Presentation verb for sir will group 1Presentation Transcript
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Hints to identify verbs Only verbs make sense after personal references: I , you , he , she , it , we , they ; other words don't. Study the following examples of verbs and other parts of speech. NOTE: When you are trying to proofread your writing for clear, accurate, and correctly punctuated sentences, it is a big help to be able to spot verbs and their subjects. These quick hints will help you find the verbs and the subjects of your sentences. Verbs Other Parts of Speech I see He walks I with He book You feel It is You carefully It desk
A verb , from the Latin verbum meaning word , is a word ( part of speech ) that in syntax conveys an action ( bring , read , walk , run , learn ), or a state of being ( be , exist , stand ). In the usual description of English , the basic form, with or without the particle to , is the infinitive . In many languages , verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense , aspect , mood and voice . A verb may also agree with the person , gender , and/or number of some of its arguments, such as its subject , or object .
I washed the car yesterday.
John studies English and French
Verbs Express Mental Action too Verbs do not necessarily express physical actions. They can express mental actions too: THINK, LIKE, BELIEVE, SMELL, WANT, NEED, UNDERSTAND, DREAM, IMAGINE, KNOW Example: 1. Nissah guessed the right number. (The word “guessed” is a verb. It expresses the action to “guess” .) 2. I thought the same thing. (The word “thought” is a verb. It expresses the action to “think” .)
VERBS EXPRESS ACTIONS Verbs are doing words. A verb usually expresses an action. Examples: 1. The doctor wrote the prescription. (In this example, the word “wrote “ is a verb. It expresses action to “write”. ) 2. Rosalinda bought a ticket. (The word “bought” is a verb. It expresses the action to “buy”. ) 3. Eric cooked chicken adobo . ( The word ‘’cooked’’ is a verb. It expresses the action to ‘’cook’’.)
VERBS EXPRESS A STATE OF BEING A small, but extremely important group of verbs do not express any action at all. The most important verb in this group-arguably of all is the verb to be . This is seen in forms like: is, are, were, was, will be, etc. Examples: 1. Jocelyn is the largest elephant in this area. ( The word “is “ is a verb from the verb to be .) 2. It was me. (The word “was” is a verb from the verb to be .) 3. I am . (The word “am” is a verb from the verb to be .) 4. The flower is beautiful. ( The word “Is “ is a verb from the verb to be.)
VERB TERMINOLOGY In general, verbs are not responsible for many common errors made by native English speakers. However, there is a lot of grammatical terminology associated with verbs. Below are explanations of those used most frequently by grammarians.
INFINITIVE FORM When a verb is preceded by the word to , it is said to be in its infinitive form (i.e., most basic form.) - forget, help, learn, teach, train, choose, expert, hope, need, offer, want, would like, agree, encourage, pretend, promise, allow, can/can’t afford, decide, manage, mean, refuse. Examples: 1. I have to smoke that! ( to smoke is infinitive form of the verb) 2. I forgot to close the window. ( to close is the infinitive form of the verb) The infinitive form is always used after adjectives, for example: - disappointed, glad, happy, pleased, relieved, sad, surprised Examples: 1. I was happy to help them. 2. She will be delighted to see you.
PAST TENSE Verbs which express actions in the past are said to be in the past tense . Examples: 1. I ran to the lake. ( ran- past tense of the verb to run ) 2.They were all there. ( were- past tense of the verb to be ) 3. We visited the grocery store yesterday. ( visited -past tense of the verb to visit ) NOTE: The purpose of past tense verbs within English language is to express activity, action, state, or being in the past.
PRESENT TENSE Verbs which express present actions are said to be in the present tense. Examples: 1. Angelina jumps out the window. ( jumps- present tense of the verb to jump ) 2. Who is ill? ( is- present tense of the verb to be . )
We have now looked at all five verbs. By way of summary, let us bring them together and see how they look different verbs. For the convenience, we will illustrate only the third person singular forms (the forms which agree with I, you, we, they, he/ she/ it ) of each verb. Notice that some verbs have irregular past forms and – ed forms. Base/ Infinitive Form Present Tense Form Past Tense Form
cook he cooks he cooked he is cooking he has cooked walk he walks he walked he is walking he has walked take he takes he took he is talking he has taken bring he brings he brought he is bringing he has brought be he is he was he is being he has been
FUTURE TENSE Verbs which express actions in the future are said to be in the future tense . These are usually formed by preceding the verb with the word will. Examples: 1. I will take the blame . ( will take- future tense of the verb to take ) 2. They will surrender. ( will surrender- future tense of the verb to surrender ) WE OFTEN USE THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE TO MAKE A PREDICTION ABOUT THE FUTURE. AGAIN, THERE IS NO FIRM PLAN. WE ARE SAYING WHAT WE THINK WILL HAPPEN. HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES: 1. IT WILL RAIN TOMORROW. 2. PEOPLE WON'T GO TO JUPITER BEFORE THE 22ND CENTURY. 3. WHO DO YOU THINK WILL GET THE JOB?
