Module 6 PREPOSITION
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Module 6 PREPOSITION

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Module 6 PREPOSITION Module 6 PREPOSITION Presentation Transcript

  • PREPOSITION – is a word used to relate nouns or pronouns to other words in a sentence
    PREPOSITION – followed by a noun or pronoun called the object of a preposition
  • SINGLE WORD PREPOSITION EXAMPLES
    Aboard amid between
    About among betwix
    Above astride beyond
    Absent atop but
    Across barring by
    Afore before concerning
    After behind despite
    Against below during
    Along beneath except
    Alongside beside excluding
  • SINGLE WORD PREPOSITION EXAMPLES
    following next regarding
    for of round
    from off since
    given on than
    in onto through
    including opposite thru
    inside out throughout
    Into outside towards
    midst over under
    near past underneath
  • SINGLE WORD PREPOSITION EXAMPLES
    unlike
    until
    up
    upon
    versus
    vice
    inside
    Into
    midst
    near
  • COMPOUND WORD PREPOSITION EXAMPLES
     instead of
     left of
     near to
     next to
     on to (contracted as onto)
     out from
     out of
     outside of
     owing to
     prior to
     pursuant to
     regardless of
     right of
     subsequent to
     thanks to
     that of
     where as
    Two words
    according to
     ahead of
     apart from
     as for
     as of
     as per
     as regards
     aside from
     because of
     close to
     due to
     except for
     far from
     in to (contracted as into)
     inside of (note that inside out
  • COMPOUND WORD PREPOSITION EXAMPLES
    Three words preposition
     as far as
     as well as
     by means of
     in accordance with
     in addition to
     in case of
     in front of
     in lieu of
     in place of
     in point of
     in spite of
     on account of
     on behalf of
     on top of
     with regard to
     with respect to
  • Role of a Preposition
    Prepositions are important when constructing sentences. A preposition sits before a noun and pronoun to show the nounand pronoun’srelationship to another word in the sentence.
    Examples:
    It is a container for butter.(The preposition "for" shows the relationship between "butter" and "container".)
    The eagle soared above the clouds.(The preposition "above" shows the relationship between "clouds" and "soared".)
  • Ending a Sentence with a Preposition
    As a rule, a sentence should not end in a preposition. (However, there are several factors to consider.)
    Examples:a. That is a situation I have not thought of.  (The word "of" is a preposition. Writers should avoid ending sentences in prepositions. This is because, a preposition should sit before a noun.)
    b. She is a person I cannot cope with.  (The word "with" is a preposition.)c. It is behavior I will not put up with.  (This example ends in two prepositions: "up" and "with".)
  • Not a Serious Error
    Where possible, you should avoid ending a sentence in a preposition. However, after shuffling the words so that the preposition is not at the end, the re-structured version often sounds contrived and unnatural.
    Examples:a. That is a situation of which I have not thought.  (This version is grammatically more pure than the one above. In this example, the word "of" sits before "which").b. She is a person with whom I cannot cope.  c. It is behavior up with which I will not put.  (This example sounds extremely contrived.)
  • Reword to Avoid
    Often, the best solution is to re-word the sentence:
    Examples:a. That is a situation I have not considered.  (There are no prepositions in this sentence, and it has the same meaning.)b. It is behavior I will not tolerate. 
  • Leave the Preposition at the End
    If the sentence sounds too contrived after it has been reworded, another option is to leave the preposition at the end of the sentence.
     
