Ancient Rome by 6M

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Ancient Rome by 6M

  1. 1. Ancient Roman Architecture By: Sofia & Mellissa
  2. 2. Aqueducts <ul><li>A channel that brought water into the towns and cities, sometimes raised high up on arches to cross rivers or ravines. </li></ul><ul><li>Their easiest way of getting water straight into Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Pipes from Aqueducts go to public fountains, bathrooms and baths. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Bridges <ul><li>Bridges had the arch as its basic structure. </li></ul><ul><li>The greatest difficulty were the pillars because they need to provide support while fighting the water current. </li></ul><ul><li>Built with wood then brick and stone. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Colosseum <ul><li>• It was the greatest roman amphitheater. </li></ul><ul><li>• Games were held here. Sea battles raged and animals appeared out of trap doors in the floor. </li></ul><ul><li>• It could seat 50,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>• No one knows the architect that designed the Colosseum </li></ul>
  5. 5. Colosseum Building Process <ul><li>• If it wasn’t made with cement and vaulted arches the Colosseum could not have been built because it would have been to heavy and fallen. </li></ul><ul><li>• It had 80 entrances. 2 for the emperor, dignitaries. 2 for the gladiators, 1 for dead, 1 for alive and 76 for the people. </li></ul><ul><li>• They started by building an oval trench that was 18 feet deep and filled it with cement. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Building techniques and tools <ul><li>• The Pantheon was the largest dome in history until the twentieth century </li></ul><ul><li>• The idea of a dome came from extending an arch. </li></ul><ul><li>• They built with simple hammers, chisels, saws, pulleys and cranes. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Roman Forum <ul><li>• It was snug in a valley between Capitoline Hill and Palintine Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>• Beginning as a market place it evolved into an economic, political and religious hub and the town square in the center of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>• Made with stone paving, arches and white marble columns. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Roman Homes <ul><li>• Most apartments were 5-6 stories high. </li></ul><ul><li>• Apartments were crowded and unsanitary while stores were on the 1st floor </li></ul><ul><li>• The richest of Romans could afford town houses just for them selves. </li></ul><ul><li>• Town houses allowed kitchens unlike apartments and were only 1-2 stories and windows only on the 2nd floor for security purposes. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ancient Roman Upper Class Life By Rosa, Jeffery, & Noa
  10. 10. Daily Life <ul><li>Slaves helped through whole day </li></ul><ul><li>During day, men went to baths, women read </li></ul><ul><li>In evening, HUGE feasts </li></ul><ul><li>Prayed first thing in morning because believed gods gave wealth </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fashion for the rich <ul><li>Women had very elaborate hairstyles </li></ul><ul><li>They had emeralds, opals, and pearls </li></ul><ul><li>Men had very elaborate styled beards </li></ul><ul><li>Both men and women wore perfume </li></ul>
  12. 12. Homes and Decor <ul><li>Small windows to prevent heat from coming in </li></ul><ul><li>Villas had 8 rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Had courtyards and shrines </li></ul><ul><li>They had specially designed gutters and heating systems </li></ul>
  13. 13. Parties and festivity <ul><li>Rich people hosted feasts for friends and important people from the city </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves washed guest’s feet </li></ul><ul><li>Men got together for hunting parties </li></ul><ul><li>Men wore bright togas for parties </li></ul>
  14. 14. Currency <ul><li>Moneylenders had very high interest </li></ul><ul><li>A large some of money is called a dowry </li></ul><ul><li>Made new coins for every conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Pecunia means money in Latin </li></ul>
  15. 15. Slaves and servants <ul><li>Slaves were prisoners of war, captives or Romans in debt </li></ul><ul><li>Rich roman can obtain slaves by buying, inheritance, or as slave’s child </li></ul><ul><li>Most household slaves were treated well </li></ul>
  16. 16. Powers and Social Standings <ul><li>Rich people called patricians </li></ul><ul><li>Only oldest families in Rome were rich </li></ul><ul><li>Held political, legal, and religious power </li></ul><ul><li>Consul= Supreme authority below emperor </li></ul>
