Understanding Culture of Implementing ClassroomAction Research for Professional Self-DevelopmentAmong School TeachersPrese...
Introduction : Background & Problem Teachers need to understand, giving commitmentand has high aspiration in implementing...
Introduction : Background & Problem The effort made by the Johor Department ofEducation that had stated the concept of “O...
Research Rationale In this study, it is important to understand the effortmade to ensure the culture of implementingclass...
Objective of the Study The study serves to demonstrate how the concept ofimplementing this classroom action research amon...
Literature ReviewCLASSROOMACTIONRESEARCHKNOWLEDGECULTURETEACHERPROFESSIONALSELF-DEVELOPMENTLewin, Elliot (1966)Ebbut,Kemmi...
Operational DefinitionCLASSROOMACTIONRESEARCHKNOWLEDGECULTURETEACHERPROFESSIONALSELF-DEVELOPMENTA daily reflection forteac...
Operational DefinitionCLASSROOMACTION RESEARCHKNOWLEDGECULTURETEACHERPROFESSIONALSELF-DEVELOPMENTTo know or realize thethi...
Operational DefinitionCLASSROOMACTION RESEARCHKNOWLEDGECULTURETEACHERPROFESSIONALSELF-DEVELOPMENTThe process by which aper...
DefinitionCLASSROOMACTIONRESEARCHA KNOWLEDGECULTURETEACHERSPROFESSIONALSELF-DEVELOPMENT•A daily reflection forteaching and...
The Process of Classroom Action ResearchREFLECTSelf-reflection to evaluate thestrengths & weaknesses of T&LOBSERVEGather a...
Population & Samples The research involved 200 primary school teachers from two zonesin Pontian district and the question...
Methodology The questionnaire combine with observation, interview anddocument analysis through method and theory triangul...
Methodology: Reliability Questionnaire – increase the internal validity wherethe subject effect matter taken into conside...
Methodology: Validity In qualitative research, data is plausible, credible &reliable, Johnson (1997), Benz & Newman (1998...
MethodologyQuestionnaireLikert (1932) Nunnanly (1978)Document ObservationPotter (1996)-Age: 72%among 26 to 45years old-Gen...
MethodologyInterviewMorgan (1997)ObservationPotter (1996)-The important ofaccepting CAR asone of componentin our daily-ref...
Major Data Findings The major findings showed that the moderate level ofagreement and acceptance. It is not an easy task ...
7. Professional3. School 4. Professional 5. Professional 6. Professional Attitude &2. Time ethos Support Adequacy Knowledg...
Benefits of the Study The benefits of this study will boost out the teachers’awareness that by doing classroom action res...
Limitations of the Study The study was limited to primary schools in service-teachers intwo zones of Benut and Bandar zon...
Directions for future research It is now the importance of professional development tostimulate a constant demand for edu...
Closure 3 secret of happiness,Someone to love,something to do,something to look forward to To appreciate your significan...
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Classroom Action Research

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Teachers need to be committed and possess initiative and high aspirations in implementing new approaches in the classroom in an effort to increase the quality of education. One of the efforts that can make the teacher profession oen that is praised by all is Classroom Action Research (CAR). However the main problem that exists is that many teachers argue that the process of conducting this classroom action research is burdensome as it increases their workload and thus affects their quality time in teaching (Veenman, 1984).This study focuses on efforts that can ensure a culture of implementing classroom action research to enhance the professional self-development of schoolteachers. It aims to show ways in which implementing this classroom action by school teachers can lead to better effectiveness in the teaching and learning process.

The research questions of the study are:

1. How can we make classroom action research a culture among the teachers in a school
2. What is the basic mechanism that can be implemented
3. What are the responses of teachers towards the concept of classroom action research
4. What are the ways in which CAR can lead to professional self-development

The research involved 200 primary school teachers district and questionnaires combined with observation, interviews and document analysis were utilized together with triangulation to gather the data needed. The major findings of the research will show as well its implications for teacher education and their professional self-development. It concludes that CAR can raise teacher’s awareness of important aspects in the teaching and learning process and that it can lead to a higher level of professional self-development.
Teachers need to be committed and possess initiative and high aspirations in implementing new approaches in the classroom in an effort to increase the quality of education. One of the efforts that can make the teacher profession oen that is praised by all is Classroom Action Research (CAR). However the main problem that exists is that many teachers argue that the process of conducting this classroom action research is burdensome as it increases their workload and thus affects their quality time in teaching (Veenman, 1984).This study focuses on efforts that can ensure a culture of implementing classroom action research to enhance the professional self-development of schoolteachers. It aims to show ways in which implementing this classroom action by school teachers can lead to better effectiveness in the teaching and learning process.