    Ex.: There is only one thing in the world worse than being talked about, and that is not being talked about.  (This is an example of a sentence that should be left with the preposition at the end.)
  • Prepositions for Time, Place, and Introducing Objects
    One point in time
    On is used with days:
    • I will see you on Monday.
    • The week begins on Sunday.
    At is used with noon, night, midnight, and with the time of day:
    • My plane leaves at noon.
    • The movie starts at 6 p.m.
    In is used with other parts of the day, with months, with years, with seasons:
    • He likes to read in the afternoon.
    • The days are long in August.
    • The book was published in 1999.
    • The flowers will bloom in spring.
  • Prepositions for Time, Place, and Introducing Objects
    Extended time
    To express extended time, English uses the following prepositions: since, for, by, from—to, from-until, during,(with)in
    • She has been gone since yesterday. (She left yesterday and has not returned.)
    • I'm going to Paris for two weeks. (I will spend two weeks there.)
    • The movie showed from August to October. (Beginning in August and ending in October.)
    • The decorations were up from spring until fall. (Beginning in spring and ending in fall.
    • I watch TV during the evening. (For some period of time in the evening.)
    • We must finish the project within a year. (No longer than a year.)
  • Prepositions for Time, Place, and Introducing Objects
    Place
    To express notions of place, English uses the following prepositions: to talk about the point itself: in, to express something contained: inside, to talk about the surface: on, to talk about a general vicinity, at
    • There is a wasp in the room.
    • Put the present inside the box.
    • I left your keys on the table.
    • She was waiting at the corner.
  • Prepositions for Time, Place, and Introducing Objects
    Higher than a point
    To express notions of an object being higher than a point, English uses the following prepositions: over, above.
    • He threw the ball over the roof.
    • Hang that picture above the couch.
    Lower than a point
    To express notions of an object being lower than a point, English uses the following prepositions: under, underneath, beneath, below.
    • The rabbit burrowed under the ground.
    • The child hid underneath the blanket.
    • We relaxed in the shade beneath the branches.
    The valley is below sea-level
  • Prepositions for Time, Place, and Introducing Objects
    Close to a point
    To express notions of an object being close to a point, English uses the following prepositions: near, by, next to, between, among, opposite.
    • She lives near the school.
    • There is an ice cream shop by the store.
    • An oak tree grows next to my house
    • The house is between Elm Street and Maple Street.
    • I found my pen lying among the books.
    • The bathroom is opposite that room.
  • Prepositions for Time, Place, and Introducing Objects
    To introduce objects of verbs
    English uses the following prepositions to introduce objects of the following verbs.
    At: glance, laugh, look, rejoice, smile, stare
    • She glanced at her reflection.
    (exception with mirror: She glanced in the mirror.)
    • You didn't laugh at his joke.
    • I'm looking at the computer monitor.
    • We rejoiced at his safe rescue.
    • That pretty girl smiled at you.
  • Prepositions for Time, Place, and Introducing Objects
    Of: approve, consist, smell
    • I don't approve of his speech.
    • My contribution to the article consists of many pages.
    • He came home smelling of alcohol.
    For: call, hope, look, wait, watch, wish
    • Did someone call for a taxi?
    • He hopes for a raise in salary next year.
    • I'm looking for my keys.
    • We'll wait for her here.
    • You go buy the tickets and I'll watch for the train.
    • If you wish for an "A" in this class, you must work hard.
  • Verbs with Prepositions
    Some verbs, like 'to face up to', have unnecessary prepositions (highlighted in the examples below). For more succinct sentences, omit the prepositions.Examples:a. I cannot face up to this problem.   / I cannot face this problem.  (Both are grammatically correct, but the second version is more succinct. The prepositions "up to" do not add anything.)b. Try this new garlic dip out.   / Try this new garlic dip.
  • c. Heat the soup up.   / Heat the soup.   d. Give up the chase.   / Give the chase.   (Often, the preposition is required. These two versions have different meanings.)e. She will not stand for shoddy work.   / She will not stand shoddy work.  d. Where are you going to?   / Where are you going? 
  • Object of a Preposition
    The words after a preposition are said to be the 'object of the preposition'.Examples:a. The cat ran under the car.(The words "the car" are the object of the preposition "under".)b. Can you give this parcel to him tomorrow?(The word "him" is the object of the preposition "to".)
  • As covered in the first lesson for preposition, a preposition usually sits before a noun (i.e., a word like dog, man, house, Alan). However, a preposition can also sit before a pronoun (i.e., a word like him, her, which, it, them). This is important because the object of a preposition is always in the 'objective case', and pronouns change in this case. (In general, native English speakers have little trouble forming the objective case.)
  • Examples:a. Can you give the parcel to him?("He" changes to "him" in the objective case.)b. I went to the cinema with them.("They" changes to "them" in the objective case.)
  • Who and Whom
    The word 'whom' is the objective case of 'who', and this pairing causes some confusion. (This is covered more in the lesson Who and Whom.)Examples:a. Andy saw the scouts, at least one of whom was armed, through the mist.   ("Whom" - objective case after the preposition "of")b. Against whom did you protest if there was nobody present?   ("Whom" - objective case after the preposition "against")