  17. 17. Rich kids <ul><li>Boys and girls learned reading, writing, and math in primary school </li></ul><ul><li>Older boys learned Greek, grammar, geometry, public speaking, and astronomy in secondary school </li></ul><ul><li>Boys became men at 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to swim with bamboo floats </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ancient Roman Foods By:Eleanor & Aileen
  19. 19. Food For The Poor <ul><li>The poor people that lived near the Mediterranean Sea had to eat foods that grew in dry places </li></ul><ul><li>They eat pasta,salad,water,bread,and porridge or eat left over food from breakfast </li></ul>
  20. 20. Rich People’s Foods <ul><li>Special occasions they ate giraffes,larks,and dormice,not for the flavor but because they’re expensive </li></ul><ul><li>They ate chicken and pork with lots of spices </li></ul><ul><li>They had the most access to fruits and figs and grapes </li></ul>
  21. 21. Roman Farmers <ul><li>They grow figs,and strawberries </li></ul><ul><li>In hot climates they grow grapes and olives </li></ul><ul><li>In cold climates they grow turnips and apples </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers grew grapes in order to make and sell wine </li></ul>
  22. 22. Kinds Of Roman Meats <ul><li>Sheep,Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Pork and Ham </li></ul><ul><li>Fish and peacock tongues </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated meal is that they would make stuffing chicken inside of duck, duck inside of goose,goose inside of pig,pig inside of cow,then they cook it altogether </li></ul>
  23. 23. A Roman Dinner Party <ul><li>Good manners are to vomit to make more room for more meals </li></ul><ul><li>The people stay for games and songs before getting ready to leave </li></ul><ul><li>They remove out door shoes and put indoor shoes (sandals) and the slaves would wash the wealthy peoples hands a place a crown of flowers upon their head </li></ul>
  24. 24. What meals did the ancient children eat at school? <ul><li>Salad (lunch) </li></ul><ul><li>Rice or pasta (snack) </li></ul><ul><li>Water (daily) </li></ul><ul><li>Juice (lunch) </li></ul><ul><li>Cheese and vegetable(both) </li></ul>
  25. 25. What did the Romans drink? <ul><li>Romans drank wine on special occasions,breakfast,lunch,and dinner </li></ul><ul><li>Romans drank water for breakfast,lunch,and dinner </li></ul><ul><li>Calda which is warm water and wine laced with spices </li></ul><ul><li>Ponca is vinegar mixed with enough water to make it drinkable </li></ul>
  26. 26. Clothing and Accesories By Morgan, Nora & Sofia C. Ancient Roman
  27. 27. Hair Styles, men and women <ul><li>Curls were popular for both, men + women </li></ul><ul><li>Men had short hair </li></ul><ul><li>In early Rome, women wore simple hair styles (Bun) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Foot Wear, men and women <ul><li>Different ranks= Different types of shoes </li></ul><ul><li>Women wore boots like men but made out of softer material </li></ul><ul><li>Slaves wore wooden clogs, or animal skins wrapped around feet </li></ul>
  29. 29. Different Occasions Clothing <ul><li>Party stolas had embroidery around the hem </li></ul><ul><li>Togas for party’s were brightly colored </li></ul><ul><li>Togas for mourning were darkly colored </li></ul>
  30. 30. Seasonal wear/ traveling clothes <ul><li>To protect from rain + cold, wore hooded cloak called lacernae </li></ul><ul><li>Traveling cloaks were made from animal skins, they were warm and waterproof </li></ul><ul><li>Paenula is a piece of cloth with a hole cut into it </li></ul>
  31. 31. Men and Boys Clothing <ul><li>Wore tunics, which was a single piece of cloth draped around the body </li></ul><ul><li>More expensive the tunic, covered with pleats </li></ul><ul><li>Tunica palmat = leafy, flowery tunic worn by important men </li></ul>
  32. 32. Women and Girls Clothing <ul><li>Wore tunic, longer than men </li></ul><ul><li>Important women wore stola over tunic </li></ul><ul><li>Going out = wore pala over stola, pala is rectangular toga with hood </li></ul>
  33. 33. Jewelry <ul><li>Women liked jewelry, for value rather than look </li></ul><ul><li>Rings were most common jewelry, worn by both men + women </li></ul><ul><li>The most precious stones were pearls, opals, + emeralds </li></ul>
  34. 34. Cosmetics <ul><li>Made from vegetables + mineral dyes </li></ul><ul><li>Chalk was used as face powder </li></ul><ul><li>Put on make-up with a spatula </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>ANCIENT ROMAN </li></ul><ul><li>ROADS & TRANSPORTATION </li></ul><ul><li>by BEN AND MATT </li></ul>
  36. 36. How Roads Helped Ancient Rome <ul><li>Helped Armies move quickly around Rome </li></ul><ul><li>Made communicating easier </li></ul><ul><li>Helped Rome run their empire by making easy travel </li></ul>
