking to enter this government market which requires asecurity clearance: individuals that would be working with sensitive andconfidential information. To gain a security clearance Rod Powers states thatthere must be an investigation that “focuses on an individual’s character andconduct, emphasizing such factors as honesty, trustworthiness, reliability,financial responsibility, criminal activity, emotional stability, and other similarand pertinent areas. All investigations consist of checks of national records andcredit checks; some investigations also include interviews with individuals whoknow the candidate for the clearance as well as the candidate himself/herself.”9Here accreditation is single-fold: the government creating a program for itsagencies to establish eligibility for access to information (using the Assessmentknowledge area)—this investigation is accredited in this case. Use Case 4 – The Entertainment IndustryConsider the entertainment industry. Dolby Laboratories “has defined high-quality audio surround sound in cinema, broadcast, home entertainmentsystems, cars, games, and personal computers.”10 It is this “entertainmentexperience” that Dolby Laboratories has received copyrights, patents andtrademarks to protect its intellectual property and trade secrets. In order foruse of Dolby technology to encode content and media or to use it in consumeror professional products, integrated circuits or software, individuals ororganizations must apply for a license or a trademark agreement. According tothe United States Patent and Trademark Office a trademark helps “protectwords, names, symbols, sounds, or colors that distinguish goods and servicesfrom those manufactured or sold by others and to indicate the source of thegoods. Trademarks, unlike patents, can be renewed forever as long as they arebeing used in commerce.”11 A license is: formal permission from agovernmental or other constituted authority to do something, as to carry onsome business or profession; a certificate, tag, plate, etc., giving proof of suchpermission; official permit; the legal right to use a patent owned by another.”12Here accreditation is multi-fold: They have protected their business name andfiled for Federal trademark protection (using the Registration knowledge area)and recognizing the value of their intellectual property they allowed for its use(using the License knowledge area).Page 4  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 10. Use Case 5 – The Wood Products IndustryConsider the wood products industry. We live in a rapidly changing world ofbiodiversity, a concern for all forms of life and their ecosystems, which are anincreasingly important political topic. The Rainforest Alliance is a globalorganization that declares “practical conservation through certified forestry.”13The "SmartWood Rediscovered Wood Program" was created for certification ofreused, reclaimed, recycled and salvaged wood products. Here accreditation ismulti-fold: first to earn the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)/Rainforest Alliancecertification, a company must meet the ten Principles and Criteria of the FSCforest management standards (using the Ethics and Professional Standardsontology); and secondly a review of the SmartWoodcm Program (using theAssessment and Certification knowledge areas)—the company and its productsare both accredited in this case including its partners. Use Case 6 – The Software IndustryConsider the software industry. A large software manufacture, understandingone of its products is technically challenging to install and implement,understands from its support calls and field engineers that the product is a baneof customer frustration, dissatisfaction, and a risk to business operation up-time. The software manufacture may wish to create technology accelerators(TA) for the rapid deployment of their technology and its productive use prior totheir next version release. The TA could include an assessment of thecustomer’s current environment to minimize the risk of upgrade and anunderstanding of any issues; and a resource pool of field engineers accreditedby product engineers in having completed a minimum education track, throughfurther one-on-one structured development gained essential experience, and asa result were awarded this TA certification. Here accreditation is multi-fold: Thesoftware manufacture created a technical environment assessment to ensurethe successful deployment of their product (using the Assessment knowledgearea) and creating competitive advantage, certified individuals to install theproduct (using Education, Experience, and the Certification knowledge area).Customers can now be assured that their software environment is not onlycapable of upgrade, that only accredited individuals with education andexperience will install it. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 5
  • 11. Use Case 7 – The Telecommunications IndustryConsider the telecommunications industry. A large telecommunicationscompany needed to leverage accreditation for an important international tradeposition; the Trade Officer (TO), whose role is to ensure compliance with U.S.Export/Import regulations as outlined by the Customs and Border Protection(CBP); the Department of Commerce Export Administration Regulations (EAR);the Department of State International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR); andthe Department of Treasury Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). The TOwould create assessment programs as proof to the agencies as compliance andimportantly, would provide transcripts of structured development activities asevidence of up-to-date knowledge of regulatory requirements and as suchwould be certified annually as a TO. Here accreditation is multi-fold: Thetelecommunications company created an assessment to ensure regulatorycompliance (using the Assessment knowledge area) and created a certificationto satisfy government auditors that the TO was knowledgeable and hadexperience in regulatory requirements (using Education and the Certificationknowledge area). Use Case 8 – The Organic Food IndustryWhile organic food and beverage sales represented approximately 4 percent ofoverall food and beverage sales in 2010, revenue of $26.7 billion (mostly infruits and vegetables) representing a 7.7 percent growth over 2009 sales.14According to the California Certified Organic Farmers (2010), “certified organicfood in the United States is grown according to standards set by the NationalOrganic Program. According to those standards, Organic food is producedwithout using most conventional pesticides; fertilizers made with syntheticingredients or sewage sludge; bioengineering; or ionized radiation.”15Consumers observe an CCOF and USDA Organic certification stamp whichfurther enables trade, marketing, political advocacy and quality. Use Case 9 – The Aquaponic Farming IndustryTaking the Organic food industry use case further (and covered with interestingdebate) is the Aquaponic farming. According to Nelson and Pade (2011),“Aquaponics is the combination of aquaculture and hydroponics. In aquaponics,you grow fish and plants together in one integrated, soilless system. The fishwaste provides a food source for the plants and the plants provide a naturalfilter for the water the fish live in. Aquaponics produces safe, fresh, organic fishand vegetables. When aquaponics is combined with a controlled environmentgreenhouse, premium quality crops can be grown on a year-round basis,anywhere in the world.”16 This is an emerging market with pendingaccreditation to assist in consumer choice.Page 6  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 12. Use Case 10 – The Dietary Supplements IndustryRainbow Light Nutritional Systems introduced their trademarked VeganGuard™in 2004 to assure consumers that their products contained a formulaguaranteed to be free of meat and animal products. According to themanufacture, “you can be certain the product inside is 100% animal-free — withno animal-derived or stabilized ingredients;” appealing to the diet and religiousconscious consumers.17 Use Case 11 – The Accounting ProfessionConsider accounting. One of the “big 4” Certified Public Accountant (CPA) firms(Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu; Ernst & Young; KPMG International; andPricewaterhouseCoopers) “generally recruit outstanding graduates and highlyexperienced CPAs and encourage the development of specialized skills by theirpersonnel.”18 While Table 1-1 provided a compare and contrast with two serviceofferings from competitive manufactures, Table 1-2 provides a similar compareand contrast with how the United States and its jurisdictions vary in educationalrequirements (and in some cases the call for direct experience) in the field offinancial accounting, i.e. the CPA accreditation. Here accreditation is multi-fold:the state/jurisdiction adopted a minimum requirement in education (using theEducation knowledge area), administers an exam through the AmericanInstitute of Certified Public Accountants and potentially an additionalstate/jurisdiction test (using the Assessment knowledge area),acknowledgement of an ethical code (using the Ethics knowledge area), andconditionally a period of applicable experience (using the Experience knowledgearea): the CPA is considered a license (using the License knowledge area: notehow the other knowledge areas are attributes of this profession and itsaccreditation). Application Forty-five states jurisdictions: Guam, California, Colorado, Delaware, New Puerto Rico, and Washington D.C. Hampshire, Vermont and jurisdiction: U.S. Virgin Islands Professional Certified Public Accountant (CPA) Designation - Educational requirements - Educational requirements 19 Components (enacted legislation) for a (enacted legislation) for a minimum 150 semester hours minimum 120 semester hours of college study of college study - CPA exam administered by - CPA exam administered by individual state individual state - Accounting work experience - Accounting work experience (depends on state) (depends on state) - Code of professional conduct - Code of professional conductTable 1-2. Accreditation as applied to services in financial accounting AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 7
  • 13. Use Case 12 – The Project Management ProfessionConsider project management. Often considered a strategic competency inconcert with an organizations core competency, project management isacknowledged as a profession and is accredited by the global organization: theProject Management Institute (PMI®). While Table 1-2 provided theaccreditation requirements for the CPA, Table 1-3 provides that of the PMP:note the similarities, however, the CPA is a license to practice and the PMP is acredential that verifies capability of practice (license and credential arediscussed in greater detail Section 3). Here accreditation is multi-fold: the PMI isable to substitute the Bachelor’s degree with 40% more professional projectmanagement experience (using the Education and Experience knowledgeareas), acknowledge additional education with learning objectives in projectmanagement (using the Education knowledge area), administers a proctoredexam through Prometric, PMI’s examination administration partner (using theAssessment knowledge area), and acknowledgement of an ethical code (usingthe Ethics knowledge area). Interestingly, PMI is also accredited by theAmerican National Standards Institute (ANSI) as an accredited StandardsDevelopment organization (SDO).20 Application Worldwide ® Professional Project Management Professional (PMP ) Designation Without Undergraduate Degree With Undergraduate Degree 21 Components - High school diploma, associate’s - Bachelor’s degree or global degree or global equivalent equivalent - Minimum five years/60 months - Minimum three years/36 unique non-overlapping months unique non-overlapping professional project professional project management experience during management experience during which at least 4,500 hours were which at least 7,500 hours were spent leading and directing spent leading and directing project tasks project tasks - 35 contact hours of formal - 35 contact hours of formal education [with learning education [with learning objectives in project objectives in project management] management] - Project management exam - Project management exam administered by proctor administered by proctor - Project management work - Project management work experience (7,500 hours) experience (4,500 hours) - Code of professional conduct - Code of professional conductTable 1-3. Accreditation as applied to project managementPage 8  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 14. Benefits of AccreditationThese case studies provide an illustration that supports many applications inaccreditation: evidence in capability. These case studies illustrated: 1) services inthe automobile industry; 2) a security clearance in public sector; 3) products andpartners in the wood products industry; 4) creation and reproduction of anexperience in the entertainment industry; 5) an accredited role to ensureregulatory compliance in international trade; 6) an accredited role to ensurequality and customer satisfaction in the software industry; 7) an accredited roleto ensure compliance to applicable laws and regulations; and 8) a credentialedrole as foundation to a professional practice. Individuals and organizations useaccreditation because it promotes evidence of capability in part or holistically. Itpackages one or more of the accreditation knowledge areas (see Figure 2-2) tocreate an accreditation program.Individual AccreditationAccreditation from an individual perspective has to do with characteristicallydistinguishing themselves with academic and professional credentials thatdemonstrate knowledge, commitment, and industry standards in achievementthat organizations seek when recruiting for the best talent. It can also include anindividual’s association with a club; community; an event; a fraternity orsorority; etc. The significance is distinction and recognition by association.Organizational AccreditationFrom an organizational perspective accreditation often has to do with buildinghuman capital; a competitive position; respect through industry thought-leadership; productivity; profitability; return on investment; technologicalleadership; etc. Employees and employers, academics and consultants,governments and institutions—accreditation provides a distinction in the workindividuals do and in the products and services they deliver in today’scompetitive global economy. As one CEO (of a 119 year old U.S. based company)sited: “make sure you over invest both in capabilities and resources. Second pickthe best person you can find to lead your learning efforts. That person musthave the business acumen and the ability to link that to strategies and thelearning that’s required to achieve them.”22 This book supports this notion, i.e.accreditation provides the evidence in capability, and accreditationmanagement will enable the effort in ensuring its alignment to strategy. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 9
  • 15. Product and Services AccreditationAccreditation from a product and services perspective has to do with meetingperformance and quality standards; suitability for a specified purpose; as ameans toward entering specific markets; or distinguishing the product andservice from the competition. Cited in the previous paragraph above,accreditation identifies capability, exploits value to the customer, and provides afocus on competitive advantage.AMBOK® Guide Focus: the Accreditation ProviderSo far the term individual and organization has been used to differentiatepeople from business. The focus of this book, from this point forward, will befrom the point of view of the organization. This is based on the presumptionthat most individuals belong to one or many organizations and that it is theorganization that creates accreditation to attract individuals or differentiatetheir capability. The term organization will include any business deliveringproducts or services either for-profit or not-for-profit and in any sector public orprivate. Hence, it is global competition that will position its human capital asone international business textbook affirms: To create competitive advantage that is sustainable over time [an organization must] develop skills, or competencies, that: 1) Create value for customers and for which customers are willing to pay, 2) Are rare, since competencies shared among many competitors cannot be a basis for competitive advantage, 3) Are difficult to imitate or substitute for, and 4) Are organized in a way that allows the [organization] to exploit fully the competitive potential of these valuable, rare, and difficult-to-imitate competencies.23The focus of the AMBOK® Guide will be that of the Provider of accreditation, seeFigure 1-1. It is logical that even a Provider could be Holder of one or moreaccreditations.Page 10  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 16. Accreditation Management Definition Accreditation management formally justifies, develops and sustains an accreditation. This accreditation lifecycle allows you to follow a series of processes in which we formulate what type of accreditation we require, its form, its value, and whether to make or buy it; to procure it and/or build and deliver it; and finally, maintain it for whatever duration is determined appropriate. It should also align to an individual’s or an organization’s mission, goals, objectives and strategy in order to support this requisite capability. Accreditation management is the process in which we formulate, implement and operationalize accreditation as it aligns to mission, goals, objectives and strategy. Example of Organizational Accreditation Management The end-to-end processes are illustrated at a high-level in Figure 1-1. The following describe each of the numeric callouts in order to provide an overview and understanding of each from multiple perspectives. The inside stakeholder perspective is that of the Provider of accreditation; the outside stakeholder perspective is that of the Holder of accreditation. Accreditation Program Portfolio (Resource-Based View) Feedback on x Perception and Organizational Quality Capabilities Mission, Goals and Remote, Industry, ACCREDITATION Provider Objectives, and MANAGEMENT w and Operating or Holder Strategy Environment Tangible and u v Intangible Assets y z Voice of the Customer Performance Capability and Capacity Inside Stakeholders Outside StakeholdersFigure 1-1. Accreditation management interdependencies and stakeholders AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 11
  • 17. Mission, Goals, Objectives and Strategy Mission, goals and objectives, and strategy reflect the awareness of: how,when and where to compete, against whom to compete, and for what purposesto compete. In much the same way that “strategic management is the set ofdecisions and actions that result in the formulation and implementation of plansdesigned to achieve a companys objectives”—accreditation management is thestrategic enablement, i.e. it identifies and leverages the capacity and capabilityfor an individual or organization to deliver.24 It supports the notion of onebusiness and management philosopher who wrote that “every organizationneeds performance in three major areas: It needs directs results; building ofvalue and their reaffirmation; and building and developing people fortomorrow.”25Accreditation Management Accreditation management, as previously defined, is the process in whichwe formulate, implement and operationalize accreditation as it aligns to theorganizations mission, goals and objectives, and strategy. Usually anorganization will create an Accreditation Management Office (AMO) andappoint a Director to work with Accreditation Owners in determining whichaccreditations the organization has inventory of and which accreditations theorganization wishes to pursue. This inventory of current and proposedaccreditations is the organizations Accreditation Portfolio representing oneaspect of its human capital. Without this function, i.e. accreditationmanagement, most organizations typically address their core competency andinternal readiness needs often residing in an HR management system and/orLearning Management System. This is based on mainstream static models thatare sufficient but often lack the dynamic needed to create a sustainablecompetitive advantage. Accreditation management allows an organization togive further development of core and strategic competencies (i.e. projectmanagement—both a shared competency and a discrete profession).Tangible/Intangible Assets and Organizational Capabilities This represents a Resource-Base View (RBV) for the organization wherein“RBV emphasizes strategic choice, charging the [organizations] managementwith the important tasks of identifying, developing and deploying key resourcesto maximize returns”26 in order to contribute to a sustainable competitiveadvantage (SCA) These resource categories are: tangible assets; intangibleassets; and organizational capabilities. According to Brigham and Houston(2004): Tangible assets: physical assets such as plant and equipment [as well as cash, materials, real estate, etc.]. Intangible assets: assets such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, and goodwill [as well as brand, franchise, etc.].27Page 12  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 18. Organizations may use tangible and intangible assets as part of an accreditationas a means of competitive advantage, e.g. in the Microsoft Technology Centerfacilities28, the Microsoft brand, and the Microsoft Certified Professionalcertifications as a combined accreditation provide customers with world-classservices that cannot be duplicated with the same focus and quality by theircompetitors. Organizational capabilities are the knowledge, skills and abilities of theindividual and with an accreditation management function has the ability toenable this organizational capability with tangible and intangible assets to focuson strategy and the SCA environment it will operate within. Aggregation of allidentified resources is contained in the Accreditation Program Portfoliodiscussed subsequently.Accreditation Program Portfolio The Accreditation Program Portfolio (APP) is an aggregate of all individualand organization profiles as defined through accreditation management.Remote, Industry and Operating Environment The remote, industry and operating environments impose external factorsthat can affect the organization’s decision making in addressing mission andstrategy. As Pearce and Robinson (2007) elaborate: Remote environment: economic, social, political, technological, and ecological factors that originate beyond, and usually irrespective of, any single firm’s operating situation. Industry environment: the general conditions for competition that influence all businesses which provide similar products and services. Operating environment: factors in the immediate competitive situation that affect’s a firm’s success in acquiring needed resources.29Provider or Holder The Holder is the recipient of accreditation. The Provider is the supplier ofaccreditation. An individual and a business may both provide and hold one ormany accreditations. For example, The Microsoft Learning organization is aProvider of multiple certifications offered to the public, however, Microsoftemployees take these certifications and Hold this form of accreditation. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 13
