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Meta design hku5

  1. 1. META DESIGN 元 設計 Collective Self Construction for the People Fall 2013 MArch II Design Studio University of Hong Kong, Department of Architecture Hsieh Ying Chun/ Atelier-3 Studio 謝英俊/第三建築工作室
  2. 2. Open System and Prototype 開放體系與原型 開放建築的理念在現代建築革命開始不久即被提出,所揭櫫的想法是將建築依功能或構件耐用年限做區分,再做不同的對待,使建築壽 命延長與使用合理化。 從中國農村到印度、非洲、拉美,絕大部分的人類花費畢生積累,盲目地蓋不堪使用的水泥磚房,不僅建築使用生命週期短,保暖及斷 熱性差、抗震力不足,並且造成浪費與自然資源的耗損。到底有沒有一種作法,由專業者來建構一個具開放性的體係做為共用平台,這 體係是有限而必要的作為,能解決結構安全、節能減排、空間合理配置等等,就像傳統的穿斗式架構體系,居民再以他們熟悉的傳統工 藝,在這平台上發揮他們的創意與勞動力?當居民可以用這種方式參與建房時,社群關係與傳統文化能夠延續,地域特性多樣化的反映 與可持續的理念就得以實現,這將對過去所謂的“開放建築”做全新的詮釋。 The concept of open system emerged with the Industrial Revolution and the Modernist movement. It’s main discourse is to overcome the contradiction of mass production and the needs of housing diversity. It attempts to make distinction of buildings by function and component durability. It also offers varieties over time and adjusts flexibly according to individual needs in order to extend the lifespan of the building and allow for rational use. From rural China to India, to Africa to South America, majority of people spend lifelong saving blindly building concrete and brick houses that not only have a short life cycle, poor insulation, non seismic but also create wasteful consumption of natural resources. It is necessary to develop an open system as a common platform. Space, structure, and structuring principles are open and flexible: they should adapt to local conditions, incorporate local resources; deploy local traditional materials and craftsmanship. It should also integrate both the creativity and labor of the users and make it an interactive open system, as well as relying the establishment of the open system to prototype investigation as core design intention.
  3. 3. We created a catalogue of 24 prefabricated housing systems, including timber, precast concrete, steel and metal sheeting, analyzing their construction process, tectonic system, conceptual framework and practical outcomes. 我們從木,預製混泥土,鋼,金屬板, 玻璃鋼 5個系統中選擇了24個案例,對它們的施工過程的發展,構造體系,概念 框架和項目成果進行分析,從而構建一個預製房屋系統的目錄。 Catalogue of Industrial Prefabricated Systems 工業預製房屋系統目錄
  4. 4. TIMBER / 木結構 -Balloon Frame 1833- Present -Konrad Wachsmann & Walter Gropius: Packaged House/General Panel System 1941 -Paul Rudolph: Oriental Masonic Gardens 1970 -IKEA: BoKlok Homes 1996 -MUJI/NET: MUJI House 2004 -Lazor Office: Flatpak House 2004
  5. 5. Balloon framing Timber Methodology/ Construction Originated in USA, this method was an adapta- tion of the original post-beam system, by using studs and cross members, joint by nails. This method emphasizes the vertical member, from where each platform can be attached independently. This type of construction had very low cost, and required low skills, emphasizing a “do it yourself” methodology. pre-cut pieces parts: 15,000 weight: about 4 kg men needed to build: 2 or more days: few days for frame Pros Direct load path to the foundation Easy to build Less skill required Cons Longer members required Fire can spread more easily from floor to roof Requires scaffolding to work on top floors during construction Prototype development WIth the automobile industry develop- ment, the suburbs in America were able to develop. A quick and easy construction was needed, and the basic concept of singular family houses was created. The factory production facilited the system to be mass produced and to be distributed to each family. This method allowed people to build their own homes. possible layouts: 450 houses built: over 200,000 cost for one: 500- 5000 usd
  6. 6. TIMBER / 木結構 -Balloon Frame 1833- Present -Konrad Wachsmann & Walter Gropius: Packaged House/General Panel System 1941 -Paul Rudolph: Oriental Masonic Gardens 1970 -IKEA: BoKlok Homes 1996 -MUJI/NET: MUJI House 2004 -Lazor Office: Flatpak House 2004
  7. 7. THE PART : BUILDING COMPONENTS WEDGE CONNECTOR from 3D Y-Shape to 2D 1941(Modified Scheme) 1942(Packaged House) 1939 (French Scheme) VARIATIONS OF PANEL PANEL Standardized 8’ x 3’4’’ Panel VARIATIONS OF PANEL COMBINATION OF PANELS PACKAGED HOUSEPACKAGED HOUSE DESIGN —— OPEN SYSTEM It did not postulate a standard design. It was intended to generate a very wide range of design options, which could not, infact should not, be predicated in ad- vance. These design options were infinite but limited by the parameters of the con- struction system to a family of designs that were all rectilinear modular, panelized and low-rise. CONSTRUCTION —— CLOSED SYSTEM Its limited set of integrated components all stemmed from a single design source and ultimately would all have to be produced in one comprehensive factory. THE WHOLE : CUSTOMIZED HOUSE PACKAGED HOUSEPACKAGED HOUSE
  8. 8. GENERAL PANEL COMPANY PROGRESS LINE TRANSPORTATION INSTALLATION MANUAL BUILDING PART ON SITE TARGET GROUP: Under the free market of US that time, company like General Panel can never work for the real poor. The product serves for middle class or less well-off. Reason for Bankruptcy of General Panel Company FAILURE AS COMMODY IS PATENT A RISK FOR CUSTOMER? SOCIAL CONTEXT : FREE MARKET PACKAGED HOUSEPACKAGED HOUSE DEBATE ON TECHNOLOGY’S ROLE Gropius believed that the technological progress that enabled a system was, essentially, an immutable force that inevitably had to be harnessed by humans to achieve their own goals. Gropius considered a humanist by many saw the machine as a poten- tially dehumanizing force that man had to control. Wachsmann, had a different perception of technology as a liberat- ing force in architecture. debate of technology’s role in architecture continues today and uniquely embedded in the fabric of this modest proposal for prefabricated house. The planning of man’s physical environment has to be based on the best use of the available technique,which in turn is based on our knowledge of and our ability to control energy; in other words, on our economy and on our science. Only when it uses such means can a building, in any age, be called modern. Anybody who is able to improve such methods, even in abstract terms, is indeed an artist. -- Konrad Wachsmann Men will always rebel at attempts at overmecha- nization which are contrary to life. But industriali- zation will not stop at the threshold of building. We have no other choice but to accept the challenge of the machine in all fields of production until men fi- nally adapt if fully to serve their biological needs. -- Water Gropius TECHNOLOGY v.s. HUMANITY PACKAGED HOUSEPACKAGED HOUSE
  9. 9. TIMBER / 木結構 -Balloon Frame 1833- Present -Konrad Wachsmann & Walter Gropius: Packaged House/General Panel System 1941 -Paul Rudolph: Oriental Masonic Gardens 1970 -IKEA: BoKlok Homes 1996 -MUJI/NET: MUJI House 2004 -Lazor Office: Flatpak House 2004
  10. 10. Oriental Masonic Gardens Paul Rudolph, 1970 Wilmot Road, New Haven CT Area of the site : 120,000 sq. m Height of the building : 6.07 m Number of apartments : 148 Density : 0.0203% PaulRudolph-OrientalMasonicGardens Residences are grouped in fours around a utility core. In every home, a lower module contains living spaces. A second module above it houses two or three bedrooms. And a third module may be added, parallel to the lowest one, for additional bedrooms. This stacking organization creates a sheltered outdoor space for each unit. HORIZONTAL GARDEN
  11. 11. Project Description The trick is simply to build a unit with one set of walls that fold down to form floors and another set that swings up to enlarge the roof area. Rudolph’s standard unit weights 11 tons and, with everything folded up, is 12 feet wide, 60 feet long and eight feet high. Moving it is quite within the capacity of a smemi-trailer . Plugged into a service core and folded out, this standard unit produces a flat measuring in total floor area 24 feet by 60 feet. It is complete except for the addition of prefabricated walls, largely floor-to-ceiling windows, and minor finishing covering the narrow fissures along the folding lines. TECTONIC SYSTEM PaulRudolph-OrientalMasonicGardens height living space reducing the number of required corridors to one every three floors. In each house, the lower module contains the living spaces, a second module contains over 2 or 3 bedrooms, and sometimes added a modulus parallel to first to accommodate the additional bedrooms. Pinwheel Orientat WINDOW DETAILS UNIT DESIGN In each house, the lower module contains the living spaces, a second module contains over 2 or 3 bedrooms, and sometimes added a modulus parallel to first to accommodate the additional bedrooms. UNIT DESIGN height living space reducing the number of required corridors to one every three floors. In each house, the lower module contains the living spaces, a second module contains over 2 or 3 bedrooms, and sometimes added a modulus parallel to first to accommodate the additional bedrooms. Pinwheel Orientation for the WINDOW DETAILS UNIT DESIGN
  12. 12. TIMBER / 木結構 -Balloon Frame 1833- Present -Konrad Wachsmann & Walter Gropius: Packaged House/General Panel System 1941 -Paul Rudolph: Oriental Masonic Gardens 1970 -IKEA: BoKlok Homes 1996 -MUJI/NET: MUJI House 2004 -Lazor Office: Flatpak House 2004
  13. 13. 10 BOLOK smart living Bo Klok, which translates to “clever living”, is a facto- ry-built modular house design by IKEA which is currently sold in Sweden, Great Britain, Finland, Denmark, and Norway. The house is desined to be extremely affordable to allow low-income families the ability live in a clean contemporary environment similar to the lifestyle marketed through IKEA furniture. The Bo Klok comes in several different varieties which are all based on the same construction and delivery processes. Shown here is the apartment building style of Bo Klok. The success of the Bo Klok comes from their simple design, sturdy construction, social conciousness and low cost. PRE-FAB COMPONENTS ORGANIZATIONS 11 COMPONENTS RELATIONSHIP
  14. 14. TIMBER / 木結構 -Balloon Frame 1833- Present -Konrad Wachsmann & Walter Gropius: Packaged House/General Panel System 1941 -Paul Rudolph: Oriental Masonic Gardens 1970 -IKEA: BoKlok Homes 1996 -MUJI/NET: MUJI House 2004 -Lazor Office: Flatpak House 2004
  15. 15. KENGO KUMA TECTONIC SYSTEMS KAZUHIKO NAMBA WALLS AND FOUNDATION 1 1. Concrete Foundation 2. Insulation layer 3. Cement and Sand 4. Rubble 5. Timber Floor 6. Timber Column Timber Column External Louvers Insulation 3 4 5 6 2 CASE STUDY - MUJI HOUSE The Autonomous Houses by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li CASE STUDY - MUJI HOUSE Influenced by English/Scottish Hut Prefab in suburban The design is a simple rectangular volume particularly well suited to urban and semi-urban contexts in Japan. HK$ 1,505,765 for one house
  16. 16. TIMBER / 木結構 -Balloon Frame 1833- Present -Konrad Wachsmann & Walter Gropius: Packaged House/General Panel System 1941 -Paul Rudolph: Oriental Masonic Gardens 1970 -IKEA: BoKlok Homes 1996 -MUJI/NET: MUJI House 2004 -Lazor Office: Flatpak House 2004
  17. 17. 6 PLAY FLATPAK HOUSES FLEXIBLE SYSTEM BASED ON RULES AND CATALOGUES TIMBER PANEL CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM TYPICAL GROUND FLOOR TYPICAL FIRST FLOOR panel construction (timber-frame construction) Bracing by means of planking to post-and-rail construction Floors lay on top, stores-height posts Cantilevers possible in direction of beam 8’*8’ grids Finely structured arrangement normally with nail connections 1 Colum 2 beam 3 sole plate 4 header 7 MASS CUSTOMIZATION BOTH ON-SITE AND OFF-SITE FABRICATION STEP 1 - Use the stickers and worksheet provided to lay out your fl oor plan confi guration -- kitchen here, living room there, studio here, garage there (each square represents 8’x8’ of fl oor space). STEP 2 - Tell us about your site (or potential site) -- location, terrain, best views, approximate dimensions. STEP 3 - Send your information to Lazor Offi ce / FLATPAK 8’ 8’ kitchen/diningbedrooms + bathrooms living/common areas private hideaway douglas fir white corrugated metal white hardiboard cedar dark gray hardiboard madras CONCRETEWALLCLADDINGGLASS [limited availability][also in black & galvanized] light black light, light black taupe black almost gray yellow The material catalogue gives the flexibility for the both interior and façade design, which is also easy compatible with the modular plan layout With both the industrial fabricate and the handy craft, it is more flexible than the holistic off-site fabrication.
