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Ancient Rome  by 6M
 

Ancient Rome by 6M

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    Ancient Rome  by 6M Ancient Rome by 6M Presentation Transcript

    • Ancient Roman Architecture By: Sofia & Mellissa
    • Aqueducts
      • A channel that brought water into the towns and cities, sometimes raised high up on arches to cross rivers or ravines.
      • Their easiest way of getting water straight into Rome.
      • Pipes from Aqueducts go to public fountains, bathrooms and baths.
    • Bridges
      • Bridges had the arch as its basic structure.
      • The greatest difficulty were the pillars because they need to provide support while fighting the water current.
      • Built with wood then brick and stone.
    • Colosseum
      • • It was the greatest roman amphitheater.
      • • Games were held here. Sea battles raged and animals appeared out of trap doors in the floor.
      • • It could seat 50,000 people.
      • • No one knows the architect that designed the Colosseum
    • Colosseum Building Process
      • • If it wasn’t made with cement and vaulted arches the Colosseum could not have been built because it would have been to heavy and fallen.
      • • It had 80 entrances. 2 for the emperor, dignitaries. 2 for the gladiators, 1 for dead, 1 for alive and 76 for the people.
      • • They started by building an oval trench that was 18 feet deep and filled it with cement.
    • Building techniques and tools
      • • The Pantheon was the largest dome in history until the twentieth century
      • • The idea of a dome came from extending an arch.
      • • They built with simple hammers, chisels, saws, pulleys and cranes.
    • Roman Forum
      • • It was snug in a valley between Capitoline Hill and Palintine Hill.
      • • Beginning as a market place it evolved into an economic, political and religious hub and the town square in the center of Rome.
      • • Made with stone paving, arches and white marble columns.
    • Roman Homes
      • • Most apartments were 5-6 stories high.
      • • Apartments were crowded and unsanitary while stores were on the 1st floor
      • • The richest of Romans could afford town houses just for them selves.
      • • Town houses allowed kitchens unlike apartments and were only 1-2 stories and windows only on the 2nd floor for security purposes.
    • Ancient Roman Upper Class Life By Rosa, Jeffery, & Noa
    • Daily Life
      • Slaves helped through whole day
      • During day, men went to baths, women read
      • In evening, HUGE feasts
      • Prayed first thing in morning because believed gods gave wealth
    • Fashion for the rich
      • Women had very elaborate hairstyles
      • They had emeralds, opals, and pearls
      • Men had very elaborate styled beards
      • Both men and women wore perfume
    • Homes and Decor
      • Small windows to prevent heat from coming in
      • Villas had 8 rooms
      • Had courtyards and shrines
      • They had specially designed gutters and heating systems
    • Parties and festivity
      • Rich people hosted feasts for friends and important people from the city
      • Slaves washed guest’s feet
      • Men got together for hunting parties
      • Men wore bright togas for parties
    • Currency
      • Moneylenders had very high interest
      • A large some of money is called a dowry
      • Made new coins for every conquest
      • Pecunia means money in Latin
    • Slaves and servants
      • Slaves were prisoners of war, captives or Romans in debt
      • Rich roman can obtain slaves by buying, inheritance, or as slave’s child
      • Most household slaves were treated well
    • Powers and Social Standings
      • Rich people called patricians
      • Only oldest families in Rome were rich
      • Held political, legal, and religious power
      • Consul= Supreme authority below emperor
    • Rich kids
      • Boys and girls learned reading, writing, and math in primary school
      • Older boys learned Greek, grammar, geometry, public speaking, and astronomy in secondary school
      • Boys became men at 15
      • Learn to swim with bamboo floats
    • Ancient Roman Foods By:Eleanor & Aileen
    • Food For The Poor
      • The poor people that lived near the Mediterranean Sea had to eat foods that grew in dry places
      • They eat pasta,salad,water,bread,and porridge or eat left over food from breakfast
    • Rich People’s Foods
      • Special occasions they ate giraffes,larks,and dormice,not for the flavor but because they’re expensive
      • They ate chicken and pork with lots of spices
      • They had the most access to fruits and figs and grapes
    • Roman Farmers
      • They grow figs,and strawberries
      • In hot climates they grow grapes and olives
      • In cold climates they grow turnips and apples
      • Farmers grew grapes in order to make and sell wine
    • Kinds Of Roman Meats
      • Sheep,Cattle
      • Pork and Ham
      • Fish and peacock tongues
      • Complicated meal is that they would make stuffing chicken inside of duck, duck inside of goose,goose inside of pig,pig inside of cow,then they cook it altogether
    • A Roman Dinner Party
      • Good manners are to vomit to make more room for more meals
      • The people stay for games and songs before getting ready to leave
      • They remove out door shoes and put indoor shoes (sandals) and the slaves would wash the wealthy peoples hands a place a crown of flowers upon their head
    • What meals did the ancient children eat at school?
