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  • 1. “Science Processes”
  • 2. Goal of Science Teaching: • To develop the students’ competence in searching for knowledge and information in the use of a number of basic as well as integrated science processes • Acquire skill in developing the scientific method • Arouse and sustain interest in future science-based pursuits
  • 3. The Science Processes • For the lower levels in the Elementary Level: 1. Observing – process where in we interact using our 5 senses: • Sight • Hearing • Smelling • Tasting • Touch Observations – refers to the statements that give information learned through the use of five senses. Inferences - identify , judge, or guess and as a result the students will formulate a conclusion
  • 4. How to Develop the Skill 1. Make sure that the students are required to use several, if not all, the five senses. 2. Include observation of things that are moving or objects that are likely to produce changes 3. Use materials and objects with different characteristics 4. Allow them to use numerical descriptions 5. Plan lessons where they have to observe things and events 6. Stick to statements about what they observe
  • 5. Advantages in Developing the Skill 1. Students become keen in gathering information through the use of the senses 2. The observations they gather will be real 3. They are more competent in answering or solving problem situations rather than depend on hearsays and untested solutions 4. Constant use of the senses 5. They develop a scientific mind
  • 6. 2. Comparing – the ability to recognize the similarities and differences of things being observed Advantages in Developing the Skill 1. Enables the students to analyze the information gathered by observing accurately and honestly 2. Care in comparing guarantees precision and authenticity 3. Enables the students to evaluate evidence whether to accept or reject them before formulating a conclusion 4. They become wise decision-maker 5. An objective comparison facilitates accurate interpretation of data.
  • 7. How to Develop the Skill 1. Include materials with varied features so as to sharpen their ability to do the same 2. Refrain from pointing to the property to be examined’ 3. Contrasts can be expressed in both quantitative and qualitative manner 4. Comparisons can be recorded in the form of tabulations, graphs, or colored illustrations for easy interpretations
  • 8. 3. Classifying –is a process of grouping or sorting out the number of objects according to observable characteristics they possess. Advantages in Developing the Skill 1. Making it easy to look for them when needed’ 2. A neat and properly arranged room speaks of a systematic and disciplined group of students 3. An orderly learning environment is pleasant, safe and a joy to stay in 4. Systematic habits of work 5. Easy to analyze and interpret the data collected
  • 9. How to Develop the Skill 1. Start by requiring the students to classify their things at home 2. A student can classify a number of objects if he/she discovers the characteristics, property or quality of the objects where the classification ca be based 3. Expose them in the learning area in the school 4. Go out of the classroom and observe how things are classified in nature 5. Use only one characteristic at a time in classifying things to avoid confusion
  • 10. 4.Measuring –the process of comparing an unknown quantity to a standard Advantages in Developing the Skill 1. The skill in measuring insures accurate results in an experiment 2. Quantifying observations facilitates analysis and interpretation of data 3. Students develop the values of preciseness, care, and authenticity 4. Wasted of time, effort and expensive materials are avoided if students stick to accurate measurement. 5. The habits of study and work are developed if the students are skilled in measuring
  • 11. How to Develop the Skill 1. Consistently require students to quantify their answers about measurable materials to be used until the habit is formed. 2. Hurried measurements often result to inaccurate data. 3. The measuring unit must be appropriate. 4. Provide sufficient practice in using common measuring instruments. 5. Always emphasize the importance of accurate measurements in order to avoid wastage of materials
  • 12. For the higher level and on the secondary level, the integrated processes are ; 1. Inferring – is an interpretation or a tentative conclusion based on observations. Advantages in Developing the Skill 1. The skill can lead them into investigations following the scientific method. 2. Inferring can enhance their reasoning ability. 3. They will be motivated to gather more observations in order to form correct inferences.
  • 13. How to Develop the Skill 1. Provide more practice on inferring to sharpen their reasoning ability. 2. Caution them in forming ideas only after gathering enough observations that were thoroughly analyzed. 3. Problem solving that calls for tentative conclusions can develop the skill in the long run.
  • 14. Predicting – the process of making a forecast based on observed events. The prediction made between observed data are called interpolation and extrapolation. Advantages in Developing the skill 1. Students become more careful in making forecast, otherwise they will be turn out to be guesses. 2. Skill in predicting speaks of a scientific mind. 3.This is guarantee that students will always be confident in following the scientific method. 4. Constant practice in predicting makes students sticks to accurate measurements, data and other information.
  • 15. How to Develop the Skill 1. record observations in the form of graphs or tabulations where students can see a trend or a pattern. 2. Provide experiences in making forecasts about events in the environment that are controlled by time, measuring equipment and price. 3. Emphasize that there may be several variables that can affect the predicted event , hence the prediction will not be accurate. 4. Caution them on making predictions beyond observed events because the same result cannot be gauranteed.
  • 16. Controlling Variables Variable-the factor or condition the effect of which is being tested. Classification of variables A. Manipulated B. Constant C. Responding
  • 17. Advantages in Developing the Skill 1. The students become skilled in searching for reliable evidence before formulating a conclusion 2. The training on how to design on experiment is developed 3. Such a controlled set up enables students to follow the scientific method.
  • 18. How to Develop the Skill 1. identify clearly the variable to be changed. 2. be strict with keeping the rest of the conditions the same. 3. They will be trained in searching for cause-and-effect in some conditions in the environment. 4. How to arrive at correct conclusions must be the objective.
  • 19. Interpreting Data - the relationship between the causeand-effect condition in a controlled set-up becomes easy to interpret if the data is recorded in a tabulation or a graph. Advantages in Developing the Skill 1. The students become skilled in determining relationship between variables. A proficiency muchneeded in interpreting results. 2. Observations will definitely enable them to follow the steps of the scientific method. 3. Proficiency in interpreting observations will be developed.
  • 20. How to Develop the Skill 1. Train them in presenting data through various illustrations 2. Let them interpret different kinds of relationship between relevant and irrelevant data 3. An objective and unbiased interpretation form part of their study and work habits
  • 21. Experimenting –the final test that requires competence in science processes especially controlling variables interpreting data and formulating hypothesis Steps in Scientific Method • Identifying the problem • Formulating a tentative solution • Choosing the likely hypothesis • Testing the hypothesis • Collecting, recording and analyzing data • Formulating conclusion
  • 22. Advantages in Developing the skill 1. A scientific mind that has cultivated a scientific methodology is definitely one of the best goals of science teaching 2. The skill in experimenting has a lasting effect on how they approach any learning activity 3. They learn to manage their own lives problem-wise
  • 23. How to develop the Skill 1. 1. Making every learning activity problem-based and solution—oriented is ideal in a science course. 2. Consistent guidance in following the procedures is recommended. 3. Involve the students in planning and implementing the designed set-up. 4. Revision in some steps in the procedure may be allowed in order to enhance their creativity in finding appropriate answers to everyday inquires.