The research questions of the study are:

1. How can we make classroom action research a culture among the teachers in a school
2. What is the basic mechanism that can be implemented
3. What are the responses of teachers towards the concept of classroom action research
4. What are the ways in which CAR can lead to professional self-development

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  • Transcript of "Classroom Action Research "

    1. 1. Understanding Culture of Implementing ClassroomAction Research for Professional Self-DevelopmentAmong School TeachersPresented by:Jen Renita binti Mappah22nd MELTA International Conference 201328-30 May 2013. PERSADA, Johor Bahru
    2. 2. Introduction : Background & Problem Teachers need to understand, giving commitmentand has high aspiration in implementing theinitiative and new approach in an effort toincrease the quality of education. One of theefforts that can make the teacher profession to bepraised by all is via the Classroom ActionResearch (CAR) done by all teachers in their careeras teachers in classrooms. But the main problem existed when many of theteachers argued that the process of doing thisclassroom action research will only become aburden or something that make their workloadsincreased that affected their quality time of teaching(Veenman, 1984).
    3. 3. Introduction : Background & Problem The effort made by the Johor Department ofEducation that had stated the concept of “OneTeacher, One Action Research” as one of thestrategic planning management for all teachers inJohor (Jabatan Pelajaran Johor, 2008-2009) hadbecame the major issue that lead the NationalUnion of Teaching Profession (NUTP) in April,2009, to speak out on behalf of the complaints madeby certain teachers, that there will be no force to allteachers in implementing the action research inclassroom and all teachers are given time tocomplete the simple Paper of Action Research inone to two pages only (Kesatuan PerkhidmatanPerguruan Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2009).
    4. 4. Research Rationale In this study, it is important to understand the effortmade to ensure the culture of implementingclassroom action research that being done asone of the good ways to enhance theprofessional self-development among schoolteachers, because it will lead teachers to the aspectof reflection (Risko, Roskos & Vukelich, 2002) whereit can became the foundation to value thesituation and made rational judgment and giveopportunity for teachers to create the relationshipbetween theory and practice, at the same timeenhance the teaching and learning process (Black,2001).
    5. 5. Objective of the Study The study serves to demonstrate how the concept ofimplementing this classroom action research amongschool teachers can really absorb among them until itbecome culture in an effort to enhance their effectivenessin teaching and learning process at classroom togetherwith their self-professional development in teachingcareer. The research questions are:(1) to understand more about how the classroom actionresearch became culture among the teachers in school(2) what is the basic mechanism that have beenimplemented(3) define group of teachers in terms of demographicinformation and their level of agreement toward theconcept of classroom action research that can lead adultthrough change toward their professional self-development.
    6. 6. Literature ReviewCLASSROOMACTIONRESEARCHKNOWLEDGECULTURETEACHERPROFESSIONALSELF-DEVELOPMENTLewin, Elliot (1966)Ebbut,Kemmis (1986) &McKernanSchoen (2007) Debbie &Karen (2009)Model of Creating Cultureby Peterson & Deal(2002)Huberman’s (1992) &Wolfe (1998) Life Cycle ofCareer Teacher Model3 kinds of adult learningby Mezirow (1985)
    7. 7. Operational DefinitionCLASSROOMACTIONRESEARCHKNOWLEDGECULTURETEACHERPROFESSIONALSELF-DEVELOPMENTA daily reflection forteaching and learningactivities that the teacherdoes in writing to improvetheir teaching skills and tounderstand better theeffective methods ofteaching that can be doneto enhance the level ofunderstanding among thepupils of certain topics forthe learning process inthe classroom.
    8. 8. Operational DefinitionCLASSROOMACTION RESEARCHKNOWLEDGECULTURETEACHERPROFESSIONALSELF-DEVELOPMENTTo know or realize thethings that being done aspart of the schoolteacher’s activities orroutines in their daily lifethat they share togetheras a way of life, customsand belief based on thescope of how teachersare implementingclassroom actionresearch in schools.