  • 19. Feedback Loop Customer Supplier Customer Supplier Customer Supplier Supplier Process Customer Provides inputs to a A series of tasks that Receives outputs from a process turn inputs into outputs process Adapted from Rose (2005)Figure 1-2. High-level view of the accreditation knowledge areasAn example of this interesting, reciprocal, customer and supplier relationshipcan be illustrated in Table 1-3. Here each entity is both a customer and asupplier and they go through a process to create a point of accreditation thatpresents itself through a chain of events. The University recognizes through itsResearch and Development a demand for online Masters of BusinessAdministration (MBA) programs given experienced individuals are often busywith travel and would otherwise find it difficult to impossible to attend atraditional campus. The student/employee finds that their next promotionrequires such a degree. The employer provides further specification on the MBAas being accredited by the AACSB. The “AACSB International was founded in1916 and began its accreditation function with the adoption of the firststandards in 1919.”30 University Student/Employee Employer Customer Supplier Customer Supplier Customer SupplierRequires Provides Requires Provides Accepts Upononline MBA an online an online employer University graduationprogram be MBA MBA with online MBA employeeaccredited degree accredited acceptance program and meetsby the program from the letter to allows employersInternational accredited AACSB and the MBA employee requirementAssociation by the is accepted online tuition forto Advance (AACSB) in the program assistance managementCollegiate degree promotion Note:Schools of program accreditationBusiness by the AACSB(AACSB) is fast becoming an employer 31 requirementTable 1-3. Extrapolation of Figure 1-1 with unique entitiesPage 14  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 20. SummaryRobert Reich (2007), former U.S. secretary of labor and best-selling author,addressed educators from 51 countries to discuss how building human capital iskey to sustaining competitive advantage—“globalization, technological change,and demographics may be primary business vectors, but thoughtful investmentin human capital—with emphasis on skill development—is most critical tomaintaining a competitive advantage in a global business environment.”32Quick hits for many CXOs today might focus on specific areas of their value-chain, or perhaps roles, like project management, that span multiple.Accreditation initiatives that focus just on skill alone will enable performance. Asone international performance management company advertised:  Skill to diagnose customer problems and identify customer needs— beyond the obvious  Skill to present products and services as differentiated client-focused solutions.  Skill to protect profitability and strengthen relations through the process of collaborative negotiation33These examples are just the tip-of-the-iceberg when considering the use ofaccreditation as evidence of capability in building human capital, monitoring anorganizations product and services quality, requirements, risk and financialreporting, not to mention the value in association with others with a similaraccreditation—these are all important aspects of accreditation and fundamentalto this book. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 15
  • 21. SECTION 1 - Endnotes1 Project Management Institute (PMI), A guide to the project management body of ® rd knowledge: PMBOK Guide 3 ed., (Newtown Square, PA: PMI, 2004) 81.2 Dictionary.com, Capability, n.d., <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/capability> 17 January 2010.3 Dictionary.com , Accreditation, n.d., <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/accreditation> 17 January 2010.4 U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, National Transportation Statisticshttp://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics/> 2011.5 Brand Spanking Used, Jeep, n.d. <http://www.brandspankinused.com/powerTrain.htm> 17 January 2010.6 Land Rover USA, Pre Owned, n.d., <http://www.landroverusa.com/us/en/Vehicles/Certified_Pre_Owned/Overview.ht m?sReferrer=P_CPO_slashCPO_CPOHome_20050526> 17 January 2010.7 Joseph F. Hanlon, Robert J. Kelsey, and Hallie E. Forcinio, Handbook of Package rd Engineering, 3 ed., (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC, 1998), 6.8 ClearanceJobs.com, The ClearanceJobs Report, February 2007, Volume 2, Issue 2, <http://media.corporate- ir.net/media_files/priv/pr_130608/ClearanceJobsFeb07.pdf> 17 January 2010.9 Rod Powers, Security Clearance Secrets, n.d., <http://usmilitary.about.com/cs/generalinfo/a/security.htm> 17 January 2010.10 Dolby, About, 2010, <http://www.dolby.com/about/> 17 January 2010.11 United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), Define :trademark, n.d., <http://www.uspto.gov/main/glossary/index.html#t> 17 January 2010.12 Dictionary.com, License, n.d., <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/license> 17 January 2010.13 Forest Stewardship Council (FSC.org), Rainforest Alliance, 2010, <http://www.rainforest-alliance.org/index.cfm> 17 January 2010.14 Organic Trade Association, Industry Statistics and Project Growth, June 8, 2011, http://www.ota.com/organic/mt/business.html15 California Certified Organic Farmers (CCOF), About Organic, 2011, http://www.ccof.org/aboutorganic.php16 Nelson and Pade, About Aquaphonics, 2011, http://www.aquaponics.com/17 Rainbow Light Nutritional Systems. Groundbreaking New Supplement Formulas Guarantee Consumers: 100% Animal-Free Multivitamins, n.d., http://www.rainbowlight.com/CategoriesCompany.aspx?Category=47f859d0-1b4e- 40b6-ab1b-2dc75b8b08d518 David Marshall, Wayne McManus and Daniel Viele, Accounting: what the numbers th mean 7 ed., (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2007), 5.19 Marshall, 6-7.Page 16  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 22. 20 PMI, Project Management Institute completes successful ANSI audit, 10 October 2006, < http://www.pmi.org/AboutUs/Pages/PMI-045-46-06.aspx> 1.21 Marshall, 6-7.22 Robert Lawless and Tony Bingham, Growing talent and sales at McCormick. (Training + Development, July 2007), 34.23 th Donald Ball et al., International business: the challenge of global competition, 11 ed., (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2007), 353.24 John Pearce II and Richard Robinson, Jr., Strategic management: formulation, implementation, and control, (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2007), 3.25 Peter Drucker, The effective executive, (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1967), 55.26 John Fahy and Alan Smithee, Strategic Marketing and the Resource Based View of the Firm, 1999, < http://www.amsreview.org/articles/fahy10-1999.pdf> 17 January 2010.27 th Eugene Brigham and Joel Houston, Fundamentals of Financial Management 10 ed., (Mason: South-Western, 2004), 40.28 Microsoft. Microsoft Technology Centers. 2010. <http://www.microsoft.com/services/microsoftservices/srv_tech.mspx> 17 January 2010.29 John Pearce II and Richard Robinson, Jr., Strategic management: formulation, implementation, and control, (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2007), 84, 92, 106.30 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), Accreditation, . n.d., <http://www.aacsb.edu/accreditation> 17 January 2010.31 Gary Jacobsen, Be wary of online MBA, 14 August 2006, <http://blogs.computerworld.com/node/2864#comment-9859> 17 January 2010.32 Robert Reich, Human Capital Key to Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Businesses, 23 April 2007, <http://www.aacsb.edu/wxyz/hp-reich.asp> 17 January 2010.33 Acclivus, Co-Creating Competitive Advantage™, (Training & Development Magazine, March 2008) 1. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 17
  • 23. Page 18  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 24. SECTION 2 – KNOWLEDGE AREASKnowledge Area MapKnowledge can be defined as “facts or procedures that individuals or teams ofemployees know or know how to do (human and social knowledge); also acompany’s rules, processes, tools, and routines (structured knowledge).”34Figure 2-0. Accreditation knowledge areasThe accreditation knowledge areas (see Figure 2-0) contain distinct entities,sometimes with overlap in application, and each with a reasonably unique andrelevant focus. The knowledge areas, at this time, are practical in their currentdelineation and it is expected that they will evolve over time with contributionsin their definition and application from other practitioners and fields of study. If“knowledge is the result of learning and is ephemeral, constantly needing to berevised and updated:” the knowledge areas identified herein may need to berevised and updated from time-to-time to support new learning.35 Eachknowledge area discussed in detail following are broken down by: knowledgearea, knowledge component, and component examples; visually: N. Knowledge Area N.n Knowledge Component Example (when provided to expand on the component) AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 19
  • 25. According to Princeton University’s WordNet (2006), a goal is “the state ofaffairs that a plan is intended to achieve and that terminates behavior intendedto achieve it.”36 The following are the goals of each accreditation knowledge areas: 1. Assessment: to appraise, estimate, evaluate, judge or determine the amount, content, quality, size, or value of something. 2. Certification: to attest, confirm state or validate the authenticity, fact, statement or truth of something. 3. Competency: to establish areas of capability, and levels of proficiency, in which something can be successfully executed to achieve its expected outcome. 4. Correlation: to establish a complementary, parallel or reciprocal relationship: to involve a qualitative correspondence between two or more entities. 5. Education: To obtain knowledge or skill of a specified degree, kind or level through an instruction or learning process about a particular subject and its operating environment. 6. Ethics: to demonstrate morals, principles, or standards of conduct recognized by a particular culture, group or profession. 7. Experience: To accumulate knowledge, skills and ability to a specified degree, kind or level through employment, term of employment, and operation within its environment.. 8. License: to have authority, formal or legal permission or right to do, have or use something. 9. Registration: to declare, enter or enroll something or someone as being associated and counted within a particular category, group, record, or list. 10. Regulation: to prescribe or regulate a law, statute, principle or rule as means to control or govern conduct. Some of the Knowledge Areas are results of accreditation, i.e. Accreditation Management programs that incorporate one or more of the Knowledge Areas such as a diploma or degree within Education; some of the Knowledge Areas are individual projects or activities that can be acted on individually or incorporated into an Accreditation Management program. Both Section 3 and Section 4 go into greater detail in how the Knowledge Areas are referenced and leveraged.Page 20  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 26. 1. ASSESSMENT Goal: to appraise, estimate, evaluate, judge or determine the amount, content, quality, size, or value of something.Figure 2-1. Accreditation knowledge area: AssessmentThe following are typical types of assessment and while several may havesimilarities, they have been delineated due to common usage.1.1 Audit (Examination)To analyze and inspect; examine methodically; officially examine; review thecondition or situation of something usually performed internally (by employeesof the organization) or externally (by an outside firm).1.2 Behavior A behavioral assessment may measure the manner in which something functions or operates, e.g. chemicals, an engine, liquid at different temperatures, motor, an individual in a situation or environment, etc. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 21
  • 27. Human: a behavioral assessment “measures personality traits in a more comprehensive way [than personality assessments/tests], and then determines how a given personality will react or behave in certain situations or circumstances. A person generally described as "calm, warm and friendly" might become "tense and explosive" in a stressful situation. Another person appearing to have the same personality traits may thrive and do amazing things in the same situation. Simply understanding ones personality traits has limited value in the workplace, team environment, or relationship. Behavioral assessments provide much more value in improving the effectiveness of human interaction in any environment.”37 An example of a behavioral assessment: DISC Model (Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness): identifies four dimensions of behavior in 2041 possible combinations to determine work style, dealing with conflict with others, motivational environments conductive to success, etc.1.3 Compliance The accuracy, or adherence, in the performance of something according to some standard, e.g. following a physician’s recommendations; ensuring financial statements follow generally accepted accounting practices; operating within and not exceeding published laws; operating within a policy or guideline; a measurement within an acceptable tolerance; etc.1.4 Inspection Examining, evaluating or viewing something closely in a careful and critical manner as a means to determine acceptance; compliance; data collection; mistakes; quality, etc. For example: inspecting a vehicle for safety and compliance to regulation or inspecting a weather-damaged home to determine its salvage condition. Inspection, in contrast to observation, is witnessing the evidence in performance of an activity, operation or process.1.5 Interview An interview is a type of survey, e.g. the in-person interview and the telephone interview, in which one or more individuals consult, evaluate, or question another person or group. As the interview progresses the interviewer(s) may reprioritize and submit questions in a sequence that is based on the respondent(s) reply.1.6 Observation Observation is a type of survey, e.g. gaining facts, making and recording measurements or findings. Typically not as detailed as inspection, i.e. observation is used to only look at the performance of an activity, operation or process.Page 22  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 28. 1.7 Performance Performance has to do with execution efficiency and effectiveness; recognizing performance gaps or deficiencies and how performance compares to expectation or specification; action carrying into execution, for example, a project finishing on-time and on-budget; meeting or exceeding customer satisfaction; reducing cycle times; poor performance due to technical dept on a software development project; etc. Human: something performed or undertaken, carried through and accomplished (in part or full), of some act, deed, duty, feat, etc. For example: a performance appraisal using a 360o Review technique; an athlete making or breaking a record in achievement; a runner making a finish line; etc. Performance Engineering (PE): is “a management system made of a series of techniques that, used together or separately, ‘engineer’ the work environment. The result of PE is an organizational system aligned with the mission of the organization and an organizational infrastructure that supports exemplary performance”381.8 Personality Personality assessments “are designed to understand the character traits of an individual. However, any given personality type is likely to behave differently in a favorable environment than in a stressful environment. Simply profiling ones personality does not reveal behavioral tendencies. Personality is a stable, consistent pattern of thoughts, behaviors and emotions. Behavior is an expression of personality.”39 Some examples of personality tests include the: Caliper Profile, the California Psychological Inventory; the Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, Conscientiousness (DISC) test; EQSQ test; Eysenck Personality Questionnaire; Keirsey Temperament Sorter; Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory; Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; Myers-Brigs Type Indicator® (MBTI); NEO PI-R; Personal Style Indicator (PSI); Robin Hood Morality Test; Rorschach inkblot test; Swedish Universities Scales of Personality; the 16PF Questionnaire (16PF); Thematic Apperception Test; and the Woodworth Test.1.9 Questionnaire A questionnaire is a type of survey, e.g. those administered by mail, household drop-off or by a group, which contains questions usually addressed to a statistically significant number of subjects as a means to gather information about the surveys theme. A questionnaire is something a respondent completes. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 23
  • 29. 1.10 Survey Survey and Inspection are very similar with the following two exceptions in taxonomy: Research technique: a survey may involve any number of methodologies to appraise, examine or inspect in order to ascertain condition, situation, value, etc. and can be divided into several broad categories: focus groups, intercept, interview (in-person and telephone), observation, questionnaire (paper and web-based), and sidewalk. Usually ends with a report or reporting of findings. Land and property: measuring land to determine is size, location and physical description; a physical inspection of the property to determine its physical condition and to advise the buyer upon the value of the property (and usually similar properties).1.11 Tenure There are two general perspectives with regard to tenure: Time in position: is associated with the length of time an individual is employed in private or public sector; in the case of business, there are often implications with regard to layoffs and greater job security; in the case of academics, it is often continued employment, job security, and freedom of expression, all subject to specific conditions of behavior and right to termination. Time in possession: is associated with occupancy, the possession of premises from an owner through renting, leasing, or some other agreed to set of terms and conditions, temporary or permanent.1.12 Term A period of time in which the scope of defined conditions, and agreement, will be carried out or met, such as, a life insurance policy, a loan, or a lease.1.13 Test (Examination) To examine; to determine someone’s knowledge, skill or abilities; a process for measuring a specific characteristic when tested; to seek the presence and quality of something tested; also called an examination.Page 24  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 30. 2. CERTIFICATION Goal: to attest, confirm, state or validate the authenticity, fact, statement or truth of something.Figure 2-2. Accreditation knowledge area: CertificationAccording to InTech—“Certification is private regulation. Typically the state orfederal government doesn’t have a law or regulation that covers the profession.So in the absence of government-mandated regulation, a trade association or anindependent certifying body develops a standard for certification.”40 See alsoSection 3 Definition Phase with a compare/contrast discussion with regard tothe Certification, License and Registration Knowledge areas as there is someambiguity to the use of these three taxonomies in the industry and generaluse—this Section provides an industry thought-leader discussion that will assistthe Accreditation Management professional.2.1 Academic A provider of education, continuing education, in a setting inside or outside traditional education (such as online and workplace settings) has met the minimum requirements by an evaluating body that recommends some value of credit and in some cases credit toward participating providers. For AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 25
  • 31. example, a University Registrar may issue an official document that validates dates of attendance, student status, and award of degree. This can also be based on geographical delineation, e.g. National or Regional accreditation. In the U.S. there are six Regional accreditors recognized by both by both the United States Department of Education (USDE) and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). This type of delineation controls transfer credit of transcripts between institutions, whether some courses will receive full or partial academic credit, etc. The American Council on Education (ACE) is a major coordinating body for all the U.S. higher education institutions.2.2 Board An individual or group, appointed or elected, having advisory and investigatory powers over an individual, public or private business; e.g. a board that maintains a faculty committee to manage testing administration and acceptance; or a board that maintains a standards committee to administer and approve an application with evidence that supports the application requirements. An alternate technique to the written test is the use of a panel evaluation by subject matter experts who reach a verdict/score. Board Certification is a service to the public allowing consumers, peers and businesses to identify those that meet the goals and objectives of the accreditation, e.g. a bankruptcy attorney, a dentist, a physician, etc. This is an accreditation that usually incorporates elements of formal and continued education, evidence of professional practice, and agreement to an ethical code of conduct. A Board may be recognized by the following additional titles: Advisory Group; Cabinet; Committee; Council; Group of advisors; Jury; Panel; or Trustees.2.3 Organizational An organization has met the requirements of a particular certification that may include specific minimum criteria such as documented and used processes with regard to production, quality, standards and regulatory guidelines. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) leads the world in developing and publishing standards that organizations follow. The ISO provides standards in over 159 countries for business, government and society, which makes it attractive from a marketing and operations standpoint.Page 26  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 32. 2.4 Product A product has met the requirements of a particular certification that may include specific minimum criteria such as built to specification, quality, safety standards and regulatory guidelines. Photography: The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) in the Philippines maintain a certification composed of 4 competencies for standards in professional photography. Technology: In the case of computers, computer peripherals, even mobile telephones, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or a designated Telecommunications Certification Body (TCB) test and certify these devices prior to availability on the U.S. market.2.5 Professional An individual has met the requirements of a particular certification that may include specific minimum criteria such as education, experience (prior to or just learned), time vested in on-the-job training, a passing score on a test, or proof in the ability to perform a job or task. You will also find this called a technical certification, technical/professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation. Emphasis for the “professional” knowledge area is that of a non- armature that has been working within a particular occupation for some minimum timeframe and usually pledges to follow a code of conduct including social and professional responsibility.2.6 Ratings A measure that relates to the activities involved in ranking or providing a score for something. Film: the Motion Picture Association (MPA) has the Motion Picture Rating System with rating symbols that are federally registered certification marks. Most producers and distributers submit films to receive a rating such as G, PG, PG-13, R, and, NC-17. Ratings allow the monitoring and control of access and distribution. Product: The Consumers Union (CU) provides ratings to consumers on the products it evaluates and as a result publishes the Consumer Reports magazine that provides a color-coded graphic image that represent the quality and safety of particular area evaluated. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 27