  18. 18. PRECAST CONCRETE / 預製混凝土 -Thomas Edison: Single Pour Concrete System 1919 -Le Corbusier: Unite D’Habitation 1947 -Moshe Safdie: Habitat’67 1967 -Kisho Kurokawa: Nakagin Capsule Tower 1972 -Zvi Hecker: Ramot Housing 1985 -Anderson Anderson Architecture: Orchard House 2008
  19. 19. The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li SINGLE POUR CONCRETE SYSTEM 1917 THOMAS EDISON LUSTRON HOMES (Westchester Standard) CARL STRANDLUND 1919 (after WW1) ~2250 sq. ft (6-bedroom) $1,200 concret set in 1 day less than 100 constructed 1948 (after WW2) 1,085 sq. ft (2-bedroom) / 1,209 sq. ft (3-bedroom) $8,500 - $10,500 (25% of conventional house) 360 man-hours to install 2500 constructed INFOBACKGROUND SINGLE-MATERIAL Case Studies - The Mass Production of Single-Material Houses By Crystal Yiu slum in New York Thomas Edison with model of single pour concrete house Lustron Homes - Westchester Standard 2-bedrooms American returning veterans 1946 SINGLE POUR CONCRETE SYSTEM 1917 THOMAS EDISON LUSTRON HOMES (Westchester Standard) CARL STRANDLUND fire resistantstructural stability in storm crack and leakage no way to maintain expensive (in 1910s) low maintenance cost poor thermal insulationclean durable Edison Portland Cement Co. (1899) Delaware River Valley, New Jersey, US Lustron Factroy (1947) Columbus, Ohio, US High Efficiency Suitable for Mass Production 1919 (after WW1) ~2250 sq. ft (6-bedroom) $1,200 concret set in 1 day less than 100 constructed 1948 (after WW2) 1,085 sq. ft (2-bedroom) / 1,209 sq. ft (3-bedroom) $8,500 - $10,500 (25% of conventional house) 360 man-hours to install 2500 constructed INFOBACKGROUNDMATERIAL SINGLE-MATERIAL INE Case Studies - The Mass Production of Single-Material Houses By Crystal Yiu side product of ore milling slum in New York Thomas Edison with model of single pour concrete house Lustron Homes - Westchester Standard 2-bedrooms American returning veterans 1946 $ $$$ fire resistantstructural stability in storm crack and leakage no way to maintain expensive (in 1910s) low maintenance cost poor thermalclean durable Edison Portland Cement Co. (1899) Delaware River Valley, New Jersey, US -erection manual with axonometric diagrams -easy installation -interlocking joints, good sealing mold can be used repeatedly- seamless- 1 day for concrete to set- high initial cost- havey and complex mold- machine required- Lustron Factroy (1947) Columbus, Ohio, US -8 days installation -not portable -machine required MATPRODUCTIONLINEON-SITECONSTRUCTION AILING efficient layout out of iron panels- air vent- low flexibility- side product of ore milling transported by train > 2000 iron parts 1/2 million pounds mold being transport to another site concrete housemold being use repeatedly >30 types of house in vision min $17,500 contractor invest on a mold Fig. 4 Edison’s concrete plant specially designed truck same truck transport all prefab components to site trained local construction crew drive along the production line to pick up steel components interlocking ceiling panels for easy installation and sea $ $$$ -erection manu -easy installati -interlocking jo -low flexibility -over 2000 co DETAILING efficient layout out of iron panels- air vent- low flexibility- complex formwork- detailing concerned construction only- no consideration on maintenance no expansion joint- mold being transport to another site concretemold being use repeatedly iron mold panel layout elevation iron mold panel section air vent SINGLE POUR CONCRETE SYSTEM 1917 THOMAS EDISON LUSTRON HOMES (Westchester Standard) CARL STRANDLUND fire resistantstructural stability in storm crack and leakage no way to maintain expensive (in 1910s) low maintenance cost poor thermal insulationclean durable Edison Portland Cement Co. (1899) Delaware River Valley, New Jersey, US mold can be used repeatedly- seamless- 1 day for concrete to set- high initial cost- havey and complex mold- machine required- Lustron Factroy (1947) Columbus, Ohio, US High Efficiency Suitable for Mass Production -8 days installation -not portable -machine required 1919 (after WW1) ~2250 sq. ft (6-bedroom) $1,200 concret set in 1 day less than 100 constructed 1948 (after WW2) 1,085 sq. ft (2-bedroom) / 1,209 sq. ft (3-bedroom) $8,500 - $10,500 (25% of conventional house) 360 man-hours to install 2500 constructed INFOMATERIAL SINGLE-MATERIAL PRODUCTIONLINETRUCTION side product of ore milling transported by train slum in New York Thomas Edison with model of single pour concrete house Lustron Homes - Westchester Standard 2-bedrooms American returning veterans 1946 min $17,500 contractor invest on a mold Edison’s concrete plant specially designed truck same truck transport all prefab components to site trained local construction drive along the production line to pick up steel components $ $$$
  20. 20. PRECAST CONCRETE / 預製混凝土 -Thomas Edison: Single Pour Concrete System 1919 -Le Corbusier: Unite D’Habitation 1947 -Moshe Safdie: Habitat’67 1967 -Kisho Kurokawa: Nakagin Capsule Tower 1972 -Zvi Hecker: Ramot Housing 1985 -Anderson Anderson Architecture: Orchard House 2008
  21. 21. Le Corbusier designed the units to span from each side of the building, as well as having a double height living space reducing the number of required corridors to one every three floors. At each end of the unit there is a balcony protected by a brise-soleil that allows for cross ventilation throughout the unit flowing through the narrow bedrooms into the double height space; emphasizing an open volume rather than an open plan. WINDOW DETAILS UNIT DESIGN The Horizontal Window The incorporated patio into the façade system minimizes the perception of the buildings height, as to create an abstract ribbon window that emphasizes the horizontality of such a large building. LeCorbusier-UniteD’Habitation The project was an innovative integration of a system of distributing goods and services that provide independent support to the dwelling unit, responding to the needs of its residents and ensuring operational autonomy in relation to the outside. VERTICAL GARDEN CITY
  22. 22. Le Corbusier designed the units to span from each side of the building, as well as having a double height living space reducing the number of required corridors to one every three floors. UNIT DESIGNLeCorbusier-UniteD’Habitation Free PLan Free Facade The partition walls between the apartments are load-bearing, freeing the facades, and providing strong sound-proofing between apartments - part of the building’s success in combining privacy with communal living. But between these walls, the free plan has taken on a new dimension, to become a ‘free volume’. In an ingenious use of space, two-story apartments interlock, so that an entrance corridor and elevator stop are required only at every third level. The Unité introduced the world to raw concrete - béton brut - with its texture defined by the wooden planks shaping it when it was poured. TECTONIC SYSTEM
  23. 23. PRECAST CONCRETE / 預製混凝土 -Thomas Edison: Single Pour Concrete System 1919 -Le Corbusier: Unite D’Habitation 1947 -Moshe Safdie: Habitat’67 1967 -Kisho Kurokawa: Nakagin Capsule Tower 1972 -Zvi Hecker: Ramot Housing 1985 -Anderson Anderson Architecture: Orchard House 2008
  24. 24. CASE 1: HABITAT 67 Moshe Safdie , 1964--1967 Montreal, Quebec, Canada Habitat was the major theme exibition of the 1967 Montreal World Exposition. As a demonstration, the project pioneered the design and construction of prefebricated housing . As an urban building type, habitat sought to mix residential, commercial, and institutional uses to create a more vital neighbourhood, and to provide the amenities of the single-family home in a form adaptable to high densities and constrained budgets. Typical Unit Unit System Unit Types The complex comprises 354 identical, prefabricated concrete forms arranged in various combinations, reaching up to 12 storeys in height. Together these units create 146 residences of varying sizes and configurations, each formed from one to eight linked concrete units. MODULAR SYSTEM Unit System Unit Types The complex comprises 354 identical, prefabricated concrete forms arranged in various combinations, reaching up to 12 storeys in height. Together these units create 146 residences of varying sizes and configurations, each formed from one to eight linked concrete units. MODULAR SYSTEM CONSTRCUTION PROCESS CONSTRUCTION PROCESS Steelrein- forcingrod stockpiles Housing modules waitingto behoisted Accessory precastele- mentsand roofs Firestair andele- vatorshaft precast sections Sitecon- struction Section Thefactory Cast lower-parking struc- ture in place Lift Prefinished into place Move the Modules to assembly line Assemble reinforcing steel cage Move the cage into the molds Place the inner molds Pour the concrete into the molds Strip the mold Steam cure the concrete module
  25. 25. Cubes Contained in Each Unit Concept Reversion Expension Outside Expension Inside High Density Low Cost Low Density High Cost $ $ $$ $$ $$ $ $$ $ $ $$ $ $38,000 $250,000 1967 Year2008 (Exclude $8,000 maintenance fee per year) ~ ~ Affordable Hosue Change of Density and Cost Expansion Price of Cube Luxury Apartment The inital goal for the project to be affordable housing finally failed. The de- mand for the units made them more expansive and the high cost also prevent- ed the possibility of expansion. ISSUES Puerto Rico Habitat Israel Habitat Tropaco Resort Coldspring New Town The concept of prefabricated unit for affordable housing not only showed in Habitat 67, bu t also in many later projects which Moshe Safdie had done during his career. However, most of the projects didn’t realized in the end. This shows the limitation interms of tectnical feasiblity and cost issue. OTHER PROJECTS
