Different Transportation Routes and how Long they Took
Alexandria to Ostia takes 16-21 days
Rome to Caesaria takes 20 days
Took two to three weeks by ship to go from Egypt to Rome
Ancient Roman Army and weapons By Austin & Alex
How soldiers benefited the society
Soldiers built opera houses and other public buildings.
The soldiers paroled the city for possible danger.
They Brought treasure home from war.
Most importantly, the soldiers kept the citizens and kingdom safe.
Weapons and how they used them
Romans used many weapons, such as spears, axes, swords, sabers, javelins, bows, and slings.
All warriors carried a sword and shield.
Spears were used for spearheading their phalanx formation, where they marched in a triangle shoulder-to -shoulder.
When Romans marched to war they each carried grain, a pick, 2 stakes, a saw, their armor and weapons.
When marching they slept in a wool tent.
Roman soldiers marched 8 or more miles a day.
Some Roman camps could be as big as a city.
Boats carried most supplies for troops.
Commander directed troops from afar and from the advice of other leaders.
Troops would mostly steal food from enemies to eat and hurt them.
They built bridges over rivers by anchoring boats and putting large planks across the boats.
When selected they were fitted for armor and outfits.
They rode horses without stirrups to build endurance.
Recruits marched two times a day with full armor and spears.
Some trainees were taught to fire catapults.
Selected for training when boys.
Wore shield, plate armor, belt and mail shin guards.
Shield is called Scuttum, and were made out of wood and steel.
The Belt is called chinglum, and was leather with dangling mail.
Chest plate is cal led lorice, and is iron on leather.
^ Battle Helmet
Enemies of Rome
The roman enemies were the Germans, Deccins, Iberians, Hispanics, Parthians, Celtics, Gallics, and Persians.
The Germans were considered barbarians.
The Romans lost to the Germans only once.
Benefits of War
During war, slaves and land were captured to be sold and built on.
Lots of gold and riches were brought back from war.
After years of military service soldiers were given full citizenship.
A parade to display valor full warriors and captured slaves was fun for everyone.
Ancient Roman Gladiators By: Sam & Raphael
Types of Gladiators
There were Retiariuses, who used tridents and nets.
The Acians, who had brown shields and curved swords.
The Mirmihlo, who had heavy shields, short swords and helmets.
The Velitis, who used javelins and who fought 5 vs 5.
Gladiators usually fought against other Gladiators.
How Gladiators are treated
Gladiators are usually slaves or prisoners!
Gladiators were usually trained in gladiator schools and were not allowed out!
Gladiators were usually treated like wild animals!
Talented gladiators were worth a lot of money and were fed special barley.
Rise and Fall of the Gladiator Fights
The tradition of gladiator fights came from the Etruscans.
The Etruscans believed that the spilling of blood from the gladiator fights honored the dead!
The tradition of gladiator fights ended in 404 A.D. because a Christian Priest got mad because one gladiator was about to kill the other one. The spectators got mad and killed the priest. Then the emperor ended the gladiator games.
Rules of the gladiator fights
Gladiators had to swear an oath agreeing to suffer whips, burning, and death!
In gladiator fights, when a gladiator is wounded, the crowd gets to choose if he lives or not: thumps up; keep alive, thumbs down; kill!
Gladiator fights were only on special occasions.
Very rarely can a woman be a gladiator.
Instructors were usually former gladiators.
There were 4 gladiator schools in all of Rome.
Gladiators-in-training used wooden swords to practice!
Schools were usually close to the arena so they would have a smaller chance of escaping when they are going to the arena.
Types of Gladiator Fights
Gladiators could fight animals such as lions and bears!
The gladiator animals were kept hungry so they would try to eat the gladiator(s)!
The Colosseum could be flooded so there could be sea battles!
Gladiators most often fought each other.
The Colosseum was made in 80 A.D.
The Colosseum was the biggest gladiator stadium ever!
The Colosseum held up to 47,000 people!
The Colosseum was built in Rome.
By: Natasha & Donnaya Pompeii
The Great Vesuvius
Vesuvius was a volcano that was asleep and slowly building up pressure
The magma was so hot and steam turned it to pumice and ash explodedthrough a hole in the top
The volcano was 4,203 feet high
Pompeii eruption was on August 24, AD 79
In the town of Pompeii:
had altars in the center of the town
Nile water was sacred in temples
Found in 1600’s
Porta Marina was a gate through which you entered Pompeii
People first invented the water fountain
Buildings in Pompeii
Amphitheater: double theater
Forum: center of political, economical, and religons, outdoor market
Baths: public baths
Frigidarium: cold bath
Tepidarium: warm bath
Caldarium: hot bath
Basilica: tall, thin structure
Arch of Caligula: showcase of trophies
Pompeii Gods and Altars
Jupiter: king of all gods
Priapus: god of fertility
Apollo: god of light
Venus: goddess of love, known as protector of Pompeii, had a son called Cupid