  37. 37. How Roads were built and what they were made out of <ul><li>Built by digging trenches </li></ul><ul><li>Many layers, top=curbstones, bottom=mortar/sand </li></ul><ul><li>Roads were built to last </li></ul>
  38. 38. Ships and Other Water Transportation <ul><li>Ships were sail boats with 2 sails </li></ul><ul><li>Ships were made of wood </li></ul><ul><li>Docks were always busy </li></ul>
  39. 39. Military Transportation <ul><li>Used horses to travel and fight </li></ul><ul><li>Mules carried supplies for the army </li></ul><ul><li>Built bridges for easy travel </li></ul>
  40. 40. Land Transportation <ul><li>Used horses to carry letters </li></ul><ul><li>Chariots were used for entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Went in covered cart if going on long journeys </li></ul>
  41. 41. Different types of roads and where they went <ul><li>Paved roads=fast transportation, mud roads=slow transportation </li></ul><ul><li>50,000 miles of roads </li></ul><ul><li>Roads covered Roman empire </li></ul>
  42. 42. Merchants and Farm carts <ul><li>Driven by oxen </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers used plows that went slowly </li></ul><ul><li>Farm carts had solid wooden wheels </li></ul>
  43. 43. Different Transportation Routes and how Long they Took <ul><li>Alexandria to Ostia takes 16-21 days </li></ul><ul><li>Rome to Caesaria takes 20 days </li></ul><ul><li>Took two to three weeks by ship to go from Egypt to Rome </li></ul>
  44. 44. Ancient Roman Army and weapons By Austin & Alex
  45. 45. How soldiers benefited the society <ul><li>Soldiers built opera houses and other public buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>The soldiers paroled the city for possible danger. </li></ul><ul><li>They Brought treasure home from war. </li></ul><ul><li>Most importantly, the soldiers kept the citizens and kingdom safe. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Weapons and how they used them <ul><li>Romans used many weapons, such as spears, axes, swords, sabers, javelins, bows, and slings. </li></ul><ul><li>All warriors carried a sword and shield. </li></ul><ul><li>Spears were used for spearheading their phalanx formation, where they marched in a triangle shoulder-to -shoulder. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Marching <ul><li>When Romans marched to war they each carried grain, a pick, 2 stakes, a saw, their armor and weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>When marching they slept in a wool tent. </li></ul><ul><li>Roman soldiers marched 8 or more miles a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Some Roman camps could be as big as a city. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Siege <ul><li>Boats carried most supplies for troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Commander directed troops from afar and from the advice of other leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Troops would mostly steal food from enemies to eat and hurt them. </li></ul><ul><li>They built bridges over rivers by anchoring boats and putting large planks across the boats. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Training <ul><li>When selected they were fitted for armor and outfits. </li></ul><ul><li>They rode horses without stirrups to build endurance. </li></ul><ul><li>Recruits marched two times a day with full armor and spears. </li></ul><ul><li>Some trainees were taught to fire catapults. </li></ul><ul><li>Selected for training when boys. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Armor <ul><li>Wore shield, plate armor, belt and mail shin guards. </li></ul><ul><li>Shield is called Scuttum, and were made out of wood and steel. </li></ul><ul><li>The Belt is called chinglum, and was leather with dangling mail. </li></ul><ul><li>Chest plate is cal led lorice, and is iron on leather. </li></ul>^ Battle Helmet
  51. 51. Enemies of Rome <ul><li>The roman enemies were the Germans, Deccins, Iberians, Hispanics, Parthians, Celtics, Gallics, and Persians. </li></ul><ul><li>The Germans were considered barbarians. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans lost to the Germans only once. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Benefits of War <ul><li>During war, slaves and land were captured to be sold and built on. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of gold and riches were brought back from war. </li></ul><ul><li>After years of military service soldiers were given full citizenship. </li></ul><ul><li>A parade to display valor full warriors and captured slaves was fun for everyone. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Ancient Roman Gladiators By: Sam & Raphael