  26. 26. PRECAST CONCRETE / 預製混凝土 -Thomas Edison: Single Pour Concrete System 1919 -Le Corbusier: Unite D’Habitation 1947 -Moshe Safdie: Habitat’67 1967 -Kisho Kurokawa: Nakagin Capsule Tower 1972 -Zvi Hecker: Ramot Housing 1985 -Anderson Anderson Architecture: Orchard House 2008
  27. 27. Material: capsule exterior : Steel plates on steel frames with sprayed paint finish towers: structural steel frame Dimension: building area 430 sqm, capsule dimension 2.68 m x 4.18 m No. of capsules: 140 Cost: US$42,525 per capsule (2004) US$ 614 monthly rent (2004) - sold on free market, half residential, half office - the capsules have never been replaced or removed - only top capsules can be removed due to damage Nakagin Capsule Tower Kisho Kurokawa 1972 1:: to 100 1300 1050 1250 2300 2050 1650 3800 Material: capsule exterior : Steel plates on steel frames with sprayed paint finish towers: structural steel frame Dimension: building area 430 sqm, capsule dimension 2.68 m x 4.18 m No. of capsules: 140 Cost: US$42,525 per capsule (2004) US$ 614 monthly rent (2004) - sold on free market, half residential, half office - the capsules have never been replaced or removed - only top capsules can be removed due to damage Material: fibre-glass reinforced, insulated with polyurethane foam Dimension: diameter 8 m, height 4 m; lot area 50 sqm, floor area 25 sqm Weight: 2500 kg - first design as a ski lodge: quick to heat and easy to construct in rough terrain - can be dismantled and reassembled in 2 days - around 60 were produced - later be used as hotels, cafe, filling stations, tourist info centre, etc Futuro Matti Suuronen 1968 1:: to 100 8000 Construction & details Background Interior Continuation current conditions capsule house K 1972 sony tower 1976
  28. 28. PRECAST CONCRETE / 預製混凝土 -Thomas Edison: Single Pour Concrete System 1919 -Le Corbusier: Unite D’Habitation 1947 -Moshe Safdie: Habitat’67 1967 -Kisho Kurokawa: Nakagin Capsule Tower 1972 -Zvi Hecker: Ramot Housing 1985 -Anderson Anderson Architecture: Orchard House 2008
  29. 29. MORPHOLOGY + MASS PRODUCTION Site of Area: 18 Hectares No. of Dwelling: 728 Typical Apartment for 5-6: 516 Apartment for the old: 52 Apartment for young couple: 156 The Ramot Polin neighborhood is a housing project de- signed by the Polish-born Israeli architect Zvi Hecker, commissioned by the Israeli government in the euphor- ic aftermath of the Six Day War. The project, which re- sembles a beehive, is an avant-garde architectural ex- periment on morphology as well as construction. Since being constructed in the late 1970s, the structure has undergone extensive alteration by its tenants, provoking a debate regarding the capacity of expressive architec- ture to account for authentic human needs. ZVI HECKER, 1977 JERUSALUM RAMOT HOUSEING LIVING ROOM -- serve as a central distribution space, with hallway segment paths includ- ed to provide paths to either bedrooms. KITCHEN & WASHROOM -- created from the wedges that result from the star shape. TERRACE -- make up for most of the irregular spaces within the complex a; both extensions to the living spaces and pro- vide access to the building. CUBE: provides inside lattice of the subdivision into apartments DODECAHEDRON: envelops the outer surface of the building, forming the typical unit of uncovered open terraces 3 bedroom units 678 - 1140 square feet 4 bedroom units 1259-1400 square feet 5 bedroom units 1377-1453 square feet PRE-CAST DODECAHEDRON - each face of the dodecahedron was cast from a single pentago- nal slab of precast concrete - lifted into place by crane THE PART : STRUCTURAL UNITS RAMOT HOUSING
  30. 30. Each “finger” containing five or six v-shaped interlocking apart- ment buildings, which create inner courtyards and pedestrian circulation paths. The central “Palm” area contained shopping, education and community services, as well as three outer park- ing areas. METAPHOR: A leaf and a hand PEDESTRIANVEHICAL THE WHOLE : HOUSING COMMUNITY RAMOT HOUSING GOVERNMENT’S CONTROL Stage 1 : Complete prefabricated system of pre-cast concrete Stage 2 : Conventional construction; Concrete load bearing walls with stone facing TARGET GROUP: For the reason of unusable walls, narrow bal- conies and slanted pentagonal windows, the project did not at- tract the middle class population it was intended for and was instead inhabited by communities that favoured the low rent. SOCIAL CONTEXT : GOVERNMENT CONTROL RAMOT HOUSING
  31. 31. ADDITION: CREATIVE COPING OF TENANTS enlarge rooms, widen windows and add air conditioning units on the facades. RAMOT HOUSING TECHNOLOGY v.s. HUMANITY
  32. 32. PRECAST CONCRETE / 預製混凝土 -Thomas Edison: Single Pour Concrete System 1919 -Le Corbusier: Unite D’Habitation 1947 -Moshe Safdie: Habitat’67 1967 -Kisho Kurokawa: Nakagin Capsule Tower 1972 -Zvi Hecker: Ramot Housing 1985 -Anderson Anderson Architecture: Orchard House 2008
  33. 33. 12 Anderson Anderson Architecture, 2008 ORCHARD HOUSE C-shaped concrete module structure (4x4 feet) Trees Grid line (alignment) 25’ Location:Sonoma Country, CA, USA Project Area: 4,500 sq.ft. Program: Single family house (wheel-char access) Requirement: adaptability to the landscape while keeping construction costs to a minimum. 13 4‘ (~1220mm) 4‘ (~1220mm) The concrete modules are created from a usable formwork of 2x12 foot boards that could be easily moved around the site. The work is scaled to be manageable with one concrete truck and a 2-person crew. Concrete modules functioning as showering and outdoor storage. Own drawing
  34. 34. 14 IN-SITU CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION+PREFAB FORMWORK “The quality of concrete surface characterises the building as a whole within its architectural theme. It tends towards either the archaic of the abstract.” REUSEABLE FORMWORK FORMWORK Formworks are molds where concrete in its plastic form is poured so that it can be molded into the desired shape, size, position, and more importantly, its alignment, when it become solid concrete. CHOOSING THE RIGHT MATERIAL FOR FORMWORK • Timber formwork has a limited number of reuses compared to metal/FRP, but can increase by using oil or epoxy treatments. • Timber formwork is cheaper. • Timber formwork requires no special tools or much construction experience. • Timber is lighter weight to carry. • Steel/Alu formwork has a better ability to carry heavy concrete, provide longer spans. • Metal formwork is easier to strip off concrete than wood formwork. FORMWORK REUSE • The more symmetrical and repetitive the structural element layout is, the more favorable formwork reuse is. • Formwork materials should be handled carefully on site. • Used panels must be inspected before reuse. • Any excessive concrete must be removed from the formwork before reuse. • Aluminium formwork should be oiled to prevent rust. • After the above, stockpile and cover with suitable fabric, eg. Canvas. ECONOMICS OF FORMWORK REUSE • Formwork accounts to around 10% of total cost of the structure. • The initial cost of formwork will drop to 40% after 5 reuses, this depends on how easy it is to strip from concrete. http://www.brighthubengineering.com/building-construction-design/110298-reusing-form- work-for-concrete/#imgn_0 MATERIALS Concrete • Cement • Water • Fine Aggregate • Coarse Aggregate • Air Space • Admixtures Formwork • Timber • Steel/Aluminum • Glass-reinforced plas- tic (FRP) Reinfocements PROCESSES 1. Pouring 2. Compacting/Vibrating 3. Curing Mixing concrete by hand Concrete mixer Concrete mixer truck 2.68 - 4.39 professional Safe Concrete slab formwork systems scaffolding fitting.
  35. 35. STEEL / 鋼構 -Richard Neutra: Lovell Health House 1928 -Charles and Ray Eames- Case Study House N0.9 1945 -Lustron Corporation: Westchester Two-Bedroom Model House 1948 -Richard J. Dietrich: Metastadt-Bausystem 1972 -Kieran Timberlake Associates: Cellophane House 2007 -Studio Aisslinger: Loftcube 2007
  36. 36. The Lovell Health House is the first American residence in steel and is based on the skycraper technology. Dr phillip lovell, the first owner, was a flamboyant, progressive naturopath with strong convictions about physical health. He and Neutra had a shared opinion of modern dwelling, and since the building corresponded perfectly to all the demands of hygiene it was called “health house”. CASE 2: LOVELL HEALTH HOUSE Richard Neutra, 1927-1929 L.A. California, US The house reflects Neutra’s interest in industrial production. It is an early ex- ample of the use of gunite (sprayed-on concrete) and the most evident in the repetitive use of factory-made window assemblies. STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
  37. 37. Foundations and pool constr- cution on precipitous hillside Standardized steel skeloton Concrete-shooting within the swimming Metal windows are inserted into the steel The steel skeleton was erected in four days and fitted with open web truss joistsCONSTRCUTION PROCESS
  38. 38. STEEL / 鋼構 -Richard Neutra: Lovell Health House 1928 -Charles and Ray Eames- Case Study House N0.9 1945 -Lustron Corporation: Westchester Two-Bedroom Model House 1948 -Richard J. Dietrich: Metastadt-Bausystem 1972 -Kieran Timberlake Associates: Cellophane House 2007 -Studio Aisslinger: Loftcube 2007
  39. 39. CASE STUDY - CASE STUDY HOUSE NO.9 No. 8 No. 9 Charles and Ray Eames Tectonic Systems Bridge beam system Truss steel beam Exposed ISO The Autonomous Houses by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li CASE STUDY AND MATERIALS RESEARCH Wireframe structure (exposed) Wireframe structure (Conceal) Case Study House No.9 - Eames House Influenced by Piet Mondrian (1874-1944) Of the twenty-five Case Study Houses built The Eames house is considered the most successful both as an architectural statement and as a comfortable, functional living space. The brash sleekness of the design made it a favorite backdrop for fashion shoots in the 1950s and 1960s.