  • 33. 2.7 Sales A measure that relates to the activities involved in selling goods or services, for example, customer feedback from a sale; number of sales; type of sale; etc. Recording industry: the Recording Industry Association of America RIAA® is a trade group that represents the U.S. recording industry and certifies recording sales as Gold®, Platinum®, Multi-Platinum™, and Diamond sales awards, as well as Los Premios De Oro y Platino™(an award celebrating Latin music sales). Note that the certification also includes trademarks and registered trademarks as a form of branding.2.8 Service A service has met the requirements of a particular certification that may include specific minimum criteria such as performance of duties or work for another; usually a helpful or professional activity. For example: accompanying a person with a disability; assessment services based on extensive knowledge of a business or technology application or process; cleaning services; consulting services; legal advisory services; etc.2.9 System Any functionally related group of interacting, interrelated or interdependent elements forming a complex whole such as the channels and structures for communication, distribution or travel; an electrical or mechanical system; the nervous system; a network of computer hardware and software and its communication devices; an organism; the solar system; the universe, etc. Computer system: when securing hardware and software applications that reside on U.S. government networks, these systems must go through an accreditation process that is compliant with the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) of 2002 with regard to meeting specific security guidelines.2.10 Technical An individual has met the requirements of a particular certification that may include specific minimum criteria such as education, experience (prior to or just learned), time vested in on-the-job training, a passing score on a test, or proof in the ability to perform a job or task. You will find this also called a technical certification, technical/professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation. Emphasis for the “technical” knowledge area is that it is a measurable specialized knowledge, skills and ability working with something technical within the arts, sciences or industry.Page 28  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 34. 3. COMPETENCY Goal: to establish areas of capability, and levels of proficiency, in which something can be successfully executed to achieve its expected outcome.Figure 2-3. Accreditation knowledge area: CompetencyAccording to Noe (2005), competency “refers to areas of personal capabilitythat enable employees to successfully perform their job by achieving outcomesor accomplishing tasks. A competency can be knowledge, skills, attitudes, valuesor personal characteristics.”41 Moreover, Green (1999), recognizes corecompetency and organizational capability in his book Building RobustCompetencies—the Competency Knowledge Area will be delineated into Coreand Relative, i.e. Core representing a focus in competitive advantage andPertinent Capability relating directly and significantly through “businessprocesses and their professional management that enable an organization to doits work effectively.”42 According to Arthur (2001), “every job requires different competencies,there are four primary categories: (1) measurable, tangible, or technical skills;(2) knowledge; (3) behavioral; and (4) interpersonal skills. Most jobs emphasizethe need for one category over the other, but every employee should be able todemonstrate competencies, to some extent, in all four categories.”433.1 Core Those capabilities and proficiencies that provide a unique position in the marketplace; a competitive advantage; capability that is difficult for the competition to emulate such as technical knowledge about a product or service. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 29
  • 35. 3.2 Relational Those capabilities and proficiencies, in addition to Core Competency, that are complementary and may act in concert, have a relation, to enable levels of efficiency and effectiveness; competency of a tactical or strategic nature that enable Core Competency. For example: project management and Six Sigma competencies could be used in relation to Core Competency to create a predictive outcome, ensure quality and customer satisfaction.Page 30  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 36. 4. CORRELATION Goal: to establish a complementary, parallel or reciprocal relationship, with qualitative correspondence, between two or more entities/parties.Figure 2-4. Accreditation knowledge area: Correlation4.1 Advisory Council A group of individuals appointed to provide advice or subject matter expertise on current and future issues, operational processes, policy, etc.; a forum for the exchange of ideas and recommendations often with fair representation from business units and geographies. Field Advisory Council: a virtual group that may represent various regions of an international business that have global oversight, such as a Project Management Office (PMO), taking into consideration that some localization may be necessary in order to work within unique business environments. Role Advisory Council: a group of individuals that closely follow a particular role, such as the project manager, possibly working with Human Resources to keep current on career paths and banding, AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 31
  • 37. compensation models, competency models, thought-leadership to build human capital, etc.4.2 Affiliation A business, cultural, political, or social relationship between two or more businesses, churches, clubs, organizations, people, or nations to connect or join for some specific purpose or mutual benefit; similar to an alliance. Business Affiliation: “when one business controls or has the power to control another or when a third party (or parties) controls or has the power to control both businesses. Control may arise through ownership, management, or other relationships or interactions between the parties.”44 Network Affiliation: organization often network, the International Association of Facilitators (IAF) created a memorandum of agreement between themselves and other organizations for this purpose: “the purpose of IAF Affiliation is to foster cooperation between the two organizations. This Agreement describes the nature of the relationship, delineates mutual obligations and expectations, and provides procedures for resolution of any disputes that may develop. Appendix A describes expectations of activities in which IAF and the affiliate may engage to support and encourage this relationship.”45 University Affiliation: often hospitals will work together to improve their community health and well-being by working together leveraging the multiple disciplines and technical advances found within the university.4.3 Alliance A formal affiliation, agreement, association, coalition, confederation, federation, league, union or treaty between two or more businesses, organizations, people, or nations to cooperate for specific purposes, mutual benefit or joint operations. Strategic Alliance. “an arrangement between two or more companies to pursue a common business objective. A strategic alliance is perhaps most commonly described as a partnership or a joint venture (which is really nothing more than a partnership for a specific purpose). But the term could cover a broad spectrum of business relationships that may include anything from simple cost-sharing arrangements to a fully integrated merger of two companies…*problems that could occur include:] administrative issues; costs of operating; insurance coverage; labor and employment laws; marketing angles; ownership and control; potential liability exposure; profits and losses; regulatory hurdles; tax consequences.”46Page 32  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 38. 4.4 Endorsement A promotional statement; act of approval; formal or explicit approval; sanction as a means to support or validate; a signature; a voucher; an amendment to a contract; e.g. a candidate getting the endorsement of a union; a company supporting a book by lending its logo and statement on a dust cover; an athlete receiving incentives from a sporting goods manufacture; etc. Product Endorsement: the Good Housekeeping Seal (provides testing yet insufficient to fulfill the claims of the manufacture) provides a seal if it passes their tests that declares "Replacement or Refund of Money Guaranteed by Good Housekeeping."4.5 Franchise A “license granted by a company (the franchisor) to an individual or firm (the franchisee) to operate a retail, food, or drug outlet where the franchisee agrees to use the franchisor’s name; products; services; promotions; selling, distribution, and display methods; and other company support.”474.6 Partner An “organization of two or more persons who pool some or all of their money, abilities, and skill in a business and divide profit or loss in predetermined proportions.”48 Partner Programs: at Microsoft, they offer multi-level partnerships (“Registered, Certified, and Gold”) which provide scalable resources to help the partner: expand skills; increase opportunities; close more sales; and support customers.49 You can move to a level as your business changes.4.7 Research Project Research projects are sponsored to advance human knowledge on a wide variety of subjects. They are typically funded by corporations (such as research and development departments), universities and government contractors typically because they are interested in a particular subject or field of study. Affiliation can benefit sponsors and researchers in credibility, recognition and the potential for further funding for additional research. To illustrate the complexity of stakeholders in one research project: “Pavilion Lake is located about 500 kilometers north of Vancouver in Marble Canyon Provincial Park. It was formed by a glacier more than 10,000 years ago, and has for the last decade been the site of several studies into astrobiology. Primary funding for this year’s endeavor comes from the Canadian Space Agency, with additional funding from NASA, Nuytco, and McMaster University. Principal investigators are Darlene Lim from the NASA-Ames Research Center and Bernard Laval from the University of British Columbia, with collaborators from the NASA Johnson Space Center, AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 33
  • 39. Vancouver Aquarium, SETI (Search of Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) Institute, Simon Fraser University, Stanford University, California Institute of Technology, University of California-Davis, Portland State University, the University of Hong Kong, University of Vermont and Washington State University, among others.”504.8 Spokesperson An “individual who speaks on behalf of a product or service and whose name becomes associated with the product or service. A spokesperson may be a celebrity or someone who begins as an unknown and gains a measure of celebrity through association with the product. Personality; testimonial.”514.9 Sponsor Sponsor may refer to any of the following: “Commercial- to support an event, activity, or person; Legislative - a person who introduces a bill in the US Congress; Military, naval ship naming - a person who christens a ship at its launch; in a twelve-step program, are experienced members who make a service commitment to help others navigate the program; Self-relations Psychotherapy, a form of therapy; Child sponsorship, a form of charitable giving; the word sponsor derives from the Latin sponsor (pl. sponsors), word meaning guarantor.”52 This definition, as association, is different that an Accreditation Sponsor, as illustrated in Section 4.Page 34  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 40. 5. EDUCATION Goal: to obtain knowledge or skill of a specified degree, kind or level through an instruction or learning process about a particular subject and its operating environment.Figure 2-5. Accreditation knowledge area: EducationThe Education Knowledge Area and the Experience Knowledge Area have someoverlap, so I will borrow a phrase from the real estate magnate Donald Trump—the principal difference between education and experience is “learning how thereal world operates--and learning how to operate in it—[this] will give you thedouble edge that is necessary for success.”53 Certainly the two correspond toeach other; in these two knowledge areas Education will focus on obtaining andlearning whereas Experience will focus on the employment, its term andenvironment. Those familiar with employee training and developmentunderstand that “development refers to formal education, job experiences,relationships, and assessments of personality and abilities that help employeesperform effectively in their current or future job and company.”54 Multipleknowledge areas are at work in employee training and development. Likewisean accreditation may require training, on-the-job training (OJT), and anexternship: note how both knowledge areas work together to form this type ofaccreditation (which sounds much like an apprenticeship). The Education Knowledge Area incorporates training, which can resultin, or be part of a certificate, degree or diploma program or involvement in thescope of education. Where we differentiate education and training—it isimportant to understand the overarching difference between these two: AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 35
  • 41. “education is a learning process that deals with unknown outcomes, andcircumstances which require a complex synthesis of knowledge, skills andexperience to solve problems. Education refers its questions and actions toprinciples and values rather than merely standards and criteria. Training: hasapplication when: a) there is some identifiable performance and/or skill that hasto be mastered. And b) practice is required for the mastery of it.”555.1 Certificate A document serving as evidence that a participant has successfully completed a program by meeting or exceeding the requirements of the certificate issuing authority (for example, a business, college, or university). In addition, the certificate issuing authority may award the participant a designation/title and inclusion of associated benefits. For example, becoming certified to perform the duties of a role as the result of formal courseware, a passing score on a test, may also provide access to an online community in which there is recognition and knowledge sharing.5.2 Degree A document serving as evidence that a participant has successfully completed a program of studies by meeting or exceeding the requirements of the degree issuing authority (for example, a college, university, or postsecondary educational institution). In addition, the degree issuing authority regularly awards the participant an academic title and inclusion of associated benefits as being an alumnus. A degree, as an accreditation, may consist of a series of events, some with prerequisites, which may include lectures, seminars, meetings, presentations and workshops.5.3 Diploma A document serving as evidence that a participant has successfully completed a program of studies by meeting or exceeding the requirements of the diploma issuing authority (for example, a business, college, school, or university). In addition, the diploma issuing authority regularly awards the participant an academic title and inclusion of associated benefits as being an alumnus.5.4 Event An occurrence, something that happens at a given place and time, of personal, professional or social importance to the participant; an event may span an hour to several months; an event may lead toward a certificate, diploma or degree and may require registration in order to reserve and account for attendance. Conference: according to the International Congress and Convention Association (2009), a conference is a “participatory meeting designed for discussion, fact-finding, problem solving and consultation. As compared with a congress, a conference isPage 36  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 42. normally smaller in scale and more select in character - features which tend to facilitate the exchange of information.”56Congress: according to the International Congress and Convention Association (2009), a congress is a “regular coming together on a representational basis of several hundred - or even thousands - of individuals belonging to a single professional, cultural, religious or other group. A congress is often convened to discuss a particular subject. Contributions to the presentation and discussion of the subject matter come only from members of the organizing body. Frequency: usually established in advance and can be either multiannual or annual. Most international or world congresses are of the former type while national congresses are more frequently held annually. A congress will often last several days and have several simultaneous sessions.”57Convention: essentially the same as a conference; synonymous with conference.Exhibition: according to the International Congress and Convention Association (2009), exhibitions are those “events at which products and services are displayed.”58Lecture: A group of individuals meeting for the purpose of study, discussions and the exchange of information; similar to a seminar but often includes less, if any, interactivity with the audience.Meeting: according to the Harvard Business School Press (2006), meetings are “where we get together, as teams, as ad hoc groups, as members of a department, as negotiators sitting across from one another at the table. Meetings are where problems are solved, decisions are made, and trust is built.”59 They further delineate meetings in an 8-18-1800 rule, i.e. “to solve a problem or make a decision invite no more than eight people…to brainstorm, then you can go as high as 18 people…to disseminate information…to whip the group up into a frenzy of enthusiasm…1800—or more.”Presentation: the process of speaking to an individual or group about a particular subject to facilitate learning, for the purpose of study, discussions and the exchange of information.Product/Service Demonstration: the process of speaking to an individual or group demonstrating specific features and functionality, discussing specifications, and other aspects of a product/service. In some cases, such as solution selling, the product/service demonstration is tailored to the business need of the customer; an important aspect of sales. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 37
  • 43. Product/Service Launch: the process of speaking to a group introducing a new product/service or the improvements to existing; an important aspect of marketing. Public Speaking: the process of speaking to a group of people intended to entertain, influence, or inform about a particular subject; the setting may be formal or informal. We know when we hear a good public speaker simply reflecting on our experience with politicians and theologians. Storytelling can be an important component to public speaking; storytellers “can focus and energize their constituents. Good stories are important to individual and organizational wellbeing and effectiveness because they help people make sense of who they are by enabling them to find their place in the story. Good stories hold the organization together by pulling seeming disparate parts of the organization together, articulating both a shared past and a future.”60 Two organizations that support building public speaking skills are Toastmasters International (TI) and the National Communication Association (NCA). Self-Directed Learning: Independent study undertaken as a requisite to meet the requirements of an instructor or as a development task of an issuing authority (as in the recognition of professional development units to maintain a credential); this may include attending presentations and selected reading topics. Seminar: A group of individuals meeting for the purpose of study, discussions and the exchange of information; similar to a lecture but often includes more interactivity with the audience. Trade Show: essentially the same as an exhibition; synonymous with exhibition. Training: An individual or group meeting for education and instruction to facilitate learning. Tutoring/Tutorial: An individual that is able to clarify terms, interpret, share ideas and guide a student or small group trough a particular subject—given that they have studied any prerequisite of that subject. Emphasis is on teaching. A natural progression for a Tutor is to become a Mentor. While mentoring seems to have more emphasis in career development, perhaps tutoring is a more tactical approach to building human capital, i.e. according to one author; ‘mentoring’ is overrated as a human capital investment. I suspect that there are [corporate executives] who would become far more expert — and effective — in their roles if they took the time to explicitly teach people core skills and competencies in theirPage 38  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 44. specialty. Better yet, the scalable impact would come when those "students," in turn, sought to reinforce their learning by teaching others. See one; do one; teach one.”61 Webinar: A seminar broadcast via the Internet and accessed through an Internet browser either real-time or on-demand. Workshop: A group of individuals meeting for the purpose of discussion, the exchange of information, and the demonstration and application of skills, principles and practices.5.5 On-the-Job Training (OJT) According to Noe (2005), OJT refers to “new or inexperienced employees learning through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior; from apprenticeships to self-directed learning, “OJT is an attractive training method because, compared to other methods, it needs less investment in time or money for materials, trainer’s salary, or instructional design…manager or peer who are job knowledge experts are used as instructors.”62 The U.S. military uses OJT extensively to ensure individuals are consciously competent in their activities especially under duress. One benefit to OJT is that it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employees workplace or in a simulated environment on a par with the workplace for reasons of safety or security. For example, it is not unusual for a large casino to have a mock-casino in which individuals perform work demonstrating their knowledge, skill and ability under the supervision of a manager or peer and once achieving a level of competence are evaluated and potentially satisfy the requirements of the work through assessment. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 39
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  • 46. 6. ETHICS Goal: To demonstrate morals, principles, or standards of conduct recognized by a particular culture, group or profession.Figure 2-6. Accreditation knowledge area: Ethics6.1 Code of Conduct A set of conventional principles, a policy of expected behavior, considered binding on any person who is a member of a particular group; usually includes conditions of social and professional responsibility. Code of Business Practices: The Better Business Bureau (BBB) accredits U.S. and Canadian businesses that meet their standard to include a commitment to resolve any consumer complaints. Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct: The Project Management Institute (PMI®) states: “as practitioners of project management, we are committed to doing what is right and honorable. We set high standards for ourselves and we aspire to meet these standards in all aspects of our lives—at work, at home, and in service to our profession.”63 Social and Professional Responsibility-Goals and Expected Outcomes: the University of South Florida aspires to “demonstrate social and professional responsibility through mentoring, participation in professional and community organizations and activities, patient/client advocacy, and provision of pro bono services.”64 AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 41
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  • 48. 7. EXPERIENCE Goal: to accumulate knowledge, skills and ability to a specified degree, kind or level through employment, term of employment, and operation within its environment.Figure 2-7. Accreditation knowledge area: ExperienceThe Experience Knowledge Area and the Education Knowledge Area have someoverlap; please refer to Section 4 for further explanation and delineation.7.1 Apprenticeship According to Noe (2005), an apprenticeship is “a work-study training method with both on-the-job *(OJT)+ and classroom training…*where+ modeling, practice, feedback, and evaluation are involved.”65 Apprentice programs usually support specific occupations where a certain amount of hours are required in classroom instruction and in experience over time; some occupations include the carpenter, electrician, machinist, plumber, etc.7.2 Coaching Coaching and Mentoring are not the same: for this very reason it is important to understand their unique taxonomy. According to Rosen (2008), a coach is “an expert on people and personal development. Typically a skilled specialist regarding a certain topic, competency, or industry. A coachs role is to provide structure, foundation, and support so people can AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 43