  54. 54. Types of Gladiators <ul><li>There were Retiariuses, who used tridents and nets. </li></ul><ul><li>The Acians, who had brown shields and curved swords. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mirmihlo, who had heavy shields, short swords and helmets. </li></ul><ul><li>The Velitis, who used javelins and who fought 5 vs 5. </li></ul><ul><li>Gladiators usually fought against other Gladiators. </li></ul>
  55. 55. How Gladiators are treated <ul><li>Gladiators are usually slaves or prisoners! </li></ul><ul><li>Gladiators were usually trained in gladiator schools and were not allowed out! </li></ul><ul><li>Gladiators were usually treated like wild animals! </li></ul><ul><li>Talented gladiators were worth a lot of money and were fed special barley. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Rise and Fall of the Gladiator Fights <ul><li>The tradition of gladiator fights came from the Etruscans. </li></ul><ul><li>The Etruscans believed that the spilling of blood from the gladiator fights honored the dead! </li></ul><ul><li>The tradition of gladiator fights ended in 404 A.D. because a Christian Priest got mad because one gladiator was about to kill the other one. The spectators got mad and killed the priest. Then the emperor ended the gladiator games. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Rules of the gladiator fights <ul><li>Gladiators had to swear an oath agreeing to suffer whips, burning, and death! </li></ul><ul><li>In gladiator fights, when a gladiator is wounded, the crowd gets to choose if he lives or not: thumps up; keep alive, thumbs down; kill! </li></ul><ul><li>Gladiator fights were only on special occasions. </li></ul><ul><li>Very rarely can a woman be a gladiator. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Gladiator Schools <ul><li>Instructors were usually former gladiators. </li></ul><ul><li>There were 4 gladiator schools in all of Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>Gladiators-in-training used wooden swords to practice! </li></ul><ul><li>Schools were usually close to the arena so they would have a smaller chance of escaping when they are going to the arena. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Types of Gladiator Fights <ul><li>Gladiators could fight animals such as lions and bears! </li></ul><ul><li>The gladiator animals were kept hungry so they would try to eat the gladiator(s)! </li></ul><ul><li>The Colosseum could be flooded so there could be sea battles! </li></ul><ul><li>Gladiators most often fought each other. </li></ul>
  60. 60. The Colosseum <ul><li>The Colosseum was made in 80 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>The Colosseum was the biggest gladiator stadium ever! </li></ul><ul><li>The Colosseum held up to 47,000 people! </li></ul><ul><li>The Colosseum was built in Rome. </li></ul>
  61. 61. By: Natasha & Donnaya Pompeii
  62. 62. The Great Vesuvius <ul><li>Vesuvius was a volcano that was asleep and slowly building up pressure </li></ul><ul><li>The magma was so hot and steam turned it to pumice and ash explodedthrough a hole in the top </li></ul><ul><li>The volcano was 4,203 feet high </li></ul><ul><li>Pompeii eruption was on August 24, AD 79 </li></ul>
  63. 63. Volcano timeline
  64. 64. Old Pompeii <ul><li>In the town of Pompeii: </li></ul><ul><li>had altars in the center of the town </li></ul><ul><li>Nile water was sacred in temples </li></ul><ul><li>Found in 1600’s </li></ul><ul><li>Porta Marina was a gate through which you entered Pompeii </li></ul><ul><li>People first invented the water fountain </li></ul>
  65. 65. Pompeii timeline
  66. 66. Buildings in Pompeii <ul><li>Amphitheater: double theater </li></ul><ul><li>Forum: center of political, economical, and religons, outdoor market </li></ul><ul><li>Baths: public baths </li></ul><ul><li>Frigidarium: cold bath </li></ul><ul><li>Tepidarium: warm bath </li></ul><ul><li>Caldarium: hot bath </li></ul><ul><li>Basilica: tall, thin structure </li></ul><ul><li>Arch of Caligula: showcase of trophies </li></ul>
  67. 67. Pompeii Gods and Altars <ul><li>Jupiter: king of all gods </li></ul><ul><li>Priapus: god of fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Apollo: god of light </li></ul><ul><li>Venus: goddess of love, known as protector of Pompeii, had a son called Cupid </li></ul>
  68. 68. Items and Bodies found <ul><li>In Pompeii, people found: </li></ul><ul><li>Bread in oven </li></ul><ul><li>Bowling alleys and running water </li></ul><ul><li>Lot’s of paintings of fruits </li></ul><ul><li>Graffiti from gladiator fights </li></ul><ul><li>“ Beware of the dog” signs </li></ul><ul><li>Marble basin and bronze tub with cradle </li></ul><ul><li>Gold neck lace of 48 ivy leaves cut of gold </li></ul>
  69. 69. New Pompeii <ul><li>People added a terrace to enjoy the view </li></ul><ul><li>Most popular during summer and autumn </li></ul><ul><li>About 7,000 people visit per day </li></ul><ul><li>Pompeii has been restored </li></ul>

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