  40. 40. STEEL / 鋼構 -Richard Neutra: Lovell Health House 1928 -Charles and Ray Eames- Case Study House N0.9 1945 -Lustron Corporation: Westchester Two-Bedroom Model House 1948 -Richard J. Dietrich: Metastadt-Bausystem 1972 -Kieran Timberlake Associates: Cellophane House 2007 -Studio Aisslinger: Loftcube 2007
  41. 41. 917 SON LUSTRON HOMES (Westchester Standard) CARL STRANDLUND low maintenance cost poor thermal insulationclean durable 899) y, US atedly- mless- o set- cost- mold- uired- Lustron Factroy (1947) Columbus, Ohio, US High Efficiency e for Mass Production -8 days installation -not portable -machine required WW1) oom) 1,200 1 day ucted 1948 (after WW2) 1,085 sq. ft (2-bedroom) / 1,209 sq. ft (3-bedroom) $8,500 - $10,500 (25% of conventional house) 360 man-hours to install 2500 constructed INFOMATERIAL GLE-MATERIAL PRODUCTIONLINERUCTION model house Lustron Homes - Westchester Standard 2-bedrooms American returning veterans 1946 specially designed truck same truck transport all prefab components to site trained local drive along the production line to pick up steel components $ The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li 917 SON LUSTRON HOMES (Westchester Standard) CARL STRANDLUND WW1) oom) 1,200 1 day ucted 1948 (after WW2) 1,085 sq. ft (2-bedroom) / 1,209 sq. ft (3-bedroom) $8,500 - $10,500 (25% of conventional house) 360 man-hours to install 2500 constructed INFOBACKGROUND es model house Lustron Homes - Westchester Standard 2-bedrooms American returning veterans 1946 917 SON LUSTRON HOMES (Westchester Standard) CARL STRANDLUND low maintenance cost poor thermal insulationclean durable 899) Lustron Factroy (1947) High Efficiency e for Mass Production WW1) oom) 1,200 1 day ucted 1948 (after WW2) 1,085 sq. ft (2-bedroom) / 1,209 sq. ft (3-bedroom) $8,500 - $10,500 (25% of conventional house) 360 man-hours to install 2500 constructed INFOBACKGROUNDMATERIAL GLE-MATERIAL Ees model house Lustron Homes - Westchester Standard 2-bedrooms American returning veterans 1946 $ fire resistantstructural stability in storm crack and leakage no way to maintain expensive (in 1910s) low maintenance cost poor thermal insulationclean durable Edison Portland Cement Co. (1899) Delaware River Valley, New Jersey, US -erection manual with axonometric diagrams -easy installation -interlocking joints, good sealing -low flexibility -over 2000 components mold can be used repeatedly- seamless- 1 day for concrete to set- high initial cost- havey and complex mold- machine required- Lustron Factroy (1947) Columbus, Ohio, US -8 days installation -not portable -machine required MATERIPRODUCTIONLINEON-SITECONSTRUCTION DETAILING efficient layout out of iron panels- air vent- low flexibility- complex formwork- detailing concerned construction only- no consideration on maintenance no expansion joint- side product of ore milling transported by train > 2000 iron parts 1/2 million pounds mold being transport to another site concrete housemold being use repeatedly >30 types of house in vision min $17,500 contractor invest on a mold Fig. 4 Edison’s concrete plant specially designed truck same truck transport all prefab components to site trained local construction crew drive along the production line to pick up steel components interlocking ceiling panels for easy installation and sealing $ $$$ The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li -erection manual with axonometric diagrams -easy installation -interlocking joints, good sealing -low flexibility -over 2000 components DETAILING OPEN SYSTEM POSSIBLE? efficient layout out of iron panels- air vent- low flexibility- complex formwork- detailing concerned construction only- no consideration on maintenance no expansion joint- mold being transport to another site concrete housemold being use repeatedly iron mold panel layout elevation iron mold panel section air vent interlocking ceiling panels for easy installation and sealing wall-exterior installation details interior wall sections The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li 917 SON LUSTRON HOMES (Westchester Standard) CARL STRANDLUND WW1) oom) 1,200 1 day ucted 1948 (after WW2) 1,085 sq. ft (2-bedroom) / 1,209 sq. ft (3-bedroom) $8,500 - $10,500 (25% of conventional house) 360 man-hours to install 2500 constructed INFOBACKGROUND GLE-MATERIAL es model house Lustron Homes - Westchester Standard 2-bedrooms American returning veterans 1946 917 SON LUSTRON HOMES (Westchester Standard) CARL STRANDLUND low maintenance cost poor thermal insulationclean durable 899) y, US Lustron Factroy (1947) Columbus, Ohio, US High Efficiency e for Mass Production WW1) oom) 1,200 1 day ucted 1948 (after WW2) 1,085 sq. ft (2-bedroom) / 1,209 sq. ft (3-bedroom) $8,500 - $10,500 (25% of conventional house) 360 man-hours to install 2500 constructed INFOBACKGROUNDMATERIAL GLE-MATERIAL INE es model house Lustron Homes - Westchester Standard 2-bedrooms American returning veterans 1946 $
  42. 42. STEEL / 鋼構 -Richard Neutra: Lovell Health House 1928 -Charles and Ray Eames- Case Study House N0.9 1945 -Lustron Corporation: Westchester Two-Bedroom Model House 1948 -Richard J. Dietrich: Metastadt-Bausystem 1972 -Kieran Timberlake Associates: Cellophane House 2007 -Studio Aisslinger: Loftcube 2007
  43. 43. 8 The structure was a steel rigging system, made from prefabricated steel components, which made up the individual module. Dietrich’s ambitious claim was that the Metastadt would alter the role and purpose of the architect, because having once designed the metastadt (the ideal future of city living), other forms of design would become irrele- vant and outdated. Following the construction of a proto- type in Munich, a second Metastadt was built in Wulfen in 1974, containing 102 apartments, as well as shops, cafes and restaurants. However, in the 1980s the building began to falter as major stores began to move out of the arcade. The building became derelict in 1986, but 10 million DM were injected into the scheme as a final rescue effort the following year. However, following the discovery of major structural defects, the building was demolished. METASTADT BAUSYSTEM metacity building system PRE-FAB COMPONENTS ORGANIZATIONS 9 COMPONENTS RELATIONSHIP
  44. 44. STEEL / 鋼構 -Richard Neutra: Lovell Health House 1928 -Charles and Ray Eames- Case Study House N0.9 1945 -Lustron Corporation: Westchester Two-Bedroom Model House 1948 -Richard J. Dietrich: Metastadt-Bausystem 1972 -Kieran Timberlake Associates: Cellophane House 2007 -Studio Aisslinger: Loftcube 2007
  45. 45. 4 CELLOPHANE HOUSE TRUSSED BLOCK PREFABRICATED SYSTEM In cellophane house, the architect used BIM software to control the whole construction process; the detail digital model was built to justify the feasibility. RIGID SYSTEM BASED ON BIM structure system 5 MASS CUSTOMIZATIONHOLISTIC APPROACH TO OFF-SITE FABRICATION Cellophane house is not a typical modular design, on the contrary, each building component is unique and they were all prefabricate in the factory then assembled on site. The façade system can be customized in cellophane house. With the material catalogue, the clients are able to design the building surface in different price. Moreover, a recycled scenario is proposed, though personally, I do not think it works.