  • 49. begin to self-generate the results they want on their own.”66 Coaching has a focus on performance, often that of a team; it is associated with a job. In business, coaches are often external to the organization (such as in building leadership or public speaking capabilities), in contrast to mentors often internal to the organization such as an executive, manger or supervisor.7.3 Expatriate Assignment While much of an international corporation hires in its host country (called inpatriates); and may offer short-term assignments abroad (called flexpatriates); the expatriate assignment is one that usually lasts two to four years. According to Ball, et al. (2008), an expatriates assignment “can bring technical or managerial skills that are scarce in the host country; they can help transfer or install companywide systems or cultures; they can provide a trusted connection for facilitating oversight or control over foreign operations; or the international assignment may enable the expat to develop the skills and experiences that will allow a subsequent promotion into leadership positions of greater scope and responsibility within the [international corporation+.”677.4 Externship A more formal approach to Shadowing and longer in duration/emersion: this is a closely supervised individual taken through some business or technical process in order to gain new knowledge, skills or ability or to achieve higher levels of efficiency and effectiveness (usually with emphasis on quality and customer satisfaction). An Externship may include some type of credit for completion (such as academic) and/or compensation. May be full-time, part-time, virtual or onsite. Often Externship and Shadowing are used interchangeably. To help delineate Externship: a less formal approach is to use Job Shadowing (usually a day in duration) and a more formal approach is to use an Internship (usually several months in duration).7.5 Intellectual Capital (IC) Intellectual Capital and financial capital are a company’s market capital: “intellectual capital is the possession of the knowledge, applied, experience, organizational technology, customer relationships and professional skills that provide…a competitive edge in the market.”68 Intellectual Capital thus delineated, and defined subsequently, as: Intellectual Customer Human Process Capital (IC) = Capital + Capital + Capital Much of the basis for accreditation management, and the AMBOK® Guide, are to help individuals and businesses recognize “evidence of capability” as a means of capital that can be used in the recognition of more capital;Page 44  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 50. greater wealth. The following are the four major categories of Intellectual Capital: Customer Capital: has to do with the relationship to its customers; this “is where cash flow starts;” where you measure satisfaction and loyalty; where you understand “the financial well-being of long- term customers;” it is “distinct from that of its dealings with employees and strategic partners, and that this relationship is of absolutely central importance to the company’s worth.”69 Human Capital: according to Edvinsson & Maline (1997), it is the sum of “all individual capabilities, the knowledge, skill, and experience of the company’s employees and managers;” importantly in building human capital, shareholders must ask if the company is “constantly upgrading their skills and adding new ones? Are these new skills and competencies recognized by the company and incorporated into its operations *and HR management systems+?”70 Innovation Capital: according to Edvinsson & Maline (1997), “refers to the renewal capability and the results of innovation in the form of protected commercial rights, intellectual property, and other intangible assets and talents used to create and rapidly bring to market new products and services;” a typical nonphysical asset would include intellectual property (IP).71 Process Capital: according to Edvinsson & Maline (1997), are “those work processes, techniques (such as ISO 9000), and employee programs that augment and enhance the efficiency of manufacturing or the delivery of services.”72In the model used by Edvinsson & Maline there are two additional grouping thatare aggregates: Organizational Capital: the sum of both Innovation Capital and Process Capital. Structural Capital: the sum of both Customer Capital and Organizational Capital. The Edvinsson & Maline book, Intellectual capital: realizing your company’s true value by finding its hidden roots (1997), provides many excellent examples on how to measure each category of capital as well as a case study of Skandia, one of the worlds leading independent providers of quality solutions for long-term savings and investments, which published the first Intellectual Capital annual report in 1995. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 45
  • 51. 7.6 Internship A more formal approach to an Externship and longer in duration/emersion: this is a closely supervised individual taken through some business or technical process in order to gain new knowledge, skills or ability or to achieve higher levels of efficiency and effectiveness (usually with emphasis on quality and customer satisfaction). An Internship usually includes some type of credit for completion (such as academic) and/or compensation. May be full-time, part-time, virtual or onsite. An Internship at Microsoft offers the following benefits: subsidized housing; pay for essentials like water and cable; housecleaning; paid travel to Microsoft; subsidized car rental or bike purchase plan; health club membership; shipping reimbursement; free bus pass; parties and special events; free training; and software discounts.73 According to Oblinger & Verville (1998), “the skill development, maturity, self-confidence, and competitiveness of [individuals] who have participated in internships are generally superior to those who have not had the opportunity.”74 A less formal approach is to use an Externship (usually a week in duration) or even less formal is to use Shadowing (usually a day in duration).7.7 Job Enlargement According to Noe (2005), Job Enlargement is “adding new challenges or new responsibilities to an employee’s current job.”75 This can be achieves through: allowing the individual to research ways to improve customer capital, innovation capital or process capital; being assigned to a special project; or switching a role within a team (a technical role taking on more project management related activities).7.8 Job Rotation According to Noe (2005), Job Rotation “involves providing employees with a series of job assignments in various functional areas of the company or movement among jobs in a single functional area of department.”76 Some companies use the Internship and Sabbatical as opportunities for job rotation. An Internship may allow the intern to select one or more areas of the organization in which their internship would be divided. For example, in a technology firm time could divide an assignment in: finance; hardware development; human resources; information technology; legal; marketing; sales; services; or software development. This allows the intern to determine which departments present a closer career fit as well as feedback from the department itself on additional structured development prior to a possible hire. The Sabbatical offers employees an opportunity to work in the open position during vacancy which provides an increased understanding of the position, its role and responsibilities, and a fit for career transition.Page 46  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 52. 7.9 Knowledge Management (KM) While Knowledge Management is a component of Intellectual Capital (discussed previously) it is important to include it as a separate discussion as for many companies this is an individually funded function. According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)—“Knowledge management is getting the right information to the right people at the right time, and helping people create knowledge and share and act upon information in ways that will measurably improve the performance of [the organization] and its partners.”77 While at Microsoft an initiative from Bill Gates at the end of the twentieth century spurred an e-Business system called the Intellectual Capital Exchange (ICE) used for the use and reuse of intellectual capital/property; one interesting point of functionally included a rating system similar to that of Amazon.com, i.e. users able to rate the IP/IC on a five star model as well as providing comments helping individuals harvest the IP/IC with the greatest business/technical value. Another of the values created by this initiative support the concept that Gates envisioned: that every program and “project should directly build on the learning from any similar project undertaken anywhere else in the *organization+”787.10 Mentoring Mentoring and coaching are not the same: for this very reason it is important to understand their unique taxonomy. According to Rosen (2008), a mentor is “an expert in a field, industry, or at a company who typically acts as an internal advisor. Usually this is done on a professional level to advance the mentored persons career.”79 Another definition: “mentoring is the process by which a person with more experience (a mentor) consciously helps a person with less experience (a protégé) achieve his or her professional goals.”80 Mentoring has a focus on the individual rather than a team; it is a self-selecting process. There are some school of thought that believe Tutoring is more effective than mentoring given the emphasis on professional goals versus education/training goals respectively.7.11 Sabbatical A period of time in which an individual is away from their current job, engaging is some activity (research, gaining new training or skills) and upon return either reengages their current job or transitions into a new one. For example, a facility member may take a sabbatical over an academic semester in order to concentrate on their education or on research in a particular field of study.7.12 Shadowing A short-term experience, usually a day, in which an individual learns more about a job by walking through the work day as a shadow to a competent worker—often the goal is to learn about a particular career path as: in determining if the career path is one you wish to transition into; or one you are exploring as a means to add additional structured development in AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 47
  • 53. preparation for the career path e.g. a job shadow day such as bring-your- son/daughter-to-work day (possibly so the child may write an essay about the experience); after an informational interview (to provide further examination into a job function and the opportunity to ask further questions about the job); or a student assigned to a competent worker in a company to which they determine which, if any, careers may interest them in applying for an internship; etc. Often Shadowing (also called job shadowing) and Externship are used interchangeably. To help delineate Shadowing: a more formal approach is to use an Externship (usually a week in duration) or an Internship (usually several months in duration). Shadowing usually does not include credit for completion and/or compensation.7.13 Utilization The time an individual contributes to a role within the organization less non- utilization tasks such as administrative tasks, less-profitable tasks, training and wasted time. Note that utilization may include a breakdown of any/all of the non-utilization tasks, e.g. an individual may be evaluated on 75% in role, 10% in role education/training, 10% administration, and 5% innovation. Utilization may also include the effective use of flexible work arrangements (FWAs) where the individual work at home (virtual). Other considerations may include time-in-role, e.g. if a project manager were to be rewarded for spending 65% of their time as a project manager, but spent part of this percentage as a business analyst—this could impact the organizations capacity and capability to deliver in project management by sacrificing utilization on the alternate role. There is much written in the industry on roles, commitments (management by objectives), variable compensation, etc. The important factor is that time-in-role may be a deciding factor toward advancement/promotion and regulation of such. For some organizations understanding utilization by role allows an understanding of what capacity and capability they have, what is leading and what is lagging in their current portfolio of human capital. An example: say a project manager at mid-point in career needs 2,250 hours in role to qualify for potential promotion yet spends half their time doing technical development tasks such as software programming— this would increase their potential promotion time by a factor of two. This may be acceptable for the individual, but it the organization miss-using the role and padding their need for both a developer and a project manager (certainly subjective and interpretive to the business/management scenario).Page 48  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 54. 8. LICENSE Goal: to have authority, formal or legal permission or right to do, have or use something.Figure 2-8. Accreditation knowledge area: LicenseAccording to InTech—“Licensure is where a state has laws and regulations thatspecify who can provide a particular service or can call himself or herself amember of a particular profession. Without meeting your particular state’srequirements for licensure, which typically involves a prior level of attainededucation, experience, and examination performance, you cannot practicecertain professions. There are two kinds of licensure — title act and practice act.Title act laws require you to meet certain qualifications before you can callyourself a specific name or title…Practice act regulations deem you cannotperform certain things for the general public or for employers in the state unlessyou have met certain requirements qualifying you to do the work.”81 See alsoSection 3 Definition Phase with a compare/contrast discussion with regard tothe Certification, License and Registration Knowledge areas as there is someambiguity to the use of these three taxonomies in the industry and generaluse—this Section provides an industry thought-leader discussion that will assistthe Accreditation Management professional. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 49
  • 55. 8.1 Business According to the government, “every business needs one or more federal, state or local licenses or permits to operate. Licenses can range from a basic operating license to very specific permits, (e.g., environmental permits). Regulations vary by industry, state and locality, so its very important to understand the licensing rules where your business is located. Not complying with licensing and permitting regulations can lead to expensive fines and put your business at serious risk.”828.2 Probationary A license constraint that authorizes the operation of something either as a precursor to gaining a more comprehensive license (such as satisfying prerequisites of the probationary license prior to applying for the more all- inclusive) or if a licenses has been revoked or suspended (usually for some time period) this allows limited use (usually during business hours or other exceptions). Driving in the United States requires a license; in Colorado, as with other states, if the privilege to drive is revoked, according to one attorney— “you have the right to request a probationary license - also called a ‘restricted,’ ‘provisional,’ or ‘red’ license. However, you can only request such a license if you submitted to a blood test or breath test at the time of your arrest. You are not eligible if you refused to take the blood alcohol test.”83 Some states also restrict the time in which the license may be used, e.g. 6:00am to 7:00pm to cover most business hours of operation.8.3 Product This is an agreement, especially in the software industry, in which a specific product is “not sold” but “licensed” for use. There are “conditions of use” which specify what the user may and many not do with the product, as well as the types of license (commercial; demonstration; educational; personal; etc.) and localized terms and conditions (U.S. versus outside the U.S.). There is often an associated warranty period, usually 90 days, and that the manufacture may terminate support for the product at some point in the future usually associated with the release to manufacture of a newer version or newer product.8.4 Professional Professional licensing is often performed by licensing boards and commissions to ensure competent consumer services; the license is granted as “permission to practice” in a field of study that requires a high-level of specialized skill and may be deemed dangerous or a threat to a person or the public. See also License and Registration in this Section as there is some ambiguity to the use of these three taxonomies in the industry and general use.Page 50  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 56. There is an exhaustive list of professional licenses such as the following: Acupuncture; Addiction Counselors; Athletic Trainers; Behavioral Health and Human Services; Chiropractors; Controlled Substances Advisory Committee; Dentistry; Dietitians; Environmental Health Specialists; Genetic Counselors; Health Facility Administrators; Hearing Aid Dealers; Hypnotists; Marriage and Family Therapists; Medical (Physicians & Osteopathic Physicians); Mental Health Counselors; Nursing; Occupational Therapy; Optometry; Pharmacy; Physical Therapy; Physician Assistant; Podiatric Medicine; Psychology; Respiratory Care; Social Workers; Speech Language Pathology and Audiology; Veterinary Medicine.8.5 Service The premise of the service license is based on public health, safety or wellbeing. This includes a wide range of services from radio services that may be used during a catastrophic event and are not for financial gain to protecting wildlife from its immediate environment or protecting the public environment. Several examples follow: Amateur Radio Service License: For amateur-radio and amateur-satellite services granted by the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) which demonstrates interest in radio technique with a personal aim and without financial interest. This requires an examination by volunteer examiners which then determine the license grant (Amateur Extra; General, or Technical). Ambulance Service License: a license which usually indicates the levels of service offered (first responder, paramedic); the ability to use two-way communications equipment; automobile insurance; credentials of emergency medical personnel and vehicle operators; proof of vehicle permits and inspections; etc. Food Service License: for public safety this observes food the food types and food services offered; the processing and distribution of food; water and waste treatment; the business type and hours of operation; etc. Public Service License: enables physicians enrolled in postgraduate education and training programs to practice medicine outside this program. Wildlife Service License: for public health or safety, even the well-being of the wildlife itself in its immediate environment—this enables an individual or company to market and assist with nuisance wildlife as in the capture, removal, transport and relocation of the wildlife. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 51
  • 57. Page 52  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 58. 9. REGISTRATION Goal: to declare, enter or enroll something or someone as being associated and counted within a particular category, group, record, or list.Figure 2-9. Accreditation knowledge area: RegistrationAccording to InTech—“Registration is a process by which a state, or anassociation, maintains a list of people who have informed the governing bodythat they perform professional services for the public in a particular field.”84 Seealso Section 3 Definition Phase with a compare/contrast discussion with regardto the Certification, License and Registration Knowledge areas as there is someambiguity to the use of these three taxonomies in the industry and generaluse—this Section provides an industry thought-leader discussion that will assistthe Accreditation Management professional. Duly noted that it is possible to register for a license—don’t confuse theaction with the artifact defined in the first paragraph of each knowledge area. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 53
  • 59. 9.1 Business A common practice in the U.S. is registering a business: this service ensures that there are non-conflicting business names, recognizes the type and structure of business, and receives tax collection information. Registration results in a business license.9.2 Certification Mark(CM) According to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) a certification mark is “any word, name, symbol, device, or any combination, used, or intended to be used, in commerce by someone other than its owner, to certify regional or other origin, material, mode of manufacture, quality, accuracy, or other characteristics of such persons goods or services, or that the work or labor on the goods or services was performed by members of a union or other organization.”85 The following are several examples (not an exhaustive list): American National Standards Institute (ANSI): strengthens the U.S. marketplace position in the global economy while helping to assure the safety and health of consumers and the protection of the environment. ANSI is the official U.S. representative to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and, via the U.S. National Committee, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). ANSI is also a member of the International Accreditation Forum (IAF). Canadian Standards Association (CSA) International: leading provider of product testing and certification services and fully accredited by the Occupational Health and Safety Association (OSHA) as a National Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL). Underwriters Laboratories® (UL): is an independent product safety certification organization that has been testing products and writing standards for safety for more than a century. These requirements are primarily based on ULs own published Standards for Safety.9.3 Copyright According to the United States Patent and Trademark Office, a copyright “is a form of protection provided to the authors of ‘original works of authorship’ including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works, both published and unpublished…copyrights are registered by the Copyright Office of the Library of Congress.”869.4 Employment A common practice In the U.S. under child labor laws, and for individuals that are considered a minor aged 14 and 15, is registering for an Employment Certificate whose purpose is to let the employer and employeePage 54  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 60. know that there will be an understanding and oversight to ensure the minors education take priority over work.9.5 Patent According to the United States Patent and Trademark Office, a patent “for an invention is the grant of a property right to the inventor” for a term of 20 years where “patent grants are effective only within the US, US territories, and US possessions…*What is granted is+ the right to exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, selling or importing the invention”87 Patents are issued by the Patent and Trademark Office.9.6 Penal In the U.S. individuals convicted of a misdemeanor or felony may require self-registration with their local authorities or face prison time. Registration is usually around the person’s birthday and is often a lifetime requirement.9.7 Permit A “document issued by a government regulatory authority, that allows the bearer to take some specific action.”88 There are far too many types of permits to list in this Section, however, take note of some of the permits and that an attorney/lawyer may need to be consulted if there are terms and conditions that deeply regulate the operation under the permit; in some cases government agencies may also need to be consulted. Building: some localities in the U.S. require a permit for construction both residential and commercial. Bulk Mailing: the U.S. Postal Service requires businesses with postage meters additional savings and services when registering for bulk mail. Electrical: some localities in the U.S. require a permit for electrical work both residential and commercial. Elevator: a common practice In the U.S. is the Bureau of Elevator Safety registering company’s installing, altering, or relocating elevators with a permit. Once the work is complete, it is inspected by a “certified elevator inspector” that is not associated with, or employed by, the registered elevator company or the elevator owner. Note that registration and certification are both used in this application and that public safety is the theme. Encroachment: According to Riverside County Flood Control and Water Conservation District in California, “an encroachment permit is required whenever work is proposed within the public rights-of-way or easement. Typical examples of work include: trenching across public right-of-way for installation of water, sewer, storm drain, cable, and other underground utilities; construction of curb, gutter, AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 55
