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  • Types of Exceptional Students
  • The most prevalent symptoms of ADD / ADHD are inattention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Difficulties with concentration, mental focus, and inhibition of impulses and behaviors are chronic and pervasive and impair an individual’s daily functioning across various settings -- home, school or work, in relationships, etc.
  • Even a "straight A" student with autism who has a photographic memory can be incapable of remembering to bring a pencil to class or of remembering a deadline for an assignment. In such cases, aid should be provided in the least restrictive way possible. In dealing with autistic students, consistent treatment and expectations from everyone is vital.
  • Communication Disorders involve a wide variety of problems in speech, language, and hearing. For example, speech and language disorders include stuttering, aphasia, dysfluency, voice disorders (hoarseness, breathiness, or sudden breaks in loudness or pitch), cleft lip and/or palate, articulation problems, delays in speech and language, autism, and phonological disorders. Speech and language impairments and disorders can be attributed to environmental factors, of which the most commonly known are High Risk Register problems, which include drugs taken during pregnancy, common STD's such as syphilis, and birthing trauma to name a few. Communication disorders can also stem from other conditions such as learning disabilities, dyslexia, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation.
  • Gifted students possess some common characteristics. Recognizing these general traits and understanding how they may reveal themselves in the classroom is an important step toward working effectively with this unique group of children.
  • Over time, the average hearing impaired student shows an ever increasing gap in vocabulary growth, complex sentence comprehension and construction, and in concept formation as compared to students with normal hearing. Hearing impaired students often learn to "feign" comprehension with the end result being that the student does have optimal learning opportunities. Therefore, facilitative strategies for hearing impaired students are primarily concerned with various aspects of communication. Other problems arise because deafness is an invisible disability. It is easy for teachers to "forget about it" and treat the student as not having a disability. It has also been shown that hearing impaired students with good English skills also have good science concept formation. ("Mainstream Teaching of Science: A Source Book", Keller et al.)
  • Most people know, or are taught, at an early age, how to process information and develop an organized plan or strategy when confronted with a problem, whether that problem is social, academic, or job related. Others find such cognitive processes quite difficult. Learning disabilities have only recently been recognized as disabilities. This neurological disorder causes difficulty in organizing information received, remembering them, and expressing information and therefore affects a person's basic function such as reading, writing, comprehension, and reasoning. However, these students with learning disabilities can be taught effective learning strategies that will help them approach tasks more effectively. (Learning Strategies for Problem Learners, by Thomas Lombardi)
  • Individuals with mental retardation benefit from the same teaching strategies used to teach individuals with learning disabilities, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism. It is helpful to break tasks down into small steps and introduce the task one step at a time to avoid overwhelming the individual. Once the student has mastered one step, the next is introduced.
  • From the very beginning of their lives, people with visual impairments, need to be taught the basics of every day functioning. What sighted individuals note as every day tasks need to be learned and practiced by the visually impaired. Research indicates that children with visual impairments "differ from their sighted peers in some areas of intelligence, ranging from understanding spatial concepts to a general knowledge of the world" (Hardman, 1993)
  • In 1975, Public Law 94-142,the Education for all Handicapped Children Act, was signed into law. The legislation provided individuals 3-21 with the following:
  • According to Loris Malaguzzi , the founder of the Reggio Emilia Schools in Italy, having these children in the schools with the other children could stimulate us, as teachers, to think in terms of a much broader pedagogical approach for all children, to broaden our horizons for all the children
  • On previous research performed in inclusive classrooms teachers have learned the following:
  • Getting to know a child with special rights.
  • Inclusion is the full acceptance of all students and leads to a sense of belonging within the classroom community
  • As schools are increasingly challenged to serve a diverse student population. However, the concern is no longer whether to provide inclusive education, but how to implement inclusive education in ways that are both feasible and effective in ensuring schooling success for all children in the classroom.
  • One of the most effective ways teachers can prepare for the inclusion of students with disabilities spectrum disorders is to develop an understanding about the disorder by obtaining accurate information. Having access to accurate information fosters understanding and facilitates a positive attitude toward the challenge of including a student with autism spectrum disorders.
  • It is for important for teachers to not rely on color during presentations to convey meaning as some students may have color blindness or a visual impairment that makes it difficult to perceiving colors accurately. A dark background and light text is best for dark rooms. A light background and dark text is best for light rooms.
  • It may be necessary to move the classroom furniture around or to allow students to decide where they will be most comfortable. If a wheelchair user is restricted by the layout of the room in any way, ensure that he or she can still take part in group work and see the whiteboard. Also think about less obvious environmental factors such as sufficient lighting, noise levels and room on desks for assistive technology.