  46. 46. STEEL / 鋼構 -Richard Neutra: Lovell Health House 1928 -Charles and Ray Eames- Case Study House N0.9 1945 -Lustron Corporation: Westchester Two-Bedroom Model House 1948 -Richard J. Dietrich: Metastadt-Bausystem 1972 -Kieran Timberlake Associates: Cellophane House 2007 -Studio Aisslinger: Loftcube 2007
  47. 47. The LoftCube gives one the sense of living amidst nature while and the same time providing a feeling of warmth and security. The inno- vative one-room concept does without non-utilizable auxiliary ar- eas and creates fluid transitions from living space to living space, and an almost traceless transition between the interior and exterior. At initial stages, the Loftcube is specifically designed for rooftops and could be transported by helicopter. Loftcube-Monsters come out everywhere LC39 | living 6250 7295 6250 7295 1250 The next larger ideal space measures 6,25 m * 8,75 m. The designers created this as a minimal house for couples who enjoy dining with friends. LC55 | living 6250 7295 8750 9755 1250 The concept of a cube-shaped liv- ing space combines two themes perfectly:a minimal yet spacious liv- ing space that avoids non-utilizable auxiliary areas look like and how can a 360° light be realized. The LoftCube mea- suring 6,25 m * 6,25 m, which combines all important func- tions – including liv- ing, sleeping and working as well as kitchen and bath- room facilities. 8 AxonandElevationsDimensionandData 9
  48. 48. This concept was designed for a renowned art museum direc- tor to realize a LoftCube landscape made up of three Cubes. This concept was designed for an Italian designer hotel. Two superior and one exclusive ho- tel suites with the bed as the centre and a wellness area behind. This design includes an inte- grated 31,25 sqm living and sleeping area with a loewe individual TV and a 7,75 sqm wellness section with bathtub, fittings from Grohe, and Co- rian surfaces. This office was designed for an Italian real estate company in order to com- bine all necessary functions in a high- end on-site office. A cosy lounge to welcome their cli- ents, an en-suite working space with a vitra level 34 sideboard and desk and a meeting room for negotiations. To ensure that the client can be hosted professionally, a kitchenette and WC have been added. LC39 | hotel design hotel LC39 | office italian office LC39*3 | living privat creativity landscapes Other possibilities by different gangways 10 Advanced Version-Fincube A VISION OF TEMPORARY LIVING Ñnatural high-techì is the concept of this new modular, sustainable & transportable low-energy house. sustainable nomadic house long-lasting design hospitality vision technology & space 11
  49. 49. METAL SHEET / 金屬板 -Peter Dejongh and Otto Brandenberger: Quonset Hut 1940 -R. Buckminster Fuller: Wichita House 1944 -Jean Prouvé: Masion Tropicale 1949 -Cattani Architects: Cite A Docks Container Dormitory 2010
  50. 50. 4 QUONSET HUT Peter Dejongh + Otto Brandenberger, 1941 (WW2) Factory at Quonset Point Quonset huts ready to ship out by barge from Quonset Point Construction of Quonset Hut on site-firstly wooden bearers are laid on ground. Steel ribs are bolted to the bearers and wood-purlins fixed to the ribs with hook-bolts. Wooden joists are screwed to bearers. These joists support the wooden floor panels. Interal lining+eternal cladding. Completion. Corrugated metal run through rollers at the factory for use on T-Rib Quonset huts. Background: Commissioned by the US Military to design and produce a light prefab hut structural prototype to US specifications in a span of 2 months, with the purpose of housing people and protecting materials in different military bases. The first batches were built for a new Navy base at Quonset Point in Rhode Island. It was an improvement of the Nissen Hut, which was designed by the British and used as bomb shelters during the WW1. Requirements: Inexpensive light-weight portable easy to assemble with hand tools 5 Completion. Own drawing The Nissen Hut (WW1) • Can fit in the back of a 3-tonne truck. • Takes 4 hours and 6 men to build. • Can be adapted for different pro- grammes. • Can be connected to make a bigger building. • Floor Joists • Sill Plate • Curved T-Rib • Purlins • Ventilatior • Corrugated Sheet Cladding • Insulation • Masonite Lining • Floor Panel • Door panels
  51. 51. 6 1st version:T-rib Quonset 2nd version: Redesigned # of huts built during WWII: 8,200 • Improvement of former Nissen Hut’s (UK WW1)wall system Introduced interior wallboards, lapped cor- rugated metal panels mounted to wood purlins and a core layer of paper insulation. • 16’x36’ accommodates 10 enlisted men/5-7 offic- ers. • Modified arch with four-foot vertical sidewalls. • The new arch is assembled in 2 sections instead of 3. • New stran-steel profile. • 35%lighter to ship and 60% less expensive to pro- duce than T-rib quonset. # of huts built during WWII: 25,000 16’ (~4880) 32’ (~10980)/20’ (6100) • Masonite lining • Insulation • Steel Grid • Curved T-rib • Purin • Corrugated Steel sheeting Own drawing 7 16’ (~4880) 32’ (~10980)/20’ (6100) • Masonite lining • Insulation • Curved Stran-Steel Rib • Stran-Steel Purlin • Corrugated Steel sheeting 3rd version: Stran Steel Nails are driven into the groove of the steel section and clinched by friction. Eliminated the need for numous bolting methods, therefore lighter and faster to erect. • Factory at Quonset was phased out and contract was transferred Stran-Steel. • Reverted back to the full arch rib • epanded footprint through larger arch size • Floor: 1” floorboards->half inch plywood • lighter gauge galvanized siding • factory-curved panels only used on ridgeline, ena- bling the more panels to be shipped flat. • lighter and took up less shipping space. # of huts built during WWII: 120,000 20’ (6100) 48’ (~14630)/56’ (17069) Own drawing
  52. 52. ADAPTING TO THE TROPICS In tropical regions it may be desirable to omit the embankments and support the hut on blocks thereby permitting circulation of air beneath the hut, prevent- ing flooding, and reducing termite damage. -- Planning instructions for Quonset Camps. PROTECTING AGAINST THE COLD in cold climates, it may be found desirable to prevent heat loss and dampness caused by lack of a perfect fit of the floor panels. A suggested method is to place a layer of building or tarred paper over the floor panels and cover with any standard flooring material. This may be done during or after construction of the hut. -- Planning instructions for Quonset Camps. 9 A newspaper illustration utilizing Quonset huts to quantify the number of U.S. Naval troops stationed the in the Pacific, 1945. Accommodating different functions. Homoja Village, naval personal’s quarters, 1944. Pin-up girls pose across the wall of a bomber-crew, Pacific Ocean, 1943 Portability of Quonset Hut. Japanese attack on Dutch Harbor, Alaska, June 3, 1942. Quonset Hut rebuilt on site, Dutch Harbor, June 17, 1942. Climate Adaptation ADAPTING TO THE TROPICS In tropical regions it may be desirable to omit the embankments and support the hut on blocks thereby permitting circulation of air beneath the hut, prevent- ing flooding, and reducing termite damage. PROTECTING AGAINST THE COLD in cold climates, it may be found desirable to prevent heat loss and dampness caused by lack of a perfect fit of the floor panels. A suggested method is to place a layer of building or tarred paper over the floor panels and cover with any standard flooring material. This
  53. 53. 10 After the War: Student housing at Yale University, 1945 When the war ended, Quonset Huts were too good a resource to throw away. So the military sold them to civilians for about a thousand dollars each. They made servicea- ble single-family homes. Universities made them into student housing and returing veterans occupied Quonset huts by choice. 11 Today: Abandoned Quonset Hut at Alaska, 2003 Renzo Piano Building Workshop, IBA Exhibitior Pavilion, 1982-4. Quonset huts symbolized the stereotypical Alaskan lifeestyle.
  54. 54. METAL SHEET / 金屬板 -Peter Dejongh and Otto Brandenberger: Quonset Hut 1940 -R. Buckminster Fuller: Wichita House 1944 -Jean Prouvé: Masion Tropicale 1949 -Cattani Architects: Cite A Docks Container Dormitory 2010
  55. 55. ARCH5001 Autumn Semester 2013The University of Hong Kong p.6 Collective Self-Construction For The People : Agricultecture - Inherit and Revitalize the farming industry Student name: tong wing hong Intention of Tectonic system - Dymaxion Structurally it is central pole support system works with suspended cables, allowing the outer walls to be non-bearing, and the insulated duralumin and glass cladding are the enclosure of the house, therefore it enhances the erection, and transportation (3 tonnes for the whole system) Flexible plan provides the modular interior space which allows the interior to be transformed according to particular needs. Mass-produced, flat-packaged and shipped throughout the world. Environmentally, it was designed for univeral site or diaster zone, therefore the building skin intends to create a controlled environment and self-sustainable system. Entire structure was lifted up from ground to minimize the heat gain Centralized air conditioning system with rotating ven- tilator on roof provides the fresh air. Grey water and rain water collection system Wichita House R.B. Fuller, 1944, US CaseStudy ARCH5001 Autumn Semester 2013The University of Hong Kong p.7 Collective Self-Construction For The People : Agricultecture - Inherit and Revitalize the farming industry Student name: tong wing hong Sequence of Erection Others works in earlier stage 1927-31, Dymaxion House & Dy- maxion Mobile Dormitory Provoke the of living machine, and the idea of Dynamic, maximization, tension 1934, Dymaxion Car 1940, Mechanical Wing 1941, Dymaxion Depolyment Unit D.D.U.
  56. 56. METAL SHEET / 金屬板 -Peter Dejongh and Otto Brandenberger: Quonset Hut 1940 -R. Buckminster Fuller: Wichita House 1944 -Jean Prouvé: Masion Tropicale 1949 -Cattani Architects: Cite A Docks Container Dormitory 2010
  57. 57. ARCH5001 Autumn Semester 2013The University of Hong Kong p.4 Collective Self-Construction For The People : Agricultecture - Inherit and Revitalize the farming industry Student name: tong wing hong Masion TropicaleJean Prouve, 1949, Africa Intention of Tectonic system Structurally series of steel portal frame act as the primary and temporary vertical support, no scaffolding is required. Aluminum sheet and sliding aluminum wall panel with insulation are the skin of the building. It could be packed into a cargo plane for ease of trans- port, and structural member is not wider than 4m, and could be erected by 2 to 3 workers. Environmentally, it was desgined for tropical climate in Africa, Steel faming system lift up the structure from the ground and adjustable aluminum sunscreen surrounded the veranda to minimize the heat gain Blue glass portholes on the wall panel protect against UV rays Double roof structure provided natural ventilation Sequence of Erection Steel ground beam and flooring Bolt and steel plate connection with I-beam framing Primary structure for the roof (No scofolding is required) Connection between the beam and roof Main beam is erected piece by piece Installation of partition and louvers CaseStudy ARCH5001 Autumn Semester 2013The University of Hong Kong p.5 Agricultecture - Inherit and Revitalize the farming industry Student name: tong wing hong Case study - Masion TropicaleJean Prouve, 1949, Africa “All his professional life, Prouve refused to desgin for the sake of form alone. Moreover, the appearance of an object was always expected to reflect the process of its creation.” Prouve, Nil Peters, P.10 Furniture works in the earlier stageExpression of Construction Detail
  58. 58. METAL SHEET / 金屬板 -Peter Dejongh and Otto Brandenberger: Quonset Hut 1940 -R. Buckminster Fuller: Wichita House 1944 -Jean Prouvé: Masion Tropicale 1949 -Cattani Architects: Cite A Docks Container Dormitory 2010