SUBJECT OF A VERB The person or thing performing the action of the verb is said to the subject of the verb or the subject of the sentence. Examples: 1. Elvie stole the boat. ( Elvie - subject of the verb to steal ) 2. Elvie is guilty. ( Elvie - subject of the verb to be ) 3. who was that? ( who- subject of the verb to be (i.e.,was )
DIRECT OBJECT OF A VERB Many verbs perform an action on something. This is called the direct object of the verb. Examples: 1. Rhea kissed his hand . ( his hand- direct object of the verb to kiss ) 2.Melody will eat a whole chicken. ( a whole chicken- direct object of the verb to eat )
INTRANSITIVE VERBS Some verbs can not have a direct object. These verbs are said to be intransitive verbs. Examples: 1. The rain fell heavily. ( The rain fell , but did not perform an action on anything. In this example, the verb to fall is an intransitive verb .) 2. Edelia protested in the street. ( Edelia protested , but he did not perform an action on anything. In this example, the verb to protest is an intransitive verb .) Verb that can have a direct object (most of them) are called transitive verbs . Example: 1. Barney copied the answer. ( the answer- direct object of the transitive verb to copy.
Recognize an intransitive verb when you see one . An intransitive verb has two characteristics. First, it is an action verb , expressing a doable activity like arrive , go , lie , sneeze , sit , die , etc. Second, unlike a transitive verb , it will not have a direct object receiving the action. Here are some examples of intransitive verbs : Huffing and puffing, we arrived at the classroom door with only seven seconds to spare. Arrived = intransitive verb. James went to the campus cafe for a steaming bowl of squid eyeball stew. Went = intransitive verb. To escape the midday sun, the cats lie in the shade under our cars. Lie = intransitive verb. Around fresh ground pepper, Sheryl sneezes with violence. Sneezes = intransitive verb. In the evenings, Glenda sits on the front porch to admire her immaculate lawn. Sits = intransitive verb. Flipped on its back, the beetle that Clara soaked with insecticide dies under the refrigerator. Dies = intransitive verb
INDIRECT OBJECT OF A VERB some verbs have two object, a direct object and an indirect object . The indirect object is the person or thing for whom the action was performed. Examples: 1. Analyn read the children a story. ( a story- direct object; the children- indirect object) 2.I will bake him a cake. ( a cake- direct object; him- indirect object) 3. The postman gives Anne a letter everyday. ( a letter- direct object; Anne - indirect object)
PASSIVE SENTENCE The subject of a sentence does not always do the action of the verb. Sometimes, the action is done to the subject. Such sentences are called passive sentences ; because the subjects are being passive, i.e., not doing anything. Examples: 1. Galilee was arrested. ( Galilee is not doing anything, but he is the subject of the sentence.) note: Galilee is the subject of a verb to be. Passive verbs always comprise two parts: was arrested in the example. The person doing the action of the verb in a passive sentence is usually shown with the word by . Ex.: Galilee was arrested by Luz. Passive verbs are said to be in the passive voice. Passive sentences are quite useful: Ex.: The carpet was damaged. Passive sentence no blame.
ACTIVE SENTENCE The opposite to passive sentences. In an active sentence, the subject of the verb performs the action. Examples: 1. We damaged the carpet. (This is an active sentence. We is the subject We damaged the carpet.) 2. Noraisa read a story. (This is an active sentence. Noraisa is the subject. Noraisa read a story.)
CONJUGATION OF VERBS A verb will change its form a little depending on the subject. Examples: 1. I write / He writes ( write and writes ) 2. The camel laughs/The jackals laugh ( laughs and laugh ) When verbs change this way, it is known as conjugation . A verb conjugates according to the subject. The subject of a verb can be in one of six forms: 1. I 2. You 3. He / She/ It 4. We 5. You 6. They
The first (3)three are the singular forms ( known as first person singular, second person singular, third person singular ); Whereas, the second (3) three are the plural forms ( known as first person plural, second person plural and third person plural .) All subjects fit in one of these categories. Camel is like He (i.e., third person singular) and Jackals is like They (i.e., third person plural.)
PARTICIPLES Participles are formed from verbs. There are two types: Present participles its end ing; and Past participles. Table of some Participles Verb Present Participle Past Participle To sing Singing Sung To drive Driving Driven To go Going Gone To rise Rising Risen To watch watching watched
PARTICIPLES CAN BE USED AS ADJECTIVES. For Example: 1. Soaring prices affect the quality of the wool. ( soaring - present participle; used as an adjective) 2.I am not the first to comment that prices are falling. ( falling - present participle; used an adjective to describe prices) Note : When an adjective is placed after the word it is describing, it is called a predicate adjective. 3.He is a forgotten hero. ( forgotten - past participle; used as an adjective.) 4. They were neglected. ( neglected - past participle; used as an adjective) Note: This is a passive sentence. In this role, neglected is known as a past passive participle.