…affords teachers conscious,deliberate insight to bringabout learning andencourages them to becomestudents of their ownteaching. (Dewey, 1933)
…helps to focus on therelationship betweentheory and practice.(Wegner, 2005)
…helps make meaning out ofcontent applied in a specificpractice situation and betterunderstand the complexity ofhow one acts and might act ina future situation. (Stein,2000)
…facilitates introspectivelearning from values, beliefs,knowledge, and experiencesthat contribute toperspectives of one’s self,other people, the world. (Shandomo, 2010)
Necessary for reflective practice –rather than rely on the authority ofothers, their own impulse, orunexamined previous practice,teachers must continually examineand evaluate their attitudes,practices, effectiveness, andaccomplishments. (Shandomo, 2010)
From Paul Keller’s flickr stream From LifeSupercharger’s flickr stream
reflection is an active, persistent,and careful consideration of anybelief or supposed form ofknowledge in light of thegrounds supporting it and futureconclusions to which it tends(Dewey, 1933)
reflection blends learningthrough experience withtheoretical and technicallearning to form new knowledgeconstructions and new behaviorsor insights(Stein, 2000)
reflection is an educationalimagination that allows candidates tolook at themselves and their situationswith new eyes, and in the process,become conscious of the multiple waysthey can interpret, critique, challenge,confront, and reconstruct teaching(Ajayi, 2011)
The end result of criticalreflection for the individual iscognitive change.(Yost, Sentner, Forlenza-Bailey,2000)
Technical reflection isconcerned with the technicalapplication of knowledge toachieve certain ends whichthemselves are not open tocriticism or modification.
Practical reflection allows foropen examination of means andalso goals, the assumptions uponwhich these are based, and theactual outcomes.
Critical reflection includes emphasesfrom the previous two levels, and calls forconsiderations involving moral and ethicalcriteria, making judgments about whetherprofessional activity is equitable, just andrespectful of persons or not. It locates anyanalysis of personal action within widersociohistorical and politico-culturalcontexts.
Task Description When Technical Practical CriticalVision Statement Literacy class assignment Preceding internshipTargeted Observe mentor teacher Preceding and start ofObservations focusing on management, internship differentiation, assessmentSeminars Twice a month Preceding and start of internshipBiweekly Reports Summarize teaching activities Throughout internshipOral Reflections Conversation with Clinical Throughout internshipwith Observers Faculty (mentor teacher) and/or University Facilitator (supervisor)Written Reflections Reflect after teaching Throughout programon ImplementedLessonsShare seminar Critical incident presentation Culmination of internship
• Supervised practical experiences to serve as a foundation for reflection• Personally meaningful knowledge base in pedagogy, theories of learning, social, political, and historical foundations to which they can connect their experiences.(Yost, 2000)
Targeted Observations: Share Seminar: PeerHow can the prompts be Video Analysismodified to foster What questions are mostincreased critical likely to prompt criticalreflection? reflection?Mentoring Styles: Mentors as Models:What questions and/or What are the best ways toprompts will help encourage/supportmentors move up the mentors in modeling theirframework into more use of these questions forinquiry and reflecting? their interns?
introspection that is not undertaken in isolation
Constructivistmethods that Visioncombine theorywith practice andchallenge the Criticalentering Theory Reflection Practicedispositions ofpreservice teachersWORK.
ne ss ind ed pe n-mO Responsibil it y ted ness h olehearW From the Library of Congress