  59. 59. Students Dormitory Made from Shipping Containers Cattani Architects Cité A Docks Intentions Common layout in single unit Location: Le Havre, France 4 Floors, 100 apartments, 24 square meters each. It’s all too common for dormitories to feel jail-like and unwelcoming with their bland, uniform spaces. Cattani made sure they created an open feeling with their design (which can be quite a challenge when you’re working with closed grey boxes as your base element). Freight containers Building containers Module frame system Module frame system 10-FT 20-FT 40-FT NEW $1,500 - $2,500 $2,000 - $5,000 $3,500 - $7,000 USED $1,000 - $2,000 $1,750 - $4,500 $2,500 - $5,500 RENTAL(per month) $75 - $110 $95 - $150 $195 - $275 Containers prices Basic Modules 4 Containers as a single-room/flexible multi-room systems Containers with climate shell and protective roofContainers as supporting stracture Non-load-bearing containers Horizontal/vertical positioning Horizontal/vertical connection(longituding side) Horizontal/vertical connection (short side) Switched placement Arrangement and Space Usage Combination Types B:Screw foundation C:Pin foundationTypical slab for a 1000sf (three 40’ containers) shipping container home design. Foundation system 5
  60. 60. To assure that every room has the same level of privacy, the first floor is raised off the ground, which consequently opens up space for students to store their bikes. Each unit is about 24 square meters and has a large glass wall which lets in a lot of natural light. And while the exterior of the building might be industrial and metallic, the inside of each room is a welcoming white with warm wooden furniture. Since shipping containers can be quite noisy (which is hardly conducive to studying) container walls that face the exterior of the building or sit between other units are insulated using concrete fire walls and rubber. Specifically development 6 daiken met architectsJMW architeckten /Tempohousing: keetwonen MMW architects: shipping container art gallery Comparison to related projects Specifical development 7
  61. 61. FIBERGLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER PLASTICS / 玻璃鋼 -Matti Suuronen: Futuro House 1968 -Wolfgang Feierbach: Kunststoffhaus 1968
  62. 62. Material: fibre-glass reinforced, insulated with polyurethane foam Dimension: diameter 8 m, height 4 m; lot area 50 sqm, floor area 25 sqm Weight: 2500 kg - first design as a ski lodge: quick to heat and easy to construct in rough terrain - can be dismantled and reassembled in 2 days - around 60 were produced - later be used as hotels, cafe, filling stations, tourist info centre, etc Futuro Matti Suuronen 1968 1:: to 100 8000 Construction & details Background Interior Continuation current conditions capsule house K 1972 sony tower 1976 venturo cf 100 venturo cf 45 1976
  63. 63. FIBERGLASS REINFORCED POLYESTER PLASTICS / 玻璃鋼 -Matti Suuronen: Futuro House 1968 -Wolfgang Feierbach: Kunststoffhaus 1968
  64. 64. Prototype development A certificate was issued by the ministry of housing in Germany to sell houses of this new material to the public. 35 houses were made and sold through the 70’s. The government decided to sponsor the development with 48,000, but the cost just for the testing was over 300,000 for the company, which was already quite small. The general floor plan followed a grid of 125cm. Roof elements could be made in 125m, 250cm, 375cm, 500cm, 625cm, 750cm, 875cm or 1000cm. This building system ws better accepted by industry, not being seen as a family house by the public, which let to the change of form and function. A lot of guardhouses where created and even adapted as part of trains. possible layouts: 20-30 houses built: 35 cost for one: about 300,000 german mark ( about 200,800 usd) possible layouts: 20-30 houses built: 35 cost for one: about 300,000 german mark ( about 200,800 usd) The material itself was explored for a long time by the architect Wolfgang Feierbach, building furniture and small scale objects. The idea of the house was to be continuos without joints, and made of fiberglass ma- terial due to its flexibility and strength. Made of 13 roof elements of 10 meters spam and 26 wall elements. All fiberglass elements can be manufactured under high quality standard in conditioned factories and even a big house can be installed in about 1 or 2 days. The elements for this whole house weighing 9.900 kg. Pros Stable load bearing panels Long spam roof Light weight Cons Health problems Requires knowledge and skills to handle the product Preparation time for each piece is long Kunststoffhaus Fiberglass Methodology/ Construction
  65. 65. Re-thinking Small House Policy & Urbanized Consciousness 對《小型屋宇政策》和城市化意識的再思考 Hong Kong’s New Territories have been completely altered by population growth, industrialization, and new town devel- opment; and the communities the Small House Policy was designed to preserve are in many cases unrecognizable. As land in the NT is put under increasing pressure by conflicting demands for development and conservation, extending suburban sprawl appears a poor use of Hong Kong’s scarce land resources. Our Studio worked with the “Small House Policy” to propose new urban ecological development strategies of blending social and environmental concerns, as well as constructing a new publics structure and empowering the community through industrialized open system of self-build construction. Our research and proposal grew out of questioning what is the role of the designer in our dynamic environment in flux? How can we design in an environment where the logics of development are unpredictable and depend on multiple actors intervening at different scales over time? To answer these questions, the students developing research and design proposal for “Small House Policy” in three scales, dwell- ing unit, community scale and urban scale. 香港新界已經完全被人口增長,工業化和新城鎮發展而改變;《小型屋宇政策》原本維護的社區也變得面目全非。現今 新界土地“發展與保育”之間的矛盾日漸激化,城郊無限擴張并非善用香港土地資源的理想方案。 此設計組的課程從香港《小型屋宇政策》出發,提出針對社會和環境問題的新城市生態發展策略,並通過工業化開放自 主營建系統建立一個新的公共結構以服務社區。我們設想:設計師在萬變的社會環境中的角色是什麼?我們如何在規劃 發展無法預料,並需要依靠眾多參與者在不同層面上干預的情況下進行設計?針對以上問題,學生為《小型屋宇政策》 在居住單元,社區和城市這三種尺度推進了調研和設計方案。
  66. 66. Tai Koo Tai Kok Tsui Lam Village Sa Po Village VALUE OF NEW TERRITORIES VILLAGES IN HONG KONG Hong Kong Urban Density Density Comparision Photography by Michael Wolf HONG KONG HOUSING DENSITY ......NT Villages provide alternative low density housing Urban Area New Territories Villages NEW TERRITORIES HOUSING BACKGROUND History and Policy Comparison between Traditional and Existing Villages 1669 Qing Dynasty foot print 700ft x3 stories= 2 height 27ft cantilever 1.2m $$ villager Qing government allowed villagers to returnto their villages in Hong Kong. Villagers built walls surrounding the village to denfend pirates. One village is one family. 1972 Small House Policy Small House Policy average living space per person in HK vs In order to gain local villagers’ support on New Town development in New Territories, government implied SHP VILLAGE RESIDENTS one family mix of villagers and outsiders traditional village existing village GATEgate of village gate of house SOCIAL SPACE Ancestral Hall 祠堂/ Alley missing local social life BUILDING MATERIAL brick and clay concrete (majority)/ brick BUILDING CONTROL restricted by building tectnology compermise between villagers by law (Small House Policy) but illegal structures are common Change in Social Structure owner sell or rent out the house, residents is a MIX of villagers and outsiders Change in Architecture division of ownership/occupancy130ft 2 total GFA 2100ft 2 Early Qing Dynasty Qing government ordered villagers in Hong Kong to move to the mainland for political reason. 15ft 30ft EXISTING NT HOUSES DIVISION EXAMPLES OF VARIATIONS INTERNAL PARTITION GRID OF TRANSFER BEAM FLEXIBILITY OF INTI-PARTITION Although one lot is granded to one person, houses are divided into serval flats driven by market Different division results in different plans 1 flat living room kitchen stair stair stair bed- room bed- room bed- room WC WC 2 flats 2 flats 3 flats GF 1F 2F bed- room bed- room An indigenous MALE villager who is 18 years old and is decended throught the male line from a resident in 1890 will be granted a land for a house. outsider UNSAFE!!! The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li NEW TERRITORIES VILLAGES BACKGROUND History and Policy
  67. 67. Autonomous Timber Housing Prototype for New Territories Villages THE VERTICAL EXPANSIONS Studio Adviser_Hsieh Ying-Chun Teaching Assistant_Jenny Chou Project By_Crystal Yiu and Ping LiCrsytal Yiu & Li Ping
  68. 68. 1.5m 1.5m 15ft 30ft GRID FOOTPRINT VARIATIONS (700sq. ft, 30 units) EXISTING NT HOUSES DIVISION EXAMPLES OF VARIATIONS INTERNAL PARTITION 5ft x 5 ft - Suitable for timer structure - 5ft as the width of smallest room e.g. toilet - 2.25 sq.m x 30 = 67.5sq. m = footprint area of a house under SHP GRID - Variations - Modifiable - Expandable *common footprint for existing NT houses Existing 2 2.25m Although one lot is granded to one person, houses are divided into serval flats driven by market Different division results in different plans - SPAN affects timber beam thickness - Different plans on each floor = change of column location TRANSFER BEAM? - Thickness of columns if the house can be expanded to 6 stories 1 flat living room kitchen kitchen stair living room bed- room bed- room WC stair 2 flats 2 flats 3 flats 15ft 30ft The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li Version 01_TIMBER PROTOTYPE-GRID 1.5M X 1.5M GRID 5ft x 5ft FOOTPRINT VARIATIONS (700SQ. FT, 30UNITS) *COMMON FOOTPRINT FOR EXISTING NT HOUSES GRID • Variations • Modifiable • Expandable • Suitable for timber structure • 5ft as the width smallest room e.g. toilet • 2.25 sq.m x 30 = 67.5sq.m • = footprint area of a house under SHP External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor Two bedroom Two bedroom Single Corridor Single Corridor with individual Balcony Single Corridor Single Corridor with individual Balcony 6 x 5 GRID 5 x 6 GRID ONE HOUSE EXTERNAL CORRIDOR SHEAR WALL ONE HOUSE TWO HOUSE ATTACHED TWO HOUSE ATTACHED TWO HOUSE ATTACHED TWO HOUSE ATTACHED Version 01_TIMBER PROTOTYPE-GRID 1.5M X 1.5M GRID External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor External Corridor Shear Wall 6x5 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies 5x6 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor 3x5 grid 5x3 grid One House Two bedroom Two House Attached Single Corridior Two House with individual Balconies and extension of corridor The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li Two bedroom Single Corridor Single Corridor with individual Balcony 3 x 5 GRID 5 x 3 GRID EXTERNAL CORRIDOR SHEAR WALL ONE HOUSE TWO HOUSE ATTACHED TWO HOUSE ATTACHED Version 01_TIMBER PROTOTYPE-GRID 1.5M X 1.5M GRID Version 04_TIMBER PROTOTYPE-STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE 1. Timber Frame 5. External Staircase 6. External fabric frame 7. Extension of timber frame 8. Finish 6 storey building 2. Timber Frame with Shear Wall 3. Shear Wall with Secondary Beam 4. Metal Decking with Concrete The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li Version 04_ TIMBER PROTOTYPE-STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE-9 STOREYS HOUSES IN SOME AREA ARE ALLOWED TO EXPEND TO 9 STOREYS, THE COLUMNS OF G/F - 2/F ARE MADE BY CONCRETE 1. Concrete column with timber beams 4. External fabric frame for 6 storey 2. Timber structure on concrete columns 5. Timber structure with bracing 3. Metal decking with concrete 6. Finish 9 storey The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li 1. Timber Structure Frame 2. Secondary beam with cantilever 3. Shear Wall 4. Metal decking with concrete 3. Non bearing wall 4. External frabic STRUCTURE STUDIES - TIMBER STRUCTURE ON EXISTING CONCRETE STRUCTURE Version 04_TIMBER PROTOTYPE-STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE ON EXISTING CONCRETE HOUSE 1. Timber Structure Frame 4. Metal decking with concrete 2. Secondary beam with cantilever 5. Non bearing wall 3. Shear Wall 6. External fabric Shear Wall G/f 1/f 2/f G/f 1/f 2/f Shear Wall Columns location EXISTING HOUSES STUDIES - VARIATION OF PLANS AND STRUCTURE Shear Wall G/f 1/f 2/f G/f Shear Wall Columns location EXISTING HOUSES STUDIES - VARIATION OF PLANS AND STRUCTURE Version 04_RIMBER PROTOTYPE-STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONCRETE HOUSE Shear Wall Shear Wall G/f 1/f 2/f Columns location STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF EXISTING CONCRETE HOUSE