  • 61. sidewalk, driveway, and roadway pavement; [and] water monitoring and extraction wells, soil sample borings.”89 Health Department: some U.S. county regulations require a permit for: “new construction on properties with a Well and/or a Septic Systems, additions and Septic repairs; food service and the public; [and] day care operations; and nail salons.”90 Learners or Instruction: a common practice In the U.S. if prior to obtaining a motor vehicle license, an individual must obtain a Lerner’s or Instruction permit which usually includes education and training, a written test, and a practice test. Major Use: some U.S. county regulations require a permit for an assembly of 15 or more individuals or face large fines and other penalties. Parade: some U.S. cities require a permit before a parade can take place upon any street or in any public place; permits issued by the Police Commissioner. Parking: allows employees and/or guests parking often used within a given time constraint, e.g. the permit must be visible on the vehicle from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. Radioisotope: Individuals that are able to order and use radioactive material at Harvard University are required to get a permit from the Radiation Protection Office (RPO) where it then is submitted to the Radiation Safety Committee (RSC) wherein the RSC reviews and approves or denies individual applications. River Noncommercial Float Permit: some of the U.S. under the Bureau of Land Management requires a permit for water access. Once registering for a permit, some use a lottery, e.g. selecting only a specific quantity say from December 1 to January 31 each year. Waste: if you treat, store or dispose of some kind of waste, the Bureau of Land generally requires a waste permit.9.8 Professional Some professions require registration with the State in which they will work, according to MIT, this will “insure that persons practicing in these professions are competent to practice and are not endangering the life, health, safety and welfare of the public.”91 The AHTA has voluntary registration: “the American Horticultural Therapy Association recognizes and registers horticultural therapists through a voluntary professional registration program. This is a peer review system that is intended to promote basic professional competencies basedPage 56  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 62. upon academic and professional training, work experience in horticultural therapy and other professional activities and accomplishments.”92 Those in school business administration may register with the Association of School Business Official International and receive a credential of: Registered School Business Administrator (RSBA); Registered School Business Official (RSBO); or the Registered School Business Specialist (RSBS); the delineation seems to be on level of education and experience.93 Professional Registration may be administered by a body titled the Division of Professional Registration; it may be voluntary; it may be required; it may be independently governed or government mandated. Another example: for some States those with a Real Estate License must also register with a Real Estate Commission—see also Section 3 Definition Phase with a compare/contrast discussion with regard to the Certification, License and Registration Knowledge areas as there is some ambiguity to the use of these three taxonomies in the industry and general use—this Section provides an industry thought-leader discussion that will assist the Accreditation Management professional.9.9 Publication Anywhere in the world you can ask an individual for an ISBN number that usually appears on the read cover of a book; the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a 10 or 13-digit number that uniquely identifies books and book-like products published internationally. In the U.S., R.R. Bowker is the agency “responsible for assigning ISBNs as well as providing information and advice on the uses of the ISBN system to publishers and the publishing industry in general—”94 individuals, businesses into self-publishing, and publishers leverage the ISBN numbering system due to its international recognition (think of the ISBN as a unique part number for a publication).9.10 Service Mark (SM) According to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) a service mark is “a word, name, symbol or device that is to indicate the source of the services and to distinguish them from the services of others. A service mark is the same as a trademark except that it identifies and distinguishes the source of a service rather than a product. The terms "trademark" and "mark" are often used to refer to both trademarks and service marks.”959.11 Trademark(TM) According to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) a trademark is used to “protect words, names, symbols, sounds, or colors that distinguish goods and services from those manufactured or sold by others and to indicate the source of the goods. Trademarks, unlike patents, can be renewed forever as long as they are being used in commerce.”96 Essentially, a trademark is a brand name. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 57
  • 63. 9.12 Trademark®, Registered Same as a trademark with the following benefits of Federal trademark registration: 1) “constructive notice nationwide of the trademark owners claim; 2) evidence of ownership of the trademark; 3) jurisdiction of federal courts may be invoked; 4) registration can be used as a basis for obtaining registration in foreign countries; and 5) registration may be filed with U.S. Customs Service to prevent importation of infringing foreign goods.” 97 Essentially, a registered trademark is a brand name.9.13 Transportation Many U.S. cities require registration of an automobile, boat, motorcycle, motor home, trailers and trucks. Many streets and highways are funded from transportation registration; usually a license plate, license plate tag (the duration in which the tag must be renewed), and a certificate of registration are provided.Page 58  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 64. 10. REGULATION Goal: to prescribe or regulate a law, principle or rule as means to control or govern conduct; evidence of capability controlled within established constraints.Figure 2-10. Accreditation knowledge area: Regulation10.1 Economic A type of government regulation that sets prices or conditions on entry of firms into an industry. Economic regulation also includes the regulation of financial firms.98 See Table 2-1.10.2 Social Includes environmental controls, health and safety regulations, and restrictions on labeling and advertising. Social regulation involves the correction of externalities. However, there is considerable disagreement about the exact economic rationale for much social regulation.42. Social Regulation Economic Regulation Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Financial National Highway and Traffic Safety Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) Administration (NHTSA) Occupational Safety and Health Federal Reserve System (Fed) Administration (OSHA) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Table 2-1 Key federal agencies: Table adapted from Taylor, Stanford University42 AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 59
  • 65. 10.3 Trade Export Involves controlling the delivery and type of goods that can be exported. In the U.S. within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) assist in facilitating trade-related activities that include: protecting U.S. businesses from theft of intellectual property and unfair trade practices; collecting import duties, taxes and fees; enforcing trade laws related to admissibility; regulating trade practices to collect the appropriate revenue; maintaining export controls; and protecting U.S. agricultural resources via inspection activities at the ports of entry.”9910.4 Trade Import Involves controlling the delivery and type of goods that can be imported.Page 60  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 66. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION SECTION 2 Table 2-2 Accreditation Delineation Table of knowledge areas and knowledge elements Page 61
  • 67. Page 62  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 68. SECTION 2 - Endnotes34 rd Ramond A. Noe, Employee training and development, 3 ed. (New York, NY: McGraw- Hill/Irwin, 2005), 436.35 Paula J. Caproni, Management skills for everyday life (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc., 2005), 20.36 WordNet Search - 3.0, Goal, 2006, <http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=goal&o2=&o0=1&o7=&o5=&o1= 1&o6=&o4=&o3=&h> (17 January 2010).37 Intesi! Resources, Behavioral vs. Personality Assessments, 2008, <http://www.intesiresources.com/d/What-Is-a-DiSC-Profile-/Behavior-vs- Personality.htm > (17 January 2010).38 nd Peter J. Dean, Performance engineering at work, 2 ed. (Silver Spring, MD: International Society for Performance Improvement, 1999), ix.39 Intesi! Resources, 1.40 InTech, Registration, Licensure, Certification . . . Which is Right for You?, N.D., <http://www.isa.org/InTechTemplate.cfm?Section=ISA_News1&template=/Content Management/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=37793> (17 January 2010).41 Noe, 95.42 Paul C. Green, Building robust competencies: linking human resource systems to organizational strategies (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1999), 53.43 Diane Arthur, The employee recruitment and retention handbook (New York, NY: AMACOM, 2001), 170.44 Small Business Administration (SBA), Affiliation discussion , July 17 2008, <http://www.sba.gov/idc/groups/public/documents/sba_homepage/affiliation_disc ussion.pdf> (17 January 2010).45 Internationals Association of Facilitators (IAF), IAF Affiliate Networks Information: Memorandum of Agreement Network Affiliation, 2008, < http://www.iaf- world.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3761> (17 January 2010).46 LexisNexis, Strategic Business Alliances FAQS, 2009, < http://business- law.lawyers.com/strategic-alliances/Strategic-Business--Alliances-FAQS.html> (17 January 2010).47 Jack P. Friedman, Dictionary of Business Terms, (Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s Educational Services, 1994), 242-243.48 Friedman, 237.49 Microsoft, Microsoft Partner Program Benefits, 2009, <https://partner.microsoft.com/global/program/programoverview> (17 January 2010).50 Pavilion Lake, Mini submersibles enlisted to probe odd structures in B.C. lake, 16 June 2008, <http://www.pavilionlake.com/press- release/McMasterPavilionLake061608.pdf>51 Friedman, 572.52 Reference.com, Sponsor, 2009, <http://www.reference.com/browse/sponsor> (17 January 2010). AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 63
  • 69. 53 Donald Trump, Education vs. experience, 28 May 2009, <http://www.trumpuniversity.com/blog/post/2009/05/education-vs- experience.cfm> 17 January 2010.54 Noe, 266.55 Gibbs, Brigden and Hellenberg, The education versus training and the skills versus competency debate. Vol 46, No 10 - November/December 2004, <http://74.125.155.132/search?q=cache:Frk7YKJAYvsJ:www.safpj.co.za/index.php/s afpj/article/viewFile/141/141+%22the+education+versus+training+and+the+skills+v ersus+competency+debate%22&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us> 17 January 2010.56 International Congress and Convention Association (ICCA), FAQs. ICCA definitions, 2009, <http://www.iccaworld.com/aeps/aeitem.cfm?aeid=29> 17 January 2010.57 ICCA, <http://www.iccaworld.com/aeps/aeitem.cfm?aeid=909> 17 January 2010.58 ICCA , <http://www.iccaworld.com/aeps/aeitem.cfm?aeid=29> 17 January 2010.59 Harvard Business School Press (HBSP), Pocket mentor. Running meetings, (Boston, MA: HBSP, (2006), ix, 7.60 Caproni, 61.61 Michael Schrage, Mentoring is overrated. Try tutoring instead, 21 September 2009, <http://blogs.harvardbusiness.org/cs/2009/09/dont_mentor_tutor_want_to.html> 17 January 2010.62 Noe, 206.63 Project Management Institute (PMI) Project Management Institute Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, (Newtown Square, PA: PMI13 December 2006), n.p.64 University of South Florida (USF), Mission, vision and values, n.d., <http://health.usf.edu/medicine/dpt/mission.htm> 17 January 2010.65 Noe, 209.66 Keith Rosen, Coach vs. mentor: what’s the difference?, 13 February 2008, <http://www.allbusiness.com/company-activities-management/sales- selling/6786729-1.html> 17 January 2010.67 th Donald Ball et al., International business: the challenge of global competition, 11 ed., (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2007), 550.68 Leif Edvinsson and Michael S. Malone, Intellectual capital: realizing your company’s true value by finding its hidden roots, (New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 1997), 4.69 Edvinsson, 35-36.70 Edvinsson, 34.71 Edvinsson, 35-36.72 Edvinsson, 36.73 Microsoft, Internships: a real-world experience like no other, 2000, <https://careers.microsoft.com/careers/en/us/collegeinternships.aspx> 17 January 201074 Diana Oblinger and Anne-Lee Verville, What business wants from higher education, (Phoenix, AZ: The Onyx Press, 1998), 91.75 Noe, 282.76 Noe, 284.77 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), What is knowledge management?, (n.d.), <http://km.nasa.gov/whatis/index.html> 17 January 2010.Page 64  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 70. 78 William H. Gates, III, Business @ The Speed of Thought, (New York, NY: Warner Books, 1999), 261.79 Keith Rosen, <http://www.allbusiness.com/company-activities-management/sales- selling/6786729-1.html>.80 Caproni, 239.81 InTech, 1.82 Governement.gov, Business Licenses and Permits, 24 April 2009, <http://www.business.gov/register/licenses-and-permits/> 17 January 2010.83 K. Churchill, Probationary Driver’s License, 2007, <http://www.coloradoduiattorneys.com/dmv_license_suspension/probationary_lice nse.html> 17 January 2010.84 InTech., 1.85 United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), Glossary: Certification Mark, 10 December 2008, <http://www.uspto.gov/main/glossary/index.html#c > 17 January 2010.86 USPTO, What are patents, trademarks, servicemarks, and copyrights?, 12 May 2004, <http://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/pac/doc/general/whatis.htm> 17 January 2010.87 USPTO. 1.88 Friedman, 448.89 Riverside California, Encroachment Permit, n.d., <http://www.floodcontrol.co.riverside.ca.us/content/encroachment.htm> 17 January 2010.90 Bethel, Bethel health department permit involvement, n.d., <http://www.bethelct.org/health/hd_permit_processing.html> 17 January 2010.91 Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Professional registration, n.d, <http://meche.mit.edu/life/registration/> 17 January 2010.92 American Horticultural Therapy Association (AHTA), Voluntary registration, 2008, <http://www.ahta.org/content.cfm?id=professional_registration> 17 January 2010.93 Association of School Business Officials International (ASBO), Professional Registration Program, n.d., <http://asbointl.org/Index.asp?bid=76> 17 January 2010.94 United States International Standard Book Number (ISBN), Welcome, 2010, <http://www.isbn.org/standards/home/index.asp> 17 January 2010.95 USPTO, Glossary: Service Mark, 10 December 2008, <http://www.uspto.gov/main/glossary/index.html#c> 17 January 2010.96 USPTO, Glossary: Trademark, 10 December 2008, <http://www.uspto.gov/main/glossary/index.html#c> 17 January 2010.97 USPTO, FAQ: What are the benefits of a federal trademark registration?, . (10 December 2008, <http://www.uspto.gov/main/faq/index.html> 17 January 2010.98 rd J. Taylor, Principles of microeconomics,3 ed., n.d., <http://college.cengage.com/economics/taylor/econ/3e/micro/students/add_topics /ch12_econ_reg.html> 17 January 2010.99 Customs and Border Protection, This is CBP, 11 December 2008, <http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/about/mission/cbp_is.xml> 17 January 2010. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 65
  • 71. Page 66  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 72. SECTION 3 – PROCESS AREASAccreditation Delivery Framework™ (ADF)The Accreditation Delivery Framework (ADF), Figure 3-1, contains threephases— the Definition phase, the Implementation phase and the Supportphase. Each phase with a theme that asks: 1) are the actions of the process areaviable, valid, and valuable to both the accreditation Provide and ultimately theHolder? Each phase has managed decision-gates to help answer these questions(discussed subsequently in each process area phase).Surrounding each phase are Assurance and Governance in programmanagement practices and principles. Process defined as: “a philosophy ofmanagement that advocates an integrated approach to the management of anend-to-end process…which produces a product or service.”100 DEFINITION PHASE ACCREDITATION PROVIDER viable Ideation and Use Case and Proof of Envisioning Requirements Concept IMPLEMENTATION PHASE Assurance & valid Architecture Development Release and Governance and Design and Delivery Production SUPPORT PHASE valuable Transition Monitoring Upgrade or to Support and Control Divestment Accreditation Delivery Framework™ (ADF)Figure 3-1 The Accreditation Delivery Framework (ADF) end-to-end lifecycleThis ADF, see Figure 3-1, closely correlates with the PMIs product life cycle(PMBOK® Guide, 3rd ed.) which begins with an idea; passes through an initial,intermediate and final phase; and ends with a product/service that operates forsome timeframe before being considered for upgrade or divestment.101 Thislifecycle contains core processes which depend on the circumstance for whichthey are used and therefore some accreditations may require a much more AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 3  Page 67
  • 73. detailed approach; this lifecycle provides a suggested set of core and functionalprocesses.The ADF and other Frameworks and Methodologies Some businesses have their own frameworks and methodologies. Some follow those acknowledged organizations such as the:  International Institute for Business Analysis (IIBA) and its practice standard A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge (BABOK Guide), or that of the  Project Management Institute (PMI) and its practice standard A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide). The SDF is a light-weight framework to which you may reference other frameworks, methodologies, best-practices; the key is to deliver value and quality within constraints with an accreditation product and service that meets your wants and needs. Style conventions: the following Sections please note that Assurance and Governance is 0 (zero) because it is a supporting process, therefore, in each phase you will see a corresponding Assurance and Governance Section identified as 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 respectively.Page 68  SECTION 3  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 74. GOAL: To continuously support the Provider throughout the ADF phases:ASSURANCE AND  by using generally accepted project managementGOVENENCE principles and practices,  by using managerial and cost accounting principles and practices to express project, product, process or service costs and financial approvals,  by adhering to policy and procedures to minimize project misstatements. DEFINITION PHASE GOAL: To provide accreditation solutionsIdeation and Use Case and Proof of with a commitment to quality and value Envisioning Requirements Concept to the Provider/Holder:  by effective inquiry to develop use-case and requirements for design,  by understanding the scope and constraints in execution and the associated environment,  by promoting accreditation solutions with clear benefits that promote a viable business case. IMPLEMENTATION PHASE GOAL: To deliver within constraints, fulfillingArchitecture Development Release and requirements, with a focus of being freeand Design and Delivery Production from deficiencies:  by making the right business and design tradeoffs,  by never sacrificing quality as a trade off during implementation to meet the project objectives,  by incremental and iterative development demonstrating value toward accreditation release. SUPPORT PHASE GOAL: To operate and sustain as a means of Transition Monitoring Upgrade or deriving value and benefits: to Support and Control Divestment  by providing a knowledge transfer before transitioning to support to ensure quality,  by seeking feedback from the overall customer/holder experience and measuring levels of satisfaction,  by using metrics to determine whether to update or divest to a subsequent release/version. Figure 3-2 Goals and objectives of the accreditation management process AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 3  Page 69
  • 75. Page 70  SECTION 3  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 76. 0. ASSURANCE AND GOVERNACE GOAL: To continuously support the Provider throughout ASSURANCE the ADF phases: AND  by using generally accepted project management GOVENENCE principles and practices,  by using managerial and cost accounting principles and practices to express project, product, process or service costs and financial approvals,  by adhering to policy and procedures to minimize project misstatements.PROCESS DISCUSSION AND DELIVERABLES: 0.1 Generally Accepted Project Management Principles and Practices Generally accepted project management principles and practices include its guidelines, methodology (in this case, the ADF), and a taxonomy that govern how a project passes through each phase; which resources are adopted such as industry standards, processes, and tools; what deliverables are expected; and decision-gates. 0.2 Managerial and Cost Accounting Principles and Practices According to Marshall, McManus and Viele (2007), “managerial accounting is concerned with the use of economic and financial information to plan and control many of the activities of the entity and to support the management decision-making process. Cost accounting is subset of managerial accounting that relates to the determination and accumulation of product, process, or service costs.”102 Certainly, within any phase of the lifecycle, actual costs, invoicing, preparation of budgets, etc. would review historic data as well as create future- oriented data to support management decisions. 0.3 Adherence to Policy and Guidelines Policy and guidelines are developed to support decisions within any phase of the lifecycle.  Policy describe standards that should be followed (being reasonable and having common sense); and guidelines describe best practices. A policy may grant authority, e.g. signature authority to authorize an expense with a constraint: the purchase of an outside consultant to assist in the building of an accreditation: consulting fees and expenses not to exceed $25,000. A policy helps resolve conflict, e.g. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 3  Page 71