    9. 9. Operational DefinitionCLASSROOMACTION RESEARCHKNOWLEDGECULTURETEACHERPROFESSIONALSELF-DEVELOPMENTThe process by which aperson’s character andabilities are developedthrough certain things,enhancing their level ofthinking for bettermentthat connected with a jobthat brings them toimprovement ofknowledge and skills totheir high level ofeducationIn-service teachers thatare teaching in primaryschools at Benut Zoneand Bandar Zone inPontian District, Johor.They have beenimplementing theclassroom actionresearch in school.
    10. 10. DefinitionCLASSROOMACTIONRESEARCHA KNOWLEDGECULTURETEACHERSPROFESSIONALSELF-DEVELOPMENT•A daily reflection forteaching and learningactivities that the teacherrecords• to improve theirteaching skills and tounderstand better theeffective methods ofteaching that can be done• to enhance the level ofunderstanding of certaintopics amongst thepupils, for the teachingand learning process inthe classroom.•To know or realize thethings that are beingdone as part of the schoolteacher’s activities orroutines in their daily lifethat they share togetheras a way of life, customsand belief•based on the potential ofhow teachers areimplementing classroomaction research inschools.•The process by which aperson’s character andabilities are developedthrough certain initiatives•enhancing their level ofthinking for bettermentthat is connected with theteaching profession• that helps them improvetheir knowledge and skillsto a higher level ofeducation
    11. 11. The Process of Classroom Action ResearchREFLECTSelf-reflection to evaluate thestrengths & weaknesses of T&LOBSERVEGather and analyze data to evaluatethe effectiveness of planACTImplementation of action toovercome main problemPLANPlan action & intervention toovercome the main problemEARLY OBSERVATION-Gathering data tounderstand the real situation-Focusing on themain problem
    12. 12. Population & Samples The research involved 200 primary school teachers from two zonesin Pontian district and the questionnaire combine with observation,interview and document analysis through method and theorytriangulation had been done to gather information needed. Source: Krejcie, R. V and Morgan D. W. Determining sample size for ResearchPOPULATIONBENUT ZONE98BANDAR ZONE194TOTAL =292SAMPLESBENUT ZONE80BANDAR ZONE120TOTAL=200
    13. 13. Methodology The questionnaire combine with observation, interview anddocument analysis through method and theory triangulationhad been done to gather information needed. The research is in the form of generic qualitative researchthat used the method of case study, simply to discover andunderstand a phenomenon, a process or perspectives andworld-views of the people involved (Merriam, 1998) Yin (2003) stated that case study often used to providecontext of outcome data that offering a more complete pictureof what happened in the program and why Quantitative data are include in qualitative writing in theform of descriptive statistics as an avenue to accuratelydescribe reality that concern with how enumeration is used bysubjects in constructing reality and how statistics support, orcontradict, subject’s commonsense understanding (Gepart,1988)
    14. 14. Methodology: Reliability Questionnaire – increase the internal validity wherethe subject effect matter taken into consideration Pilot-test among 30 in-service teachers to maximizethe response rate and minimize the confusionamong the respondents of the questionnaire High reliability of the value of Cronbach Alpha = 0.95as mentioned by Nunnanly (1978), above 0.7 can beaccepted Questionnnaire adapted from Department forEducation & Employment (DfEE) & OECD Teaching& Learning International Survey (TALIS) (2000) –Renis Likert Scale (1932) via the SPSS 11.5 version
    15. 15. Methodology: Validity In qualitative research, data is plausible, credible &reliable, Johnson (1997), Benz & Newman (1998)TRIANGULATIONThe process ofstrengthening thefindings obtainedfrom a qualitativeinquiry via cross-checking informationusing the methodtriangulation andtheory triangulationDescriptive validity : accuracy of behavior,events, objects setting & others reported byresearcher which is reported is actually whathappened or what was heard and observedInterpretive validity :researcher understandexactly the opinions,thinking, feelings, intentions& experiences of subjectsTheoretical validity :theoretical explanationdeveloped are in congruentwith data is reliable and canbe defended
    16. 16. MethodologyQuestionnaireLikert (1932) Nunnanly (1978)Document ObservationPotter (1996)-Age: 72%among 26 to 45years old-Gender: 35%males and 65%females-Experience ofteaching: 64% - 9to 15 years ofteaching-Education levelor background:52% had firstdegree ineducation-Post grade: 46%DG41 group ofCAR agreement:Mean=3.028SD=0.6337TPSD agreement:Mean=3.18SD=0.5487LATC agreement:Mean=3.33SD=0.5338-The importanceof process ofimplementationfor creatingculture of CAR-Theimplementationshould be done asyearly planning insystematically andcontinuously-The concept of“One Teacher,One ActionResearch” hasincreased thenumber ofteachers thatinvolved in doingthe classroomaction research