  • Ese

    1. 1. ESE EPI 0030 Cultural Diversity Josh Bishop Wilgan Joseph Jenny Sotomayor
    2. 2. Types of Exceptional Students <ul><li>Attention Deficit </li></ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Speech/Communication Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Gifted Education </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing Impaired </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Mental Retardation </li></ul><ul><li>Visually Impaired </li></ul>
    3. 3. ADD/ADHD <ul><li>Inattention </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity </li></ul><ul><li>Movement Improves Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoor Play Improves Focus </li></ul>
    4. 4. Autism <ul><li>Organizational Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract and Conceptual Thinking Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Incapable of Being Manipulative </li></ul><ul><li>Use and Interpret Speech Literally </li></ul>
    5. 5. Speech/Communication Disorders <ul><li>Speech </li></ul><ul><li>Stuttering </li></ul><ul><li>Cluttering </li></ul><ul><li>Speech/Sound Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Dysarthria </li></ul><ul><li>Apraxia </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Aphasia </li></ul><ul><li>Delays in Speech/Language </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Cleft Lip/Pallet </li></ul><ul><li>Can Stem From Other Disorders </li></ul>
    6. 6. Gifted Education <ul><li>May Not Be the “Straight A” Students </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly the Class Clown </li></ul><ul><li>Asks Many Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Very Curious </li></ul><ul><li>Easily Off-Task </li></ul><ul><li>Impatient </li></ul>
    7. 7. Hearing Impaired <ul><li>Deaf </li></ul><ul><li>Hard of Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Deaf and Blind </li></ul>
    8. 8. Learning Disabilities <ul><li>Difficulty Learning New Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty Remembering </li></ul><ul><li>Confusing Basic Words </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty with Phonetics </li></ul>
    9. 9. Mental Retardation <ul><li>Low Tolerance for Frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Low Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive </li></ul><ul><li>Stubborn </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly Passive </li></ul><ul><li>May Engage in Self-Injurious Behavior </li></ul>
    10. 10. Visually Impaired <ul><li>Vocabulary Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Educational and Social Development </li></ul><ul><li>Life Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday Tasks </li></ul>
    11. 11. Education for All Handicapped Children Act: <ul><li>Free and appropriate education </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of students and parents rights </li></ul><ul><li>Least restrictive environment </li></ul><ul><li>Individualized Educational Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Parental Involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Evaluations </li></ul>
    12. 12. It Is Important to: <ul><li>Embrace, not ignore, these concepts of differences </li></ul><ul><li>Encounter these different children and try to understand what they could teach us </li></ul><ul><li>Provide the best education possible for these children’s and young adults </li></ul>
    13. 13. As future teachers we are responsible for: <ul><li>Constructing interaction and knowledge, we have to continuously and carefully reflect on our own philosophical premises </li></ul><ul><li>Building scaffolding, in order to decode, de-construct and construct our communication with these children </li></ul><ul><li>Paying attention to our interpretive actions, and to be aware of our limits and our creative potential </li></ul>
    14. 14. Research Data: <ul><li>Emotion and cognition are tightly connected </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to other languages beyond the verbal language </li></ul><ul><li>See change in a realistic way by considering what is possible and what is not possible, in relationship to the child especially relevant for children with most serious situations </li></ul><ul><li>Videotaping is the best resource for observations since you are able to study their reactions and behavior to certain situations </li></ul>
    15. 15. Research Cont’ <ul><li>To be more attentive to listening to the families and trying to understand their expectations, rather than influence them with ours </li></ul><ul><li>Special rights (needs) children has a different way to be a child </li></ul><ul><li>Many times we need to combine the clinical suggestion along with the knowledge of pedagogy and past experiences </li></ul><ul><li>It is important not to impose our interpretation to children of inclusive classrooms to allow them to explore both worlds and to avoid any stereotyping between children and children with special needs. We must let them communicate with one another and jointly participate together in activities </li></ul>
    16. 16. Alternative Teaching Approaches: The Denver Approach <ul><li>It asserts that children with special rights (needs) respond better in a situation that is very slow in stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Requires children and adults to perform certain tasks to become aware of others and to learn to take turns. Ex. they simply put coins in a small money bank </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest that children sit facing a wall, in order to reduce stimulation </li></ul>
    17. 17. Knowing a Special Needs Child: <ul><li>Conducting professional development sessions to share positive experiences strategies, and techniques among teachers </li></ul><ul><li>To allow special needs children to work together with other children so they can share the same experiences and imitate their behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive development through imitation, when you imitate you understand, take ownership and retain the experience </li></ul><ul><li>Letting the special needs students be observers even if they cannot imitate, it is consider as valuable as imitating </li></ul><ul><li>That through inclusion in the classrooms special needs children experience a higher level of understanding </li></ul>
    18. 18. Inclusion
    19. 19. What is Inclusion <ul><li>Inclusion treasures diversity and builds community. </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion is about living full lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to live together. </li></ul><ul><li>Inclusion makes our classroom for of full life. </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Benefits of Inclusion <ul><li>Meaningful friendships </li></ul><ul><li>Increased understanding and acceptance of diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater opportunities for interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Higher expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Increased school staff collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Increased parent participation </li></ul>
    21. 21. Be Prepared <ul><li>Alternative ways for learners to demonstrate their skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Get information about the learner’s needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan your lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>High Expectation. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Accessible Overheads and PowerPoint Presentations <ul><li>Larger Font size. </li></ul><ul><li>Use bold to highlight rather than Italics. </li></ul><ul><li>Use bullets or numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>good background/foreground contrast. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not rely on color to convey meaning </li></ul>
    23. 23. Facilitating Participation <ul><li>Excellent physical layout. </li></ul><ul><li>Enough room for wheelchairs to move around. </li></ul><ul><li>Sufficient lighting, noise levels </li></ul><ul><li>Make room for assistive technology </li></ul>
    24. 24. Some Important Tips for Facilitating Participation <ul><li>Proper seating arrangements for students who lip-read. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow one individual to talk at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat or rephrase questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Always use board or a chart to write main ideas. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Assistive Technology: <ul><li>Any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially or off the shelf, modified, or customized that increases, maintains, or improves functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Examples of Assistive Technology: <ul><li>Intellikeys </li></ul><ul><li>Touch Screens </li></ul><ul><li>Riverdeep Reading Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Kidspiration Writing Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Voice Recognition Software </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive Devices for the blind </li></ul>
    27. 27. References: <ul><li>Innovations: Periodical/Merrill Palmer Institute, Wayne State University </li></ul><ul><li>Friend, M., & Bursuck, W.D. (2009). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers (5 th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. </li></ul><ul><li>Tomlinson, C.A. (2005). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2 nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Education for Teachers (6 th ed.). Vicki Sharp </li></ul><ul><li>www.reggioalliance. org </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptional Student Sites: </li></ul>