  • 77. who has signature authority if the consultant fees and expenses exceed $25,000?  A guideline may direct an effort to create a predictable experience, even reinforce a marketing message, e.g. normal text printed in Calibri at 11 point font; or only using black-and-white figures and tables for your accreditation marketing material. Another example of a guideline may be customer-driven, e.g. every project must start-well and end-well by incorporating Phase Kickoff and Planning meeting and at the end of the project hold a Project Retrospective to help ensure the accreditation holder has high satisfaction and has benefits realized. - An example of a guideline: by providing a taxonomy standard for documentation, for example, when writing requirements, consistent usage of the words (must, should not, and shall) would be necessary to ensure clarity of interpretation by the reader. The Internet Society provides such a standard in RFC: 2119- Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels.103Page 72  SECTION 3  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 78. 1. DEFINITION PHASE DEFINITION PHASE GOAL: To provide accreditation solutions Ideation and Use Case and Proof of with a commitment to quality and Envisioning Requirements Concept value to the Provider/Holder:  by effective analysis to develop use-case and requirements for design,  by understanding the scope and constraints in execution and the associated environment,  by concept testing the proposed accreditation with a focus group to provide business justification.ACTIVITIES AND DELIVERABLES: 1.0 Assurance and Governance The following activities are suggested during this phase: Phase Kickoff and Planning: a “start well” meeting in which the accreditation sponsor, key stakeholders, and team members to go through the goal and summary of the proposed accreditation; initial project assessment (classification of the project as one of compliance, operational or strategic in nature);104 roles and responsibilities; stakeholder analysis; breakdown of work and assignments; initial estimates, key timeframes and schedule, and an approach to communications, risk and issue management. Decision-Gates: these are governance meetings that have specific go/no- go/modify criteria, including an escalation provision, to advance the project through the next process or phase, cancel it, or make specific changes; this includes the accreditation sponsor and key stakeholders. Time reporting: recording actual time on the activity; some organizations use this for cost-of-sales and gross margin calculations, as well as utilization based metrics for measuring employee performance and contribution margin. 1.1 Ideation and Envisioning Ideation is idea generation; it is “the systematic search for new-product ideas” and innovative companies such as IBM have sponsored, periodically, an Innovation Jam; one session “generated some 46,000 ideas from 150,000 people in more than 160 countries over three days.”105 These ideas can come from many different sources such as AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 3  Page 73
  • 79. customers, employees, distributors, market research firms, partners, suppliers, etc.Screening is simply taking the 46,000 ideas and sorting the good ideas fromthose with less promise; Kotler and Armstrong (2010), suggest asking thefollowing:106 Is it real? Is there a real need and desire for the product and will customers buy it? Is there a clear product concept and will the product satisfy the market? Second, Can we win? Does the product offer a sustainable competitive advantage? Does the company have the resources to make the product a success? Finally, Is it worth doing? Does the product set the company’s overall growth strategy? Does it offer sufficient profit potential? Ideation and envisioning should result in a high-level understanding of what accreditation is to be created, as well as its high-level scope and application. One technique for ideation is brainstorming, i.e. discussing the design objectives for your intended accreditation. According to Robert Heller (1998), in his book Managing Teams, he says: “brainstorming sessions aim to generate as many ides as possible, no matter how far- fetched…brainstorming is sometimes called “group action thinking.”107 IDEATION AND ENVISIONING CONCEPT PRODUCT refinement refinement proof of concept use case and requirements PRODUCT MANAGER brainstorming TEAM Figure 3-3 The first phase of the AMF process refines the visionPage 74  SECTION 3  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 80. The output of the brainstorming process is a list of ideas that may be groupedby theme and into stories that relate to use cases and requirements. An alternative to brainstorming, and as discussed previously in theCorrelation Knowledge Area, could suggest assembling an advisory council, i.e. agroup of individuals appointed to provide advice or subject matter expertise oncurrent and future issues, operational processes, policy, etc. a forum for theexchange of ideas and recommendations often with fair representation frombusiness units and geographies. The advisory council is sometimes representedby existing customers or business partners that have strategic importance. Activity: Ideation and Envisioning Workshop. Duration: 1 day. Deliverable: Documented results of the workshop Owner: The Accreditation Sponsor. Decision Point: a stakeholder meeting in which the accreditation sponsor decides a Go/No-Go to committing resources for the next activity including the appointment of a Product Manager.1.2Use Case and Requirements Every accreditation will have at least one use case for an identified Holder (user). Just like the use cases discussed in Section 1, we need to identify who the Holder of the accreditation will be: identify who our target market for the accreditation will be. For example, from Section 1, the Holder in Use Case 1 is the automobile owner and the Holder in Use Case 3 is the accountant. The requirements for both likely to be specified by the manufacture of the automobile and the governing location of the accounting practice respectively. There should be at least one or more use cases from the brainstorming session. These use cases may also identify a Holder faced with multiple options or offerings within an accreditation, specifically, if it is designed to contain subordinate accreditation based on a theme such as: the differing levels of the apprentice and journeyman; an undergraduate and graduate; the position of junior and a senior; or in some cases using metaphors such as a white, green and black belt; etc. Every accreditation will have at least one requirement: a requirement “is a statement of need, something that some class of user or other stakeholder wants [i.e. the Holder of the accreditation’s own wants and needs+.”108 There should be a list of requirements from the brainstorming session possibly grouped into themes, e.g. from the perspective of the Holder as an apprentice or as a journeyman. There are many ways to elicit requirements, in our example we used the brainstorming activity, however, the IIBA identifies several techniques you may leverage as well, such as: a focus group; interviewing; observation or job shadowing; a requirements workshop; a survey or questionnaire.109 AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 3  Page 75
  • 81. Requirements are often grouped into themes: according to the International Institute for Learning (2006), there are three types or classifications of requirements:110 Business Requirements:  Define business goals and objectives Functional Requirements:  Define the product capabilities Nonfunctional Requirements:  State constraints on the capabilities Some Providers of accreditation employ a business analyst to elicit requirements (we have the ideas from the brainstorming and have refined them in this activity); we have a high-level understanding of what is needed and are able to provide an understanding of what the level-of-effort (LOE) may be needed to build out our business justification. Because we are early in the development process, it should be considered that the LOE may be off by as much as a factor of four. Borrowing from the software industries study of LOE estimate variability over time, or the Cone of Uncertainty—this illustrates that as time moves forward throughout a project, more is known and more is accomplished, so that by the time requirements are turned into a design, the LOE’s become more definitive and may be off by as much as a factor of two (certainly, as the accreditation is built we have actuals that may be compared to estimates); the key here is that we do have a LOE we can work with.111 Documenting this activity, there are plenty of excellent textbooks on product management and how to write a Product Requirements Document (PRD), the output of this activity. One whitepaper written by Martin Cagan of the Silicon Valley Product Group (2005), provides a simple and concise ten step process to writing a good PRD, which provides addition detail to the aforementioned. In his whitepaper Cagan says that “the PRD describes the *accreditation you plan] to build. It drives the efforts of the entire product team and the company’s sales, marketing, and customer support efforts. It’s hard to come up with a more important, higher leverage piece of work for a company.112 Activity: Use case and requirements workshop; requirements agreement and approval meeting with sponsor. Deliverable: a Product Requirements Document (PRD). Owner: The Product Manager.Page 76  SECTION 3  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 82. Duration: 5 days. Decision Point: a stakeholder meeting in which the sponsor decides a Go/No-Go to committing resources for the next activity.1.3 Proof of Concept (POC) The Proof of Concept (POC), or concept testing, is a test of the accreditation with “groups of target customers. The concepts may be presented to consumers symbolically or physically…many firms routinely test new-product concepts with consumers before attempting to turn them into actual new products.”113 The results of the POC may uncover new requirements and influence changes to others based on the interactions of the participants. It may also refine the LOE from Section 1.2 based on new understanding. Note: POC participants should be under a legal non- disclosure agreement (NDA), or confidentiality agreement, in order to protect proprietary information, trade secrets and confidential information. Activity: POC workshop; feedback and approval meeting with sponsor. Deliverable: POC presentation; and a POC workshop results report. Owner: The Product Manager. Duration: 5 days. Decision Point: a stakeholder meeting in which the sponsor decides a Go/No-Go to committing resources for the next activity. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 3  Page 77
  • 83. Page 78  SECTION 3  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 84. 2. IMPLEMENTATION PHASE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE GOAL: To deliver within constraints, Architecture Development Release and fulfilling requirements, with a focus of and Design and Delivery Production being free from deficiencies:  by making the right business and design tradeoffs,  by never sacrificing quality as a trade off during implementation to meet the project objectives,  by incremental and iterative development demonstrating value toward accreditation release.ACTIVITIES AND DELIVERABLES: 2.0 Assurance and Governance The following activities are suggested during this phase: Phase Kickoff and Planning: a “start well” meeting in which the sponsor, key stakeholders, and team members to go through the goal and summary of the proposed accreditation; initial project assessment (classification of the project as one of compliance, operational or strategic in nature);114 roles and responsibilities; stakeholder analysis; breakdown of work and assignments; initial estimates, key timeframes and schedule, and an approach to communications, risk and issue management. Monitoring and Control: measuring progress, actual versus planned, and making any adjustments or corrective action; this may include communicating status reports. Decision-Gates: these are governance meetings that have specific go/no- go/modify criteria, including an escalation provision, to advance the project through the next process or phase, cancel it, or make specific changes; this includes the sponsor and key stakeholders. Time reporting: recording actual time on the activity; some organizations use this for cost-of-sales and gross margin calculations, as well as utilization based metrics for measuring employee performance and contribution margin. Retrospective: an “end well” meeting that asks the sponsor, stakeholders and team members what went well, and what could we have done better reflecting on improvements for future AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 3  Page 79
  • 85. performance; close-out may include archiving intellectual property, reassigning team members, and celebration. 2.1 Architecture and Design Now that we have our use case and requirements we are ready to address architecture and design: we are ready to build the blueprint for how our accreditation will be developed or built. While the PRD required sponsor approval, the Product Architecture and Design Document (PAD) also requires sponsor approval before any development activity. Architecture includes the identification of:  components,  materials,  interfaces,  Interdependence’s, and  need for Information Technology (IT). Design is what we will build working within the requisite architecture. This will include all of the deliverables (make or buy). Design includes the identification of:  assumptions,  constraints,  dependencies,  issues,  risks,  LOE (refined from Section 1.2 based on new understanding),  resource requirements. Design, to this point, should provide the blueprint—each deliverable sufficiently complete that they may be presented to the appropriate resource(s) to build and test the design based on the PRD. Note, that there may be more than one proposed design or a deliverable and that it is the sponsor that must make the decision in choosing which design (one or all) to build. In some cases the design choice is made from a support perspective, e.g. that graphics files used in the creation of documentation for the accreditation should use .PNG format, rather than a .JPG format, because of the differences in file size. One deliverable that cannot be overemphasized enough is that of documentation such that the Holder and Provider of the accreditation are clear on its application, its engagement, and lifecycle. Another design consideration would be a tiered approach to building the accreditation. For example, Microsoft Learning created an accreditation program “with three tiers of certifications to meet the needs of every experience level: Tier 1—Technology Series; Tier 2—Professional Series; and Tier 3—Architect Series.”115Page 80  SECTION 3  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 86. Once the PAD has been approved by the sponsor we are ready to providethe development team with the PRD and PAD. Activity: PAD architecture and design effort; feedback and approval meeting with sponsor. Deliverable: Sponsor approved PAD. Owner: The Product Manager. Duration: 5 days. Decision Point: a stakeholder meeting in which the sponsor decides a Go/No-Go to committing resources for the next activity.2.2 Development and DeliveryWith the PRD and PAD approved by the sponsor we now have the blueprintto build the accreditation product offering (see Figure 3-3): design has beenapproved; resources have been identified with an approach to build—anEvolutionary Delivery Lifecycle Method is recommended because of itsiterative nature and ability to deliver value quickly. In Figure 3-3, this modelillustrates development of multiple versions (for example, Draft 1, Draft 2,etc.); incorporating a pilot program could provide additional insight(requirements and use case may be updated or challenged by the ProductManager); ultimately, we end with a release that is ready for production. Evolutionary Delivery Lifecycle Model Use Case and Architecture Requirements and Design (PRD) (PAD) Proof-of- Develop Version n Release to Concept Prototype Production: (POC) Alpha; Beta; Release Candidate Version x Incorporate Customer Feedback Deliver Version n Elicit Customer FeedbackFigure 3-4 Suggested approach to development: evolutionary delivery AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 3  Page 81
  • 87. Before development begins, the Product Manager may choose to assign a project manager. In addition, some deliverables may be outsourced (identified in the PAD with regard to resources), e.g. for legally defensible tests as part of the accreditation, Prometric is a vendor that could be considered, as they are a leading global provider of comprehensive testing and assessment services. Certainly the more resources the more coordination efforts are needed because of the increased lines of communication. There are abundant textbooks on project management that this textbook will not belabor; however, one practice with regard to the team model will be included because of its simplicity. The team model is designed to have a focus on quality goals for each role; the following is a goal/role contrast with what must be achieved to be considered a successful engagement (note, that the customer will be the accreditation Holder): Team Goal Team Role A satisfied customer Product Manager Delivery within constraints and expectations Project Manager A solution enabling the customer to achieve its goals Business Analyst Efficient and maintainable components Architect Delivery to specifications based on requirements Developer Release after knowing and addressing all issues Tester Enhanced user performance and levels of efficiency Training Table 3-1. Project team goals and team roles Activity: Delivery of all deliverables identified in the PAD; feedback and approval meeting with sponsor. Deliverable: PAD deliverables to a Release to Production quality. Owner: The Product Manager. Duration: 20 days. Decision Point: a stakeholder meeting in which the sponsor decides a Go/No-Go to committing resources for the next activity. 2.3 Release and Production With a Release to Production version of the accreditation we are now prepared to go into production. This activity branches into two parallel efforts: first, is the production of the accreditation, and secondly, are the support activities needed to sustain it during its productive lifecycle (the next phase of the ADF). Time reporting should reflect this change accordingly; impacts on profitability.Page 82  SECTION 3  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 88. There may be a vendor kickoff meeting to begin the production process andintroduce production personnel. This is the last activity prior to a go-livewith the accreditation. Sales and marketing may have provided pressreleases, advertisements, etc. Activity: Kickoff production; Prepare for a knowledge transfer including completeness of all documentation and online information; feedback and approval meeting with sponsor. Deliverable: Sponsor approved Release to Production; Kickoff with production personnel; information readiness for next phase. Owner: The Product Manager. Duration: 2 days. Decision Point: a stakeholder meeting in which the sponsor decides a Go/No-Go to committing resources for the next activity. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 3  Page 83
  • 89. Page 84  SECTION 3  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 90. 3. SUPPORT PHASE SUPPORT PHASE GOAL: To operate and sustain as a means Transition Monitoring Upgrade or of deriving value and benefits: to Support and Control Divestment  by employing education and training as a foundation to productivity,  by seeking feedback from the overall customer/holder experience and measuring levels of satisfaction,  by using metrics to determine whether to update or divest to a subsequent release/version.ACTIVITIES AND DELIVERABLES: 3.0 Assurance and Governance The following activities are suggested during this phase: Phase Kickoff and Planning: a “start well” meeting in which the sponsor, key stakeholders, and team members to go through the goal and summary of the proposed accreditation; initial project assessment (classification of the project as one of compliance, operational or strategic in nature);116 roles and responsibilities; stakeholder analysis; breakdown of work and assignments; initial estimates, key timeframes and schedule, and an approach to communications, risk and issue management. Monitoring and Control: measuring progress, actual versus planned, and making any adjustments or corrective action; this may include communicating status reports. Decision-Gates: these are governance meetings that have specific go/no- go/modify criteria, including an escalation provision, to advance the project through the next process or phase, cancel it, or make specific changes; this includes the sponsor and key stakeholders. Time reporting: recording actual time on the activity; some organizations use this for cost-of-sales and gross margin calculations, as well as utilization based metrics for measuring employee performance and contribution margin. Retrospective: an “end well” meeting that asks the sponsor, stakeholders and team members what went well, and what could we have done better reflecting on improvements for future AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 3  Page 85
  • 91. performance; close-out may include archiving intellectual property, reassigning team members, and celebration. 3.1 Transition to Support With the project complete the transition to support places the accreditation into operation. Customers, or Holders, contact Support for questions and to address any issues they are having. 3.2 Monitoring and Control Time reporting should incorporate this phase to determine profitability. The Product Manager, still engaged, determines if any support issues need resolution, what the Corrective Action Preventive Action approach will be, and if any point releases will be offered to correct any of the issues. 3.3 Upgrade or Divestment Depending on the success of the accreditation, and feedback from Holders and Providers (partners), the Program Manager must decide if the accreditation program is sufficiently profitable, whether to invest in a subsequent version, an upgrade, or to divest and decommission it altogether.Page 86  SECTION 3  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 92. External & Supplementary DocumentationOut-of-scope for the AMBOK® Guide are detailed, step-by-step, processes—these are well documented in external supplementary documentation; rathereach phase will provide several suggested activities that result in deliverablesand a decision point Go/No-Go. Each deliverable, in itself, may be of such scopeas to warrant an external supplementary document, which will be listed in thisSection as follows: A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide), International Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA), Version 2.0, 2009. Helps support the Opportunity Phase. According to the IIBA (2009), business analysis “is the set of tasks and techniques used to work as a liaison among stakeholders in order to understand the structure, policies, and operations of an organization, and to recommend solutions that enable the organization to achieve its goals.”117 The business case is a deliverable from the Opportunity Phase and it is used to “determine if an organization can justify the investment required to deliver a proposed [accreditation].”118 This supplementary textbook is formatted to provide for this deliverable in: a purpose statement; description; inputs; elements; techniques; stakeholders; and outputs. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), Project Management Institute (PMI), 4th ed., 2008. Helps support the Opportunity and Implementation Phases. According to the PMI (2008), projects “are often utilized as a means of achieving organizations strategic plan…projects, within programs or portfolios, are a means of achieving organizational goals and objectives in the context of a strategic plan.”119 As each accreditation undertaking is, in itself, a project and perhaps part of a program, this supplementary textbook supports the project management function and is formatted to provide each deliverable with: inputs; tools & techniques; and outputs. ANSI accredited. Principles of Marketing, Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong, 13th ed. 2010. Operations Management, William J. Stevenson, 9th ed., 2008. Helps support the complete lifecycle. According to Kotler and Armstrong (2010), “today’s marketing is all about creating customer value and building profitable customer relationships;”120 and according to Stevenson (2008), operations “is responsible for producing the goods or providing the services offered by the organization.”121 Both textbooks provide years of research and best-practice in gaining support within an organization’s primary activities of finance, marketing and operations as well as those AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 3  Page 87