  69. 69. The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li 1. Aluminium cover for timber column 2. Timber flooring, waterproofing membrane, metal decking with concrete 3. Stainless steel frame for frabic 4. Timber column 5. Shear wall (Brick work) 6. 10mm rendering, waterproofing membrance 7. Reinforced concrete foundation 1 2 3 4 5 6 WALL SECTION DETAILS 1. Aluminium cover for timber column 2. Timber flooring, waterproofing membrane, metal decking with concrete 3. Stainless steel frame for frabic 4. Timber column 5. Shear wall (Brick work) 6. 10mm rendering, waterproofing membrance 7. Reinforced concrete foundation 1 2 3 4 5 6 WALL SECTION DETAILS 1. Aluminium cover for timber column 2. Timber flooring, waterproofing membrane, metal decking with concrete 3. Stainless steel frame for frabic 4. Timber column 5. Shear wall (Brick work) 6. 10mm rendering, waterproofing membrance 7. Reinforced concrete foundation 2 4 5 6 7 1. Aluminium cover for timber column 2. Timber flooring, waterproofing membrane, metal decking with concrete 3. Stainless steel frame for frabic 4. Timber column 5. Shear wall (Brick work) 6. 10mm rendering, waterproofing membrance 7. Reinforced concrete foundation 4 5 6 7 1:30 WALL SECTION Version 04_TIMBER PROTOTYPE-JOINT R PROTOTYPE-JOINT COLUMN-COLUMN COLUMN-BEAM FLOOR SYSTEM WALL SYSTEM 1. Aluminum cover for timber column 2. Timber flooring, waterproofing membrane, metal decking with concrete 3. Stainless steel frame for fabric 4. Timber column 5. Shear wall (Brick work) 6. 10mm rendering, waterproofing membrane 7. Reinforced concrete foundation The Vertical Expa by Crystal Yiu an Version 04_TIMBER PROTOTYPE-JOINT COLUMN-COLUMN COLUMN-BEAM 1 TO 5 MOCK UP
  70. 70. SuiWanRoad Wing Ning Wai 1600s -From Yuen Long Kam Tin ‘Tang’ family 400 years ago. -Houses facing North East. -Most traditional hosues demolished and rebuilt. Boundary Wall 1744 For defence of pirates. 1970s onwards -Houses under Small House Policy -Wall-bounded housing development -CONCRETE 1980s onwards -Houses under Small House Policy -Wall-bounded housing development -STEEL/METAL SHEET Land Types Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li SITE-WING NING WAI VILLAGE DEVELOPMENT HISTORY AND EXISTING CONDITIONS Type 1 - Wall Bounded Village Indigenous Villagers - house owner - lived here since born - decendents will get Small House Grant Houses Fence Wall Habitant Division of HouseProperty Value Building Material the original village, footprints of houses varies Type 2 - Village Extension new houses under Small House Policy Type 4 - Pre-develop land currently used as car park and warehouses Type 3 - Informal Housing Settlement temporary houses NON-Indigenous Villagers sale_ $2.5 milions / 500 ft rent_ $6000 / 500 ft 2 2 sale_ NOT FOR SALE rent_ $2000 / 150 ft 2 - house owner - lived here for over 30 years - decendents will NOT get Small House Grant NON- Villagers - house tenant - lived here for over 30 years - decendents will NOT get Small House Grant NON- Villagers AND - house owner or tenant - lived here for over 30 years - decendents will NOT get Small House Grant sale_ $3 milions / 700 ft rent_ $8000 / 700 ft 2 2 1 family 1 family 1 family 2 families 1 families 3 families Type 1 - Wall Bounded Village Indigenous Villagers - house owner - lived here since born - decendents will get Small House Grant Houses Fence Wall Habitant Division of HouseProperty Value Building Material the original village, footprints of houses varies Type 2 - Village Extension new houses under Small House Policy Type 3 - Informal Housing Settlement temporary houses NON-Indigenous Villagers sale_ $2.5 milions / 500 ft rent_ $6000 / 500 ft 2 2 - house owner - lived here for over 30 years - decendents will NOT get Small House Grant NON- Villagers AND - house owner or tenant - lived here for over 30 years - decendents will NOT get Small House Grant sale_ $3 milions / 700 ft rent_ $8000 / 700 ft 2 2 1 family 1 family 1 families 3 families Type 1 - Wall Bounded Village Indigenous Villagers - house owner - lived here since born - decendents will get Small House Grant Houses Fence Wall Habitant Division of HouseProperty Value Building Material the original village, footprints of houses varies Type 2 - Village Extension new houses under Small House Policy Type 4 - Pre-develop land currently used as car park and warehouses Type 3 - Informal Housing Settlement temporary houses NON-Indigenous Villagers sale_ $2.5 milions / 500 ft rent_ $6000 / 500 ft 2 2 sale_ NOT FOR SALE rent_ $2000 / 150 ft 2 - house owner - lived here for over 30 years - decendents will NOT get Small House Grant NON- Villagers - house tenant - lived here for over 30 years - decendents will NOT get Small House Grant NON- Villagers AND - house owner or tenant - lived here for over 30 years - decendents will NOT get Small House Grant sale_ $3 milions / 700 ft rent_ $8000 / 700 ft 2 2 1 family 1 family 1 family 2 families 1 families 3 families The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li
  71. 71. 圍 BOUND WALL VILLAGE EXTERNAL SKIN PVC Fabric MembraneTranslucent Glass Wood BlindPerforated Metal Vertical Green BambooWire Mesh The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li Autonomous Skin Material Rolling Skin Sliding Skin AUTONOMOUS MATERIALS EXTERNAL SKIN SCALE 01 - VILLAGE EXISTING FABRIC Type A. houses in rows Type B. scattered houses SType C. pre-developed EXTERNAL CIRCULATION Existing house only place internal staircase for circulation which limited their capacity for subdivision of space. With a external corridor for the building, it can be occupied by the user on the same floor. It can help for the subdivision if need. CANTILEVERED CORRIDOR
  72. 72. 01 Inside Walled Village replace old brick houses by timber prototype 03 In Informal Housing Settlement replace temporary houses by timber prototype narrow plan facilitating cross-ventilation sharing of structure and circulation space 04 On Concrete Houses vertical expansion of existing concrete houses 05 Vertical Expansion vertical expansion of timber structures Development Mechanism - to avodi expelling low income tenants SHG 02 On Empty Land TIMBER COLUMNS PREPARING FOR VERTICAL EXPANSION SHG NO VERTICAL EXPANSION ALLOWED WITHIN WALLED VILLAGE FIT TO FOOTPRINT 2x 2100 sq.ft 2x 700 sq.ft bonus GFA low rent housing + Timber Columns Sit on Concrete Shear Walls Concrete Shear Wall of Existing Houses Steel Bracing (light-weight) Floor Slab and External Skin Frame GF-2F Concrete Columns with Timber Beams & Brick Shear Walls 3F-5F Timber Columns & Beams with Brick Shear Walls 6-Storey Building 6F-8F Timber Columns & Beams with Steel Bracing 9 Storey Building PROTOTYPE VARIABLES ADAPTIVITY OF PROTOTYPE 01 Inside Walled Village replace old brick houses by timber prototype 03 In Informal Housing Settlement replace temporary houses by timber prototype narrow plan facilitating cross-ventilation sharing of structure and circulation space 04 On Concrete Houses vertical expansion of existing concrete houses 05 Vertical Expansion vertical expansion of timber structures Development Mechanism - to avodi expelling low income tenants SHG 02 On Empty Land TIMBER COLUMNS PREPARING FOR VERTICAL EXPANSION SHG NO VERTICAL EXPANSION ALLOWED WITHIN WALLED VILLAGE FIT TO FOOTPRINT 2x 2100 sq.ft 2x 700 sq.ft bonus GFA low rent housing + Timber Columns Sit on Concrete Shear Walls Concrete Shear Wall of Existing Houses Steel Bracing (light-weight) Floor Slab and External Skin Frame GF-2F Concrete Columns with Timber Beams & Brick Shear Walls 3F-5F Timber Columns & Beams with Brick Shear Walls 6-Storey Building 6F-8F Timber Columns & Beams with Steel Bracing 9 Storey Building The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li
  73. 73. +20 years Bridges built on roof level or 6/f to connect two houses in order to share the lift GFA of some houses moved to the roof of another house to free up open space DEVELOPMENT OF A VILLAGE OVER TIME VILLAGE SCALE DEVELOPMENT +20 years Bridges built on roof level or 6/f to connect two houses in order to share the lift GFA of some houses moved to the roof of another house to free up open space DEVELOPMENT OF A VILLAGE OVER TIME VILLAGE SCALE DEVELOPMENT Existing village +0 year Introduction of timber prototype occupying new lots +10 years Existing houses replaced by timber prototype and occupy more new lots LOCATION OF HOUSES CAREFULLY CONTROLLED FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT +20 years Next generation gain SHG, VERTICAL EXPANSION of some houses +25 years HORIZONTAL EXPANSION to connect rooftops, forming social islands +30 years Social islands are connected to form a larger SOCAIL GROUND NETWORK that link GF, 3F, 7F Introduction of LIFT to facilitate expansion and vertical circulation Existing village +0 year Introduction of timber prototype occupying new lots +10 years Existing houses replaced by timber prototype and occupy more new lots LOCATION OF HOUSES CAREFULLY CONTROLLED FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT +20 years Next generation gain SHG, VERTICAL EXPANSION of some houses +25 years HORIZONTAL EXPANSION to connect rooftops, forming social islands +30 years Social islands are connected to form a larger SOCAIL GROUND NETWORK that link GF, 3F, 7F Introduction of LIFT to facilitate expansion and vertical circulation sting village +0 year Introduction of timber prototype occupying new lots +10 years Existing houses replaced by timber prototype and occupy more new lots LOCATION OF HOUSES CAREFULLY CONTROLLED FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT +20 years Next generation gain SHG, VERTICAL EXPANSION of some houses +25 years HORIZONTAL EXPANSION to connect rooftops, forming social islands +30 years Social islands are connected to form a larger SOCAIL GROUND NETWORK that link GF, 3F, 7F Introduction of LIFT to facilitate expansion and vertical circulation +20 years Next generation gain SHG, VERTICAL EXPANSION of some houses +25 years HORIZONTAL EXPANSION to connect rooftops, forming social islands +30 years Social islands are connected to form a larger SOCAIL GROUND NETWORK that link GF, 3F, 7F Introduction of LIFT to facilitate expansion and vertical circulation +20 years Next generation gain SHG, VERTICAL EXPANSION of some houses +25 years HORIZONTAL EXPANSION to connect rooftops, forming social islands +30 years Social islands are connected to form a larger SOCAIL GROUND NETWORK that link GF, 3F, 7F Introduction of LIFT to facilitate expansion and vertical circulation +20 years Next generation gain SHG, VERTICAL EXPANSION of some houses +25 years HORIZONTAL EXPANSION to connect rooftops, forming social islands +30 years Social islands are connected to form a larger SOCAIL GROUND NETWORK that link GF, 3F, 7F Introduction of LIFT to facilitate expansion and vertical circulation The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li
  74. 74. The Vertical Expansions by Crystal Yiu and Ping Li EXTERNAL CORRIDOR THE BUILDING EXPOSED STRUCTURE MODEL THE BUILDING 1 to 50 model