    17. 17. MethodologyInterviewMorgan (1997)ObservationPotter (1996)-The important ofaccepting CAR asone of componentin our daily-reflection (PAOR)-Accepting CARas refection forstudent’schanging behaviortowards positiveresult-Fully understandthe key concept ofwhat, why andhow CAR in T&L-There will bealways problemsto be solved-Doing CAR willgive space ofsharing newknowledge, skillsand approachesto solve problemsin daily T&L-CAR can begood guidanceand reference foreffective T&Lwhen teachersembrace changeswith an open mind& heart-CAR lead toacademic writingprofessionally-creative andcritical thinking-CAR as areference andguide book orwritten documentabout the cyclical& continuousprocess of solvingproblem in T&L bydoing plan, doobservation,implementingaction & doreflection-The support fromall levels (schoollevel, zone leveland district levelare very important- The financialsupport,knowledge fromexpert, in-housetraining, timeconsumption,opportunity andenough space,reward andappreciationanother importantelement
    18. 18. Major Data Findings The major findings showed that the moderate level ofagreement and acceptance. It is not an easy task tofully understand why certain group of individual teachersdoes not give higher level of acceptance to certain CARimplementation. (RQ2: Level of agreement) The process of introducing the concept of CAR to schoolteachers needs the systematic and effective type ofexposure and basic mechanism that can be easilyaccepted and understand by all groups and levels of theschool teachers. (RQ1: How CAR can become culture) The concept of action research has brought about asignificant change in the arena of teaching andlearning. (RQ3: Basic mechanism – method & theory triangulation– suggested model via Diagram 5.3)
    19. 19. 7. Professional3. School 4. Professional 5. Professional 6. Professional Attitude &2. Time ethos Support Adequacy Knowledge InterestInvolvement of : Teachers, Students, Principals or Headmaster, Parentsamong school teachers for Teachers Professional Self-Development1. Understand2. Change3. Implementation1. Instrumental2. Dialogic3. Self-reflective1. ProgrammePhilosophy2. Content3. Pedagogy4. Component ofthe programmeResearchTeachers ProfessionalSelf-DevelopmentKnowledgeCultureDiagram 5.3Suggested Model of Creating Culture of Classroom Action Research1. Adequacy ofResourcesSeven Important ElementsClassroom Action
    20. 20. Benefits of the Study The benefits of this study will boost out the teachers’awareness that by doing classroom action research willhelp them to realize the important aspects that should beseriously taken into considerations when it comes aboutthe effectiveness in teaching and learning process. And it is hope that at the same time, they will be directlyrealized that classroom action research should be partof their teaching process that will lead them to theirhigher level of professional self-development.
    21. 21. Limitations of the Study The study was limited to primary schools in service-teachers intwo zones of Benut and Bandar zones The teacher involved in this study work in a school undergoingmultiple level of change Because the school’s change was likely to be different fromthat in other schools, ability to replicate these findings may belimited Their participation in the study was a result how theyfacilitated their newly acquired knowledge and application ofCAR and professional development may be varied in terms ofperception and acceptance. They made personal change in how they facilitated and thoughtabout professional development with their current achievement
    22. 22. Directions for future research It is now the importance of professional development tostimulate a constant demand for educational policy toaddress classroom action research as onecomponent of daily teaching and learning processespecially in writing the daily reflection of lesson plan inthe record book in schools It is important this research will continue with the testingof the suggested framework analysis and introducethe basic foundation and exposure about what CAR is allabout and how it can be used together with the teachingand learning record book as one of the reflective thinkingand process in classroom among school teachers in aneffort to enhance their professional self-development.
    23. 23. Closure 3 secret of happiness,Someone to love,something to do,something to look forward to To appreciate your significance, you need to understandthat you can make a difference-Sharing is caring-Thank youhttp://www.facebook.com/TeachingEnglishCreativeInnovativewww.actionresearchnotes.blogspot.com.

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