  • 93. organizational supporting activities such as Information Technology, Human Resources and Legal and Corporate Affairs. Writing Better Requirements, Ian F. Alexander and Richard Stevens, 2002. Helps support the Implementation Phase. Provides an excellent reference to requirements management by: identifying the stakeholders; gathering requirements from stakeholders; structuring the requirements; and requirements writing. According to Alexander and Stevens (2002), in the forward written by Dr. Ralph R. Young, “experience has shown that insufficient attention is paid to requirements. The price paid for this lack of focus and applied practices is systems that don’t meet customer needs; take longer to develop than planned; and cost more than customers are willing to pay.”122 Setting the PACE in Product Development: A Guide to Product And Cycle- Time Excellence,® 3nd Ed., Michael E. McGrath, 2000. Helps support the Implementation Phase. According to McGrath (2001), “an improved product development process can increase productivity by shortening development cycle times, reducing wasted development, improving resource utilization, and attracting technical talent.”123 Product Design: Fundamentals and Methods, N.F.M. Roozenburg and J. Eekels, 1995. Helps support the Implementation Phase. According to Roozenburg and Eekels (1995), “first and foremost it is a goal-oriented thinking process by which problems are analyzed, objectives are defined and adjusted, proposals for solutions are developed and the quality of those solutions is assessed…a product can only be designed if there is an idea of its functions, its potential users, the number that is to be produced and the selling price aimed at.124Page 88  SECTION 3  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 94. SECTION 3 - Endnotes100 U.S. Navy, Process management, n.d., <http://competitivesourcing.navy.mil/reference_documents/defs.cfm?ltr=P> 18 January 2010.101 Project Management Institute (PMI), A guide to the project management body of ® rd knowledge: PMBOK Guide 3 ed., (Newtown Square, PA: PMI, 2004), 24.102 David H. Marshall, Wayne W. McManus and Daniel F. Viele, Accounting: what the th numbers mean, 7 ed., (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2007), 7.103 Bradner, S, Key words for use in RFC’s to Indicate Requirement Levels, (Boston, MA: Harvard University, March 1997). http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt104 Lynn Crawford, Brian Hobbs and J. Rodney Turner, Aligning Capability With Strategy: Categorizing Projects to Do the Right Projects and to Do Them Right, ((Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Journal, vol. 37 (2), June 2006), 38-50.105 Kotler, 259.106 Kotler, 262.107 Robert Heller, Managing Teams, (New York, NY: DK Publishing, Inc., 1998). 45.108 Ian F. Alexander and Richard Stevens, Writing better requirements, (London: Great Britain, Addison-Wesley, 2002), 8.109 IIBA, 155.110 International Institute for Learning (IIL), Requirements Management: Managing Project Scope from Concept to Completion, Version 4.2, (New York, NY: IIL, 2006), 2- 25.111 Steve McConnell, Rapid Development: Taming Wild Software Schedules (Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1996), 168.112 Martin Cagan, How to Write a Good PRD (San Jose, CA: Silicon Valley Group, 2005), http://www.svpg.com/assets/Files/goodprd.pdf113 Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Principles of Marketing, 13ed, (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2010), 263.114 Lynn Crawford, Brian Hobbs and J. Rodney Turner, Aligning Capability With Strategy: Categorizing Projects to Do the Right Projects and to Do Them Right, ((Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Journal, vol. 37 (2), June 2006), 38-50.115 Al Valvano, Certifying Value: Microsoft Revamps Certification Structure, (Oakland, CA: Certification Magazine, Vol. 1 (12), December 2005), 36, 37.116 Lynn Crawford, Brian Hobbs and J. Rodney Turner, Aligning Capability With Strategy: Categorizing Projects to Do the Right Projects and to Do Them Right, (Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Journal, vol. 37 (2), June 2006), 38-50.117 International Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA), A guide to the business analysis body of knowledge, Version 2.0, (Toronto, Ontario, Canada: IIBA, 2009), 3.118 IIBA, 94.119 ® PMI, A guide to the project management body of knowledge: PMBOK Guide 4th ed., (Newtown Square, PA: PMI, 2008), 10.120 th Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong, Principles of Marketing 13 ed., (Upper Saddle River: New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., 2010), xvi.121 William J. Stevenson, Operations Management, (New York: NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2010), 4. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 3  Page 89
  • 95. 122 Alexander, 8 and Richard Stevens, Writing better requirements, (London: Great Britain, Addison-Wesley, 2002), viii.123 Michael E. McGrath, Setting the PACE in product development: a guide to Product nd And Cycle-time Excellence 2 ed., (Newton, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996), 15.124 N.F.M. Roozenburg and J. Eekels, Product Design: Fundamentals and Methods, (West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 1995), 3-4. 106.Page 90  SECTION 3  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 96. SECTION 4 – GETTING STARTEDIntroductionSections 1 through 3 have provided an understanding of how accreditation isused, developed, and managed. In this Section we will provide a fictional casestudy in which we draw everything together as if we were creating a newaccreditation—a proof-of-concept, with the goal of creating new capabilities,competitive advantage and improved market value.Accreditation Proof-of-ConceptAVediaControls™ is the manufacture of intelligent hand-held remote controlsfor the professional audiovisual and information communications industries.Established in 2007, their network includes dealers and distributors,independent consultants, programmers, rental and staging companies, and end-users. They attend InfoComm, an important annual conference and exhibitfocused on AV buyers and sellers. Their current product line consists of learning remote controls.AVediaControls™ will be introducing their next generation of remote controls inthe next quarter: these are more sophisticated remotes using a popularfunctional programming language JavaScript. The new remote controls areknown as the Infrared-Radio Programmable Remote, or the Model IRP-12.Here are some high-level considerations to the scenario above, i.e. this will stepyou may go through several of the processes with the ADF phases. 4.0 Assurance and Governance The Product Manager (PdM) creates a breakdown for time reporting across ADF phases in order to allow participants on the project to record their time (to capture estimates in terms of Cost of Sales, Gross Margin and Profit). A project plan is set up; the IRP-12 Accreditation project is created. As well as establishing a central document repository. This sets the groundwork for the ADF phases. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 4  Page 91
  • 97. 4.1 Definition Phase Ideation and Envisioning: The PdM facilitates an ideation workshop. Some of the materials may include handouts such as the Accreditation Delineation Table (see Table 2-2) and this textbook. A slide presentation from the PdM would also be helpful to describe the vision and scope of the accreditation in order to set the foundation for the workshop. Other items that may assist in the collection of participant contributions are:  self-adhesive easel pads (25” x 30”);  markers of assorted colors;  multiple self-adhesive pads (3” x 3”, 4” x 5”) in assorted colors;  removable self-adhesive labels (1/4” or smaller, dots, stars, etc.) in assorted colors. The easel pads are good to collect themes or major components; the adhesive pads are good to collect use case and requirements; and the labels are good for voting, e.g. if an accreditation is composed of two credentials, such as the associate and professional, the workgroup may challenge the PdM to vote in delivery of the more critical accreditation to improve time-to-market. Combining all of the ideation workshop findings in a mind-map is also helpful, i.e. transposing them from the different pads into a logical breakdown for further discussion and validation. In Figure 4-1, this is illustrated by delineating the IRP-12 from the workshop discussions; the certification contains two major components: 1) the certified associate, and 2) the certified professional. The accreditation components are derived from the Accreditation Delineation Table, with three listed: 1) assessment, 2) education, and 3) experience (note each line item references a knowledge area and knowledge element). These three knowledge areas form the basis of the high-level design, i.e. this becomes part of the product breakdown structure. Use Case and Requirements: the use cases, in this example, are more scenario based, rather than a step through process. Finally, the requirements make reference to the accreditation Holder (the Provider was excluded from this illustration intentionally). During the workshop when eliciting requirements: “the core of the process is to get the requirements down quickly, and then to encourage the stakeholders to correct and improve them. [Moreover,] every requirement should be a single active sentence, as short as possible.”125 It is very probable that the PdM has brought some requirements and a draft PRD into the workshop (based on prior product offerings or reusable IP). Only a partial list of functional requirements is illustrated in Figure 4-1.Page 92  SECTION 4  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 98. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION SECTION 4 Page 93 Figure 4-1 Mind-map approach to recording the ideation workshop
  • 99. Proof of Concept: Testing the concept with a group of stakeholders is facilitated by the PdM; this activity may be a presentation discussing the vision, scope, cost, time frame for release to production, resource requirements and commitments required for both sides. The POC may also generate more requirements, e.g. the need may arise for localization of the certifications in both English (American) and conversely in English (British). Summary: This fast-track example through the Definition phase should provide enough information to move to the next phase (the PRD with input from the ideation workshop, refined from the POC, and a high- level design with LOE and resource requirements). The PRD should be signed off by the sponsor, even if an iterative approach to completing the PRD is taken, i.e. business and functional requirements first, with non-function requirements following (since these requirements are typically performance based). This phase should strongly take into consideration that introducing a new product has its risks as well as a probability for failure; Cooper (2001), in his book Winning at New Products: Accelerating the Process from Idea to Launch, third edition, identifies six problems and pitfalls which result in failure:126 1) A lack of market orientation 2) Poor quality in execution 3) Moving too quickly 4) Not enough homework 5) A lack of differentiation 6) No focus, too many projects, and a lack of resources Before any design takes place in the next phase, it is important to risk assess moving forward; risk assess for the probability of success. 4.2 Implementation Phase Architecture and Design: Architecture represents scalable components. The certified associate is the foundation with the certified professional having greater requisites. Scalable architecture means easily updatable, but also easily extensible, e.g. adding an additional higher requisite component such as the certified architect. Architecture should allow flexibility in design. In Setting the Pace for New Product Development: a Guide to Product and Cycle-Time Excellence, McGrath (1996), states “the three most important new factors from the customer’s standpoint are quality, cost, and delivery…*and+ ongoing delivery depends heavily on the partsPage 94  SECTION 4  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 100. and assembly processes specified by the product’s design.”127 Based on the seven requirements listed in Figure 4-1, how will the designer of the accreditation address each so that it can be built and assembled, as well as address the who and were of assembly? The design must be the blueprint to which we build toward: “just as it makes sense to create a set of blueprints before you begin building a house, it makes sense to create an architecture and design before you begin building” a product.128 The directions in the design need to be clear whether you are building within your organization or outsourcing the work. Summary: The goal of this phase is to deliver within constraints, fulfilling requirements, with a focus of being free from deficiencies. With the PAD completed and approved, this phase moves through Development and Delivery, and fully tested, into Release and Production. Whether you choose a traditional or Agile approach to project management, we now end this phase with a product of sufficient quality to go-live; where quality means “features of products which meet customer needs and thereby provide customer satisfaction…freedom from deficiencies.”129 The PdM for AVediaControls™ now has an accreditation product that addresses two levels of technician that need be identified and put through the accreditation process. The marketing machine should have been placed in motion during this phase to let its dealers and distributors, independent consultants, programmers, rental and staging companies and end-users know of the new product and technical capabilities; chances are they are also exhibiting and providing product evangelism at InfoComm.4.3 Support Phase The goal of this phase is: to operate and sustain as a means of deriving value and benefits. Leveraging e-Commerce as a means of connecting with those signing up and maintaining their accreditation is recommended; with the availability of the Internet, any-place and any- time affords a continuous self-service portal. During this time the PdM monitors and controls any support issues, or feature recommendations, to the point of determining to upgrade the accreditation in a subsequent version, or divest it altogether. If there will be an upgrade, with the existing Intellectual Property from this version, the whole process begins again with the first phase of the ASF. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 4  Page 95
  • 101. Summary It was the intent of this Section to draw everything together as if we were creating a new accreditation; new capabilities with the goal of improved market value and competitive advantage. The only items provided here are the Accreditation Delineation Table and this textbook; no templates for the PRD or PAD were provided, but content implied, as the industry is inundated with such. In addition, in creating an accreditation, emphasis need be placed on the importance of a good customer-driven marketing strategy— building customer value, pricing, and promotion. It is for this reason additional textbooks were suggested in the Section titled “External & Supplementary Documentation.” Here you will find additional bodies of knowledge, principles of marketing, operations management, and general product management. Lastly, this Section should have provided though familiarly with this textbook as well as those referenced in the previous Section to create an accreditation program of your own. As stated at the beginning: The audiences for the AMBOK® Guide are individuals wanting to understand how accreditation is envisioned, and implemented throughout industry; organizations looking to distinguish capability through accreditation as a means of performance engineering in human capital or as a way of distinguishing goods and services; or as an avenue to a sustainable competitive advantage. You have had one example is this Section to help illustrate these perspectives.Page 96  SECTION 4  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 102. SECTION 4 - Endnotes125 Ian F. Alexander, p.29, 98.126 Cooper, p.43, 44.127 McGrath, p.86, 87.128 McConnell, p.62.129 Rose, p.5. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 4  Page 97
  • 103. Page 98  SECTION 4  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 104. GLOSSARYAAccreditation Advisory Council (AAC): a group of representatives, practitioners,selected for their individual merits who advise the role owner on current trends,future directions, and industry thought-leadership in building core capabilities,behavioral excellence, and organizational maturity in their respective roleand/or specialization. The AAC is a forum for the exchange of ideas andrecommendations to the role owner with fair representation from businessunits and geographies.Accreditation Consultant (AC): an Accreditation Designer is responsible fortranslating the accreditation requirements and specifications into all aspects inthe design of an accreditation.Accreditation Management Lifecycle: the end-to-end activities, their associatedprocesses and deliverables, which support accreditation from opportunity,implementation and support. The model for this lifecycle depends oncircumstance for which it is used and therefore some accreditations may requirea much more detailed approach; the lifecycle illustrated in this guide provides ascalable and straightforward model.Accreditation Management Office (AMO): an individual or organizational entityresponsible for accreditation management activities including oversight of theaccreditation portfolio that include the activities of selection, prioritization,management and governance.Accreditation Management System (AMS): a system of record containing theactual and forecast accreditations for an organization which represents itscapacity and capability.Accreditation Management: the process in which we formulate, implement andoperationalize accreditation as it aligns to mission, goals, objectives andstrategy.Accreditation Manager (AM): an individual responsible for deliveringaccreditation within the constraints of: scope, schedule, budget, and quality.Accreditation Program Portfolio (APP): the aggregate of all individual andorganization profiles as defined through accreditation management.Accreditation Prototype & Simulation (APS): a material model of anaccreditation developed as closely as possible to that which will go into AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  GLOSSARY  Page 99
  • 105. operation/production; simulation allows interface and experience with theexpected features and functions of the model to assist in the evaluation,realization, and improvement during the design process; often part of a pilotprogram to introduce the new/updated accreditation for review.Accreditation, Individual: from an individual perspective has to do withcharacteristically distinguishing themselves with academic and professionalcredentials that demonstrate knowledge, commitment, and industry standardsin achievement that organizations seek when recruiting for the best talent. Itcan also include an individual’s association with a club; community; an event; afraternity or sorority; etc. The significance is distinction and recognition byassociation.Accreditation, Organizational: from an organizational perspective accreditationoften has to do with building human capital; a competitive position; respectthrough industry thought-leadership; productivity; profitability; return oninvestment; technological leadership; etc. Employees and employers, academicsand consultants, governments and institutions—accreditation provides adistinction in the work individuals do and in the products and services theydeliver in today’s competitive global economyAccreditation: establishes that a person, place, thing, quality, or action holdsevidence of capability.Accreditation Sponsor: the individual who underwrites the accreditation; thesource of funding and approvals for owner of an accreditation.AMBOK® Guide: identifies areas of knowledge that represent proven,recommended and emerging practices in the field of accreditationAssessment Knowledge Area: to appraise, estimate, evaluate, judge ordetermine the amount, content, quality, size, or value of something.BBill of Materials (BOM): A list of the materials that make up a product or serviceoften broken down into groups, classifications, sub-assemblies, for example, anaccreditation may consist of sales and marketing collateral, an application form,an event, and a certificate of attendance and completion.Business Case: The process of providing just cause, position, and commitmentsto an accreditation project. Also see Product Requirements Document (PRD).Business Case Study: The process of studying information in a situation, eitherhypothetical or actual, in order to formulate a recommended approach basedon the facts provided. For example, a case study to determine if creating aspecific certification would promote consistent deployment of a company’sproducts, their productive use, whereby creates greater customer satisfaction.The study would further provide recommendations to create this certification.Page 100  GLOSSARY  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 106. CCertification Knowledge Area: to attest, confirm state or validate theauthenticity, fact, statement or truth of something.Chief Accreditation Officer (CAO): the senior-level manager accountable foraccreditation management including the operation of the AccreditationManagement Office and oversight of the accreditation portfolio.Competency Knowledge Area: to establish areas of capability, and levels ofproficiency, in which something can be successfully executed to achieve itsexpected outcome.Correlation Knowledge Area: to establish a complementary, parallel orreciprocal relationship: to involve a qualitative correspondence between two ormore entities.DDefinition Phase: the activities, processes and deliverables performed thatjustify the need and feasibility, and investment in, an accreditation and thebenefits it will deliver. Major Objective: perform business analysis sufficient toselect and invest in the accreditation.EEducation Knowledge Area: To obtain knowledge or skill of a specified degree,kind or level through an instruction or learning process about a particularsubject and its operating environment.Ethics Knowledge Area: to demonstrate morals, principles, or standards ofconduct recognized by a particular culture, group or profession.Experience Knowledge Area: To accumulate knowledge, skills and ability to aspecified degree, kind or level through employment, term of employment, andoperation within its environment.IImplementation Phase: the activities, processes and deliverables performed toprocure, augment, or build an accreditation with partial implementation furtherjustifying the current investment. Major Objective: perform a testimplementation to determine if the accreditation is worth continuedinvestment.LLicense Knowledge Area: to have authority, formal or legal permission or rightto do, have or use something. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  GLOSSARY  Page 101
  • 107. OOperations: see Support Phase.Opportunity: see Definition Phase.PPdM: see Product Manager.Product Architecture and Design Document (PAD): a document that containsthe architecture and design for a given accreditation: the blueprint for which theaccreditation may be built to requirements.Product Manager (PdM): the role accountable for planning a product orproducts at all stages of the ASF and accountable for the PRD and PAD.Product Requirements Document (PRD): a document that contains the usecases and requirements for a given accreditation.Proof-of-Concept (POC): the development or implementation of one, or more,features of a proposed accreditation. Often requested by the sponsor assubstantiation that a critical feature is viable; this is often performed prior toproposal and budget approval for the accreditation.Proposal: a sales/promotional instrument that defines a customer’sproblem/opportunity and a vendor/providers ability to provide a solution,based on the wants and needs, as well as the requirements in terms of time,cost, resources and quality.RRegistration Knowledge Area: to declare, enter or enroll something or someoneas being associated and counted within a particular category, group, record, orlist.Regulation Knowledge Area: to prescribe or regulate a law, statute, principle orrule as means to control or govern conduct.SSupport Phase: the activities, processes and deliverables performed to sustainand maintain an accreditation, evaluate the benefits and value, and determinefurther justification and future investment. Major Objective: perform businessanalysis sufficient to determine the benefit/value received.VValue Chain: the division within a business based on organization: Sales, Financeand Operations; and those supporting these organizations, such as HumanResources and Information Technology. The concept is that each adds value inthe process of delivering products and services to the customer.Page 102  GLOSSARY  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 108. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  GLOSSARY  Page 103