  75. 75. Multiple factors such as the hierachy of communities, structure of corridor space, courtyard of enough sunlight, continuous pathway are taken into consideration to create a better living condition for the new village. VERTICAL VILLAGE Li Kaige & Xu wei
  76. 76. City and country have different response to the common issue of growing density due to different economical operation. City tends to expand vertically while country is doing horizontally. When the horizontal expansion has been pushed to its limits, vertical expansion must become a tendency to deal with the growing population. Horizontal Expansion Vertical Expansion GROWING DENSITY Sheung Shui Wai Mostly located in New Territory; Residents from the same family; Surrounded walls against pirates in the past; Row houses arranged in a square or rectangular block, where the parallel rows of houses are separated by narrow lanes WALLED VILLAGE Kan Long Wai Fan Ling Wai Sheung Shui Wai PRIMARY ALLEY : PUBLIC RITUAL GATE SECONDARY ALLEY : SEMI-PRIVATE COMMUNICATION NEGOTIATION EXTENTION NEIGHBOURHOOD The main axis of the village layout serves as primary alley of public circulation with gate and ritual at the two ends. While the sencondary alley space is more private and has more potential to become a communal space for the villagers. ALLEY LIFE The main axis of the village layout serves as primary alley of public circulation with gate and ritual at the two ends. While the sencondary alley space is more private and has more potential to become a communal space for the villagers. ALLEY LIFE Kan Long Wai Sheung Shui Wai Mostly located in New Territory; Residents from the same family; Surrounded walls against pirates in the past; Row houses arranged in a square or rectangular block, where the parallel rows of houses are separated by narrow lanes WALLED VILLAGE Kan Long Wai Fan Ling Wai Sheung Shui Wai PRIMARY ALLEY : PUBLIC SECONDARY ALLEY : SEMI-PRIVATE COMMUNICATION PRIMARY ALLEY : PUBLIC SECONDARY ALLEY : SEMI-PRIVATE COMMUNICATION PRIMARY ALLEY PUBLIC SECONDARY ALLEY PRIVATE
  77. 77. se se ar I - 1A I - 2A I -HOUSE 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 4500 living room Concrete structure of mega-columns and mega-slabs and public staircase of every 3 floors provide platform for residents to build their own house on. Pre-fabricated toilet unit provide infrastructure to each house and bear shear force. LEVEL 3 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 1 PRIMARY STRUCTURE PUBLIC PLATFORM SECONDARY STRUCTURE L - 1A L - 2A L - 1B L - 2B I - 1A I - 2A L -HOUSE 5500 4500 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room dining room kitchen 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom dining room kitchen Precast light steel is used as materials for columns and beams which can be connected with the primary concrete structure. Modular slabs and stairs are also prefabricated. Residents can choose where to put the staircase as well as create double height space based on floor plan. PRIMARY STRUCTURE Beam - Core Connection Beam - Column - Slab Connection SUB - FLOOR SELF- BUILT HOUSE SECONDARY STRUCTURE Precast light steel is used as materials for columns and beams which can be connected with the primary concrete structure. Modular slabs and stairs are also prefabricated. Residents can choose where to put the staircase as well as create double height space based on floor plan. PRIMARY STRUCTURE Beam - Core Connection Beam - Column - Slab Connection SUB - FLOOR SELF- BUILT HOUSE SECONDARY STRUCTURE Precast light steel is used as materials for columns and beams which can be connected with the primary concrete structure. Modular slabs and stairs are also prefabricated. Residents can choose where to put the staircase as well as creat double height space based on floor plan. SECONDARY STRUCTURE Beam - Core Connection Beam - Column - Slab Connection SUB - FLOOR SELF- BUILT HOUSE L - 1A L - 2A I - 1A I - 2A L -HOUSE I -HOUSE 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom bedroom 55004500 bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room dining room kitchen Precast light steel is used as materials for columns and beams which can be connected with the primary concrete structure. Modular slabs and stairs are also prefabricated. Residents can choose where to put the staircase as well as create double height space based on floor plan. Concrete structure of mega-columns and mega-slabs and public staircase of every 3 floors provide platform for residents to build their own house on. Pre-fabricated toilet unit provide infrastructure to each house and bear shear force. LEVEL 3 LEVEL 2 LEVEL 1 PRIMARY STRUCTURE SUB - FLOOR PUBLIC PLATFORM SECONDARY STRUCTURE PROTOTYPE Concrete structure of mega-columns and mega-slabs and public staircase of every 3 floors provide platform for residents to build their own house on. Pre-fabricated toilet unit provide infrastructure to each house and bear shear force. PUBLIC PLATFORM Precast light steel is used as materials for columns and beams which can be connected with the primary concrete structure. Modular slabs and stairs are also prefabricated. Residents can choose where to put the staircase as well as create double height space based on floor plan. PRIMARY STRUCTURE Beam - Core Connection Beam - Column - Slab Connection SUB - FLOOR SECONDARY STRUCTURE Beam - Column - Slab Connection SELF- BUILT HOUSE
  78. 78. L - 1A L - 2A L - 1B L - 2B I - 1A I - 2A L -HOUSE I -HOUSE 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room dining room kitchen 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom dining room kitchen L-HOUSE Two types of houses are suggested as infill, which on the ground level is of L-shape while on the upper level is of I-shape. This can insure that each room of the house can get light and the lower corridor can also be shined instead of just hidden under the floor slab. INFILL HOUSE L - 1A L - 2A L - 1B L - 2B I - 1A I - 2A L -HOUSE 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room dining room kitchen 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom dining room kitchen Precast light steel is used as materials for columns and beams which can be connected with the primary concrete structure. Modular slabs and stairs are also prefabricated. Residents can choose where to put the staircase as well as create double height space based on floor plan. Beam - Core Connection Beam - Column - Slab Connection SECONDARY STRUCTURE L - 1A L - 2A L - 1B L - 2B I - 1A I - 2A L -HOUSE I -HOUSE 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room dining room kitchen 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom dining room kitchen I-HOUSE L - 1A L - 2A L - 1B L - 2B I - 1A I - 2A L -HOUSE I -HOUSE 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room dining room kitchen 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom dining room kitchen L - 1A L - 2A L - 1B L - 2B I - 1A I - 2A L -HOUSE I -HOUSE 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room dining room kitchen 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom dining room kitchen I - 1A I - 2A L -HOUSE I -HOUSE 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom 4500 living bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 living room dining room kitchen Two types of houses are suggested as infill, which on the ground level is of L-shape while on the upper level is of I-shape. This can insure that each room of the house can get light and the lower corridor can also be shined instead of just hidden under the floor slab. INFILL HOUSE L - 1B L - 2B 5500 4500 5500 bedroom Beam - Column - Slab Connection L - 1A L - 2A L - 1B L - 2B L -HOUSE 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 55004500 bedroom bedroom 5500 4500 5500 dining room kitchen 5500 4500 55004500 living room bedroom dining room kitchen AXIS ACCESS PUBLIC SPACE A new village is propsed on the open space just next to the old walled village as a future expansion of the old village. The main axis is extended from the old one and parellel to the street. They also share one public space as a communal space between the two villages. EXPANSION OF MA WAT VILLAGE Ma Wat Wai A new village is propsed on the open space just next to the old walled village as a future expansion of the old village. The main axis is extended from the old one and parellel to the street. They also share one public space as a communal space between the two villages. EXPANSION OF MA WAT VILLAGE AXIS ACCESS PUBLIC SPACE A new village is propsed on the open space just next to the old walled village as a future expansion of the old village. The main axis is extended from the old one and parellel to the street. They also share one public space as a communal space between the two villages. EXPANSION OF MA WAT VILLAGE Ma Wat Wai AXIS ACCESS PUBLIC SPACE Ma Wat Wai Existing Expansion of Ma Wat Wai Ma Wat River Proposed Expansion of Ma Wat Wai Ma Wat Wai
  79. 79. community1 community3 community2 community4 community5 community6 SkylightCollectives Corridor Massing Path SCALE 1:400
  80. 80. Truss.Platform.CommunityJessica Luk & Mariane Quadros De Souza
  81. 81. Living room Living room Living roomLiving room Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bathroom Bathroom Living room Living room Living roomLiving room Living room Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Living room Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bathroom Bathroom Bathroom Bathroom Living room Living room Living roomLiving room Living room Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Kitchen Living room Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bedroom Bathroom Bathroom Bathroom Bathroom Bathroom Bathroom 6 m 6 m Prototype Development House First house prototype study By testing out different layout possibilities and construction methods with this study, we were able to understand and develop a dif- ferent house typology that would allow for a greater flexibility in both house organiza- tion, and material finishes. By looking at case studies, searching for a new prototype method, we decided to use truss as the main structural mate- rial, to take advantage of its lightness and strength. The subdivision of the house in units and grid would allow us to create more flexi- bilty for the interior of the house, allowing the user more flexibility. Prototype construction method
  82. 82. Prototype Development Community Cluster of houses study One house prototype that can be rotated and combined in several different ways to provide a 3 dimensional cluster. In a cluster, each house would have its own private garden and a shared one with another house ( if they belong to the same family). A 3 dimensional circulation would con- nect the clusters to public communal/gather- ing spaces for the community. Private Semi-private A 3 dimensional circulation would connect the clusters to public communal/gathering spaces for the community.
  83. 83. 1:1500 site plan A B C 2 3 1:1000 Site plan showing various levels of activities G 1:3000 site section-A Lv 1 Lv 2 Lv 3 Porosity =40% Project House Porosity The existing village house has about 40% of porosity, while the new truss house would be able to achieve higher percentage of poros- ity. This would really depend on the user and their necessities. VILLAGE HIGH RISE DEVELOPMENT SITE -
  84. 84. House section showing the integra- tion of the truss with structure and functions of the house possibilities of different degrees of porosity and wall panel materials 1:50 connection details STAIRCASE BATHROOM KITCHEN FURNITURE The steel truss is not only the structure for the floors and platforms, but also integrates with the functions of the houses. The walls are freed from being structural elements and can be varied for different extents of porosity.
  85. 85. Collective Self-Construction For The People : Agricultecture - Inherit and Revitalize the farming industry Thomas Tong & Connie Ng

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