      • Salad (lunch)
      • Rice or pasta (snack)
      • Water (daily)
      • Juice (lunch)
      • Cheese and vegetable(both)
    • What did the Romans drink?
      • Romans drank wine on special occasions,breakfast,lunch,and dinner
      • Romans drank water for breakfast,lunch,and dinner
      • Calda which is warm water and wine laced with spices
      • Ponca is vinegar mixed with enough water to make it drinkable
    • Clothing and Accesories By Morgan, Nora & Sofia C. Ancient Roman
    • Hair Styles, men and women
      • Curls were popular for both, men + women
      • Men had short hair
      • In early Rome, women wore simple hair styles (Bun)
    • Foot Wear, men and women
      • Different ranks= Different types of shoes
      • Women wore boots like men but made out of softer material
      • Slaves wore wooden clogs, or animal skins wrapped around feet
    • Different Occasions Clothing
      • Party stolas had embroidery around the hem
      • Togas for party’s were brightly colored
      • Togas for mourning were darkly colored
    • Seasonal wear/ traveling clothes
      • To protect from rain + cold, wore hooded cloak called lacernae
      • Traveling cloaks were made from animal skins, they were warm and waterproof
      • Paenula is a piece of cloth with a hole cut into it
    • Men and Boys Clothing
      • Wore tunics, which was a single piece of cloth draped around the body
      • More expensive the tunic, covered with pleats
      • Tunica palmat = leafy, flowery tunic worn by important men
    • Women and Girls Clothing
      • Wore tunic, longer than men
      • Important women wore stola over tunic
      • Going out = wore pala over stola, pala is rectangular toga with hood
    • Jewelry
      • Women liked jewelry, for value rather than look
      • Rings were most common jewelry, worn by both men + women
      • The most precious stones were pearls, opals, + emeralds
    • Cosmetics
      • Made from vegetables + mineral dyes
      • Chalk was used as face powder
      • Put on make-up with a spatula
      • ANCIENT ROMAN
      • ROADS & TRANSPORTATION
      • by BEN AND MATT
    • How Roads Helped Ancient Rome
      • Helped Armies move quickly around Rome
      • Made communicating easier
      • Helped Rome run their empire by making easy travel
    • How Roads were built and what they were made out of
      • Built by digging trenches
      • Many layers, top=curbstones, bottom=mortar/sand
      • Roads were built to last
    • Ships and Other Water Transportation
      • Ships were sail boats with 2 sails
      • Ships were made of wood
      • Docks were always busy
    • Military Transportation
      • Used horses to travel and fight
      • Mules carried supplies for the army
      • Built bridges for easy travel
    • Land Transportation
      • Used horses to carry letters
      • Chariots were used for entertainment
      • Went in covered cart if going on long journeys
    • Different types of roads and where they went
      • Paved roads=fast transportation, mud roads=slow transportation
      • 50,000 miles of roads
      • Roads covered Roman empire
    • Merchants and Farm carts
      • Driven by oxen
      • Farmers used plows that went slowly
      • Farm carts had solid wooden wheels
    • Different Transportation Routes and how Long they Took
      • Alexandria to Ostia takes 16-21 days
      • Rome to Caesaria takes 20 days
      • Took two to three weeks by ship to go from Egypt to Rome
    • Ancient Roman Army and weapons By Austin & Alex
    • How soldiers benefited the society
      • Soldiers built opera houses and other public buildings.
      • The soldiers paroled the city for possible danger.
      • They Brought treasure home from war.
      • Most importantly, the soldiers kept the citizens and kingdom safe.
    • Weapons and how they used them
      • Romans used many weapons, such as spears, axes, swords, sabers, javelins, bows, and slings.
      • All warriors carried a sword and shield.
      • Spears were used for spearheading their phalanx formation, where they marched in a triangle shoulder-to -shoulder.
    • Marching
      • When Romans marched to war they each carried grain, a pick, 2 stakes, a saw, their armor and weapons.
      • When marching they slept in a wool tent.
      • Roman soldiers marched 8 or more miles a day.
      • Some Roman camps could be as big as a city.
    • Siege
      • Boats carried most supplies for troops.
      • Commander directed troops from afar and from the advice of other leaders.
      • Troops would mostly steal food from enemies to eat and hurt them.
      • They built bridges over rivers by anchoring boats and putting large planks across the boats.
    • Training
      • When selected they were fitted for armor and outfits.
      • They rode horses without stirrups to build endurance.
      • Recruits marched two times a day with full armor and spears.