  • 109. Page 104  INDEX  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 110. INDEX16PF Questionnaire (16PF) .................................................................................. 23360o Review ......................................................................................................... 23Academic Certification Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 25Accreditation.................................................................................................. 2, 100 Benefits of .......................................................................................................... 9 Competitive Advantage ..................................................................................... 1 Definition ........................................................................................................... 2 Examples ............................................................................................................ 2 Individual............................................................................................ 9, 100, 102 Organizational ............................................................................................ 9, 100 Product and Services........................................................................................ 10 Use Cases ........................................................................................................... 3Accreditation Delivery Framework ADF ................................................................................................................... 67Accreditation Sponsor.................................................................................. 73, 100ADF ............................................................. See Accreditation Delivery FrameworkAdherence to Policy and Guidelines ADF-Assurance and Governance...................................................................... 71Advisory Council Correlation Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 31Advisory Group .......................................See Board, Certification Knowledge AreaAffiliation Correlation Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 32Alliance Correlation Knowledge Area ...................................................................... 32, 33AMBOK® Guide Audience for....................................................................................................... 1 Purpose .............................................................................................................. 1AMBOK® Guide Focus, Provider of Accreditation................................................ 10American Council on Education (ACE) ................................................................. 26American National Standards Institute (ANSI)................................................. 8, 54Apprenticeship Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 43Architecture and Design ADF-Implementation Phase ............................................................................. 80ASSESSMENT KNOWLEDGE AREA .................................................................. 21, 29 AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  GLOSSARY  Page 105
  • 111. Assurance and Governance ADF-Definition Phase ....................................................................................... 73 ADF-Implementation Phase ............................................................................. 79 ADF-Support Phase .......................................................................................... 85Audit Assessment Knowledge Area ..................................................................... 21, 29AVediaControls™ ................................................................................................. 91Behavior Assessment Knowledge Area ..................................................................... 21, 30Better Business Bureau (BBB) .............................................................................. 41Bill of Materials (BOM) ..................................................................................... 100Board Certification Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 26Business License Knowledge Area .................................................................................. 50 Registration Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 54Business Case..................................................................................................... 100Business Case Study .......................................................................................... 100Cabinet ....................................................See Board, Certification Knowledge AreaCanadian Standards Association (CSA) ................................................................ 54Certificate Education Knowledge Area .............................................................................. 36CERTIFICATION KNOWLEDGE AREA ..................................................................... 25Certification Mark(CM) Registration Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 54Certified Pre-Owned Vehicle ................................................................................ 3Certified Public Accountant (CPA) ......................................................................... 7Coaching Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 43Committee ..............................................See Board, Certification Knowledge AreaCompliance Assessment Knowledge Area ........................................................................... 22Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) ...................................................................... 59Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) .................................................... 59Consumers Union (CU)......................................................................................... 27CORRELATION KNOWLEDGE AREA ...................................................................... 31Council ....................................................See Board, Certification Knowledge AreaCouncil for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) ............................................ 26Customs and Border Protection (CBP), U.S.......................................................... 60Degree Education Knowledge Area .............................................................................. 36Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu .................................................................................... 7Department of Homeland Security (DHS), U.S. ................................................... 60Page 106  INDEX  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 112. Development and Delivery ADF-Implementation Phase ............................................................................. 81Diploma Education Knowledge Area .............................................................................. 36DISC Model (Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, Conscientiousness) ................. 22Dolby Laboratories ................................................................................................. 4Economic Regulation Knowledge Area............................................................................. 59EDUCATION KNOWLEDGE AREA .......................................................................... 35Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ............................................................. 59EQSQ Test ............................................................................................................ 23Ernst & Young ........................................................................................................ 7ETHICS KNOWLEDGE AREA .................................................................................. 41Examination.............................................................................. See Test, See AuditExpatriate Assignment Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 44EXPERIENCE KNOWLEDGE AREA .......................................................................... 43External & Supplementary Documentation Suggested Reading ........................................................................................... 87Externship Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 44Eysenck Personality Questionnaire...................................................................... 23Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ................................................................ 59Federal Communications Commission (FCC) ................................................. 27, 59Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) ................................................... 59Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) .................................... 28Federal Reserve System (Fed) .............................................................................. 59Food and Drug Administration (FDA)................................................................... 59Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)/Rainforest Alliance certification ...................... 5Franchise Correlation Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 33Generally Accepted Project Management Principles and Practices ADF-Assurance and Governance...................................................................... 71Good Housekeeping Seal ..................................................................................... 33Group of advisors ....................................See Board, Certification Knowledge AreaGuideline, Example of .......................................................................................... 72Human Capital ............................................................................................... 10, 15Ideation and Envisioning ADF-Definition Phase ....................................................................................... 73Inspection Assessment Knowledge Area ........................................................................... 22Intellectual Capital (IC) Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 44International Accreditation Forum (IAF).............................................................. 54 AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  GLOSSARY  Page 107
  • 113. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) ................................................ 54International Organization for Standardization (ISO) .......................................... 26Internship Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 46Interview Assessment Knowledge Area ........................................................................... 22Job Enlargement Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 46Job Rotation Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 46Jury ..........................................................See Board, Certification Knowledge AreaKeirsey Temperament Sorter ............................................................................... 23Key federal regulatory agencies........................................................................... 59Knowledge Management (KM) Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 47KPMG International ............................................................................................... 7LICENSE KNOWLEDGE AREA ................................................................................ 49Managerial and Cost Accounting Principles and Practices ADF-Assurance and Governance...................................................................... 71Marketing, Principles of Suggested Reading ........................................................................................... 87Mentoring Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 47Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory ..................................................................... 23Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ..................................................... 23Monitoring and Control ADF-Support Phase .......................................................................................... 86Motion Picture Association (MPA)....................................................................... 27Myers-Brigs Type Indicator® (MBTI) .................................................................... 23National Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL) ................................................. 54NEO PI-R ............................................................................................................... 23Observation Assessment Knowledge Area ........................................................................... 22Occupational Health and Safety Association (OSHA) .......................................... 54Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ..................................... 59Operations Management Suggested Reading ........................................................................................... 87Organizational Certification Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 26Panel .......................................................See Board, Certification Knowledge AreaPartner Correlation Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 33Patent Registration Knowledge Area .................................................................... 54, 55Page 108  INDEX  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 114. Penal Registration Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 55Performance Assessment Knowledge Area ........................................................................... 23Performance Engineering (PE) ............................................................................. 23Permit License Knowledge Area .................................................................................. 55Personal Style Indicator (PSI) ............................................................................... 23Personality Assessment Knowledge Area ........................................................................... 23Phase, Definition ADF ................................................................................................................. 101Phase, Implementation ADF ................................................................................................................. 101Phase, Support ADF ................................................................................................................. 102Presentation Education Knowledge Area ........................................................................ 36, 39PricewaterhouseCoopers....................................................................................... 7Probationary License Knowledge Area .................................................................................. 50Product Certification Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 27Product Architecture and Design Document (PAD) ......................................... 102Product Design Suggested Reading ........................................................................................... 88Product Development Suggested Reading ........................................................................................... 88Product Manager (PdM) ................................................................................... 102Professional Certification Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 27 License Knowledge Area .................................................................................. 51 Registration Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 56Project Management Institute (PMI®).................................................................... 8Project Management Professional (PMP®) ........................................................... 8Prometric ............................................................................................................... 8Proof of Concept (POC) ADF-Definition Phase ....................................................................................... 77Proof-of-Concept (POC)..................................................................................... 102Publication Registration Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 57Questionnaire Assessment Knowledge Area ........................................................................... 23 AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  GLOSSARY  Page 109
  • 115. Ratings Certification Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 27Recording Industry Association of America RIAA® .............................................. 28Registered Trademark® Registration Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 58REGISTRATION KNOWLEDGE AREA ..................................................................... 53REGULATION KNOWLEDGE AREA ........................................................................ 59Release and Production ADF-Implementation Phase ............................................................................. 82Requirements, Writing Better Suggested Reading ........................................................................................... 88Research Project Correlation Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 33Robin Hood Morality Test .................................................................................... 23Rorschach inkblot test ......................................................................................... 23Sabbatical Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 47Sales Certification Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 28Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)......................................................... 59Service Certification Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 28Service Mark (SM) Registration Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 57Shadowing Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 47SmartWood Rediscovered Wood Program ............................................................ 5SmartWoodcm ......................................................................................................... 5Social Regulation Knowledge Area ............................................................................. 59Social and Professional Responsibility Ethics Knowledge Area .................................................................................... 41Sponsor Correlation Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 34Standards Development organization (SDO) ......................................................... 8Survey Assessment Knowledge Area ........................................................................... 24Swedish Universities Scales of Personality .......................................................... 23System Certification Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 28Technical Certification Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 28Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) ........................ 27Telecommunications Certification Body (TCB) .................................................... 27Page 110  INDEX  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  • 116. Tenure Assessment Knowledge Area ........................................................................... 24Term Assessment Knowledge Area ........................................................................... 24Thematic Apperception Test................................................................................ 23Trade Export Regulation Knowledge Area............................................................................. 60Trade Import Regulation Knowledge Area............................................................................. 60Trademark(TM) Registration Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 57Transition to Support ADF-Support Phase .......................................................................................... 86Transportation Registration Knowledge Area .......................................................................... 58Trustees...................................................See Board, Certification Knowledge AreaU.S. Department of Transportation ....................................................................... 3Underwriters Laboratories® (UL) ......................................................................... 54United States Department of Education (USDE) ................................................. 26United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) ......................................... 54Upgrade or Divestment ADF-Support Phase .......................................................................................... 86Use Case The Accounting Profession ................................................................................ 7 The Aquaphonic Farming Industry ..................................................................... 6 The Automobile Industry ................................................................................... 3 The Dietary Supplements Industry .................................................................... 7 The Entertainment Industry............................................................................... 4 The Organic Food Industry................................................................................. 6 The Package Engineering Industry ..................................................................... 3 The Project Management Profession ................................................................ 8 The Public Sector Security Clearance................................................................. 4 The Software Industry........................................................................................ 5 The Telecommunications Industry .................................................................... 6 The Wood Products Industry ............................................................................. 5Use Case and Requirements ADF-Definition Phase ....................................................................................... 75Utilization Experience Knowledge Area ............................................................................ 48Value Chain ........................................................................................................ 102Woodworth Test .................................................................................................. 23 AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  GLOSSARY  Page 111
  • 117. BUSINESS/REFERENCE CHRISTIAN A. JENSEN, MSc., PMP From the author of The Encyclopedic Dictionary of Project Management and Design Considerations for the Enterprise PMO: Beyond the Balanced Scorecard. For over 10 years Mr. Jensen, aBRANDING certified project manager, founding officer of the Silicon Valley Chapter-PMI, and a full member nominated into Sigma Xi, has helped global organizations build human capital to sustain enterprise capability. Mr. Jensen has presented a wide range of papers as a speaker at international What Happens When a conferences and symposia—this textbook culminates years of collaborative research, Fortune 500 Company field and lectern experience. takes on a new Source    of Accreditation …It encouraged the Project Management in Building their Institute (PMI) to host a Business Roundtable in London, U.K. (August 2007), Human Capital? “which was attended by 20 high-level executives from aerospace and defense, engineering, construction, the oil and gas industries,” helping to form a career framework influenced by half-a-decade ofCOMPETITIVE field experience in accreditation at one of the worlds most recognized companies.ADVANTAGE See how accreditation can help your organization place and promote your most valuable resource—human capital; create a measurable competitive advantage; move the dial in serving your customers.Copyright © 2012 USD $49.95 b d ™ dialogue p bound pressenabling the vision of mind and ideas™