      • Some trainees were taught to fire catapults.
      • Selected for training when boys.
    • Armor
      • Wore shield, plate armor, belt and mail shin guards.
      • Shield is called Scuttum, and were made out of wood and steel.
      • The Belt is called chinglum, and was leather with dangling mail.
      • Chest plate is cal led lorice, and is iron on leather.
      ^ Battle Helmet
    • Enemies of Rome
      • The roman enemies were the Germans, Deccins, Iberians, Hispanics, Parthians, Celtics, Gallics, and Persians.
      • The Germans were considered barbarians.
      • The Romans lost to the Germans only once.
    • Benefits of War
      • During war, slaves and land were captured to be sold and built on.
      • Lots of gold and riches were brought back from war.
      • After years of military service soldiers were given full citizenship.
      • A parade to display valor full warriors and captured slaves was fun for everyone.
    • Ancient Roman Gladiators By: Sam & Raphael
    • Types of Gladiators
      • There were Retiariuses, who used tridents and nets.
      • The Acians, who had brown shields and curved swords.
      • The Mirmihlo, who had heavy shields, short swords and helmets.
      • The Velitis, who used javelins and who fought 5 vs 5.
      • Gladiators usually fought against other Gladiators.
    • How Gladiators are treated
      • Gladiators are usually slaves or prisoners!
      • Gladiators were usually trained in gladiator schools and were not allowed out!
      • Gladiators were usually treated like wild animals!
      • Talented gladiators were worth a lot of money and were fed special barley.
    • Rise and Fall of the Gladiator Fights
      • The tradition of gladiator fights came from the Etruscans.
      • The Etruscans believed that the spilling of blood from the gladiator fights honored the dead!
      • The tradition of gladiator fights ended in 404 A.D. because a Christian Priest got mad because one gladiator was about to kill the other one. The spectators got mad and killed the priest. Then the emperor ended the gladiator games.
    • Rules of the gladiator fights
      • Gladiators had to swear an oath agreeing to suffer whips, burning, and death!
      • In gladiator fights, when a gladiator is wounded, the crowd gets to choose if he lives or not: thumps up; keep alive, thumbs down; kill!
      • Gladiator fights were only on special occasions.
      • Very rarely can a woman be a gladiator.
    • Gladiator Schools
      • Instructors were usually former gladiators.
      • There were 4 gladiator schools in all of Rome.
      • Gladiators-in-training used wooden swords to practice!
      • Schools were usually close to the arena so they would have a smaller chance of escaping when they are going to the arena.
    • Types of Gladiator Fights
      • Gladiators could fight animals such as lions and bears!
      • The gladiator animals were kept hungry so they would try to eat the gladiator(s)!
      • The Colosseum could be flooded so there could be sea battles!
      • Gladiators most often fought each other.
    • The Colosseum
      • The Colosseum was made in 80 A.D.
      • The Colosseum was the biggest gladiator stadium ever!
      • The Colosseum held up to 47,000 people!
      • The Colosseum was built in Rome.
    • By: Natasha & Donnaya Pompeii
    • The Great Vesuvius
      • Vesuvius was a volcano that was asleep and slowly building up pressure
      • The magma was so hot and steam turned it to pumice and ash explodedthrough a hole in the top
      • The volcano was 4,203 feet high
      • Pompeii eruption was on August 24, AD 79
    • Volcano timeline
    • Old Pompeii
      • In the town of Pompeii:
      • had altars in the center of the town
      • Nile water was sacred in temples
      • Found in 1600’s
      • Porta Marina was a gate through which you entered Pompeii
      • People first invented the water fountain
    • Pompeii timeline
    • Buildings in Pompeii
      • Amphitheater: double theater
      • Forum: center of political, economical, and religons, outdoor market
      • Baths: public baths
      • Frigidarium: cold bath
      • Tepidarium: warm bath
      • Caldarium: hot bath
      • Basilica: tall, thin structure
      • Arch of Caligula: showcase of trophies
    • Pompeii Gods and Altars
      • Jupiter: king of all gods
      • Priapus: god of fertility
      • Apollo: god of light
      • Venus: goddess of love, known as protector of Pompeii, had a son called Cupid
    • Items and Bodies found
      • In Pompeii, people found:
      • Bread in oven
      • Bowling alleys and running water
      • Lot’s of paintings of fruits
      • Graffiti from gladiator fights
      • “ Beware of the dog” signs
      • Marble basin and bronze tub with cradle
      • Gold neck lace of 48 ivy leaves cut of gold
    • New Pompeii
      • People added a terrace to enjoy the view
      • Most popular during summer and autumn
      • About 7,000 people visit per day
      • Pompeii has been restored