Module 2 PRONOUN - class presentation 17092011 (2)Presentation Transcript
Pronouns Group 2 Cristina A Franco Florentino Medelo Jenny Sanchez Lilibeth Hynson
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 2 What is a Pronoun? A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun. You use pronouns like "he," "which," "none," and "you" to make your sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive. Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the reciprocal pronoun.
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 3 Pronoun is a word that takes place of and functions as a noun. Examples: She is a good athlete. He sends e-mail messages to a customer in Spain. Iuse the telephone frequently, but she prefers to use e-mail. You can send an e-mail message to many people at once. It is inexpensive to use e-mail for communication..
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 4 Often a pronoun takes the place of a particular noun. This noun is known as the antecedent. A pronoun “refers to”, or directs your thoughts toward, its antecedent. Examples:
Let’s call Marilyn and ask her to join the team.
(Her is a pronoun; Marilyn is its antecedent)
One of the students must give his oral report tomorrow.
If anyone doesn't like the music I'm playing, he or she can go somewhere else.
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 5 1. Personal Pronouns / Possessive Pronoun
stands in for people, places, things and ideas.
refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case. Personal pronouns can also be divided into three groups called persons. 1. First person is the person speaking. 2. Second person is the person spoken to. 3. Third person is the person or thing spoken about.
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 6 PersonSingularPlural FirstI, Me, We, Us My, Mine Our, Ours SecondYou, Your You, Your Yours Yours ThirdHe, Him, His They, Them She, Her, Hers Their, Theirs It, Its
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 7 Please note… Several contractions and possessive pronouns sound alike and may cause writing difficulties. These pronouns may be confusing: itsit’s their they’re theirs there’s your you’re
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 8 Example
I was glad to find the bus pass in the bottom of the green knapsack.
You are surely the strangest child I have ever met. He stole the neighbor’s dog and forced it to live with him. I use the telephone frequently, but she prefers to use e-mail. You can send an e-mail message to many people at once. It is inexpensive to use e-mail for communication
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 9 2. Reflexive Pronouns A reflexive pronoun ends ...self or ...selves and refers to another noun or pronoun in the sentence. The reflexive pronouns are: myselfyourself herselfhimself itselfourselvesyourselves themselves It refers back to the subject of a sentence.
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 10 Singular Plural Myself Yourselves Yourself Ourselves Itself Himself Oneself Herself
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 11 Please note… The words hisself, ourselfs, theirself, theirselves, yourselfs, or themselfs are not standard English words.
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 12 Example I learned a lot about myself at summer camp. They should divide the berries among themselves. Michael bakes all the bread himself. (In this example, the reflexive pronoun "himself" refers back to the noun "Michael".)
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 13 Diabetics give themselves insulin shots several times a day. The Dean often does the photocopying herself so that the secretaries can do more important work. After the party, I asked myself why I had faxed invitations to everyone in my office building. Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself. Although the landlord promised to paint the apartment, we ended up doing it ourselves. Example
3. Demonstrative Pronouns
Is a special kind of pronoun that has specific function which point out specific items, focusing attention on the nouns or noun phrases they replace. It stand in for a persons, places or things.
The food you’re cooking smells delicious.
-->That smells delicious.
The cockroaches currently giving birth under ICSA toilet sink are totally gross.
--> Those are totally gross.
You will either need to indicate what you’re talking about by pointing or otherwise gesturing toward it, or your listener(s) will need to be looking at it as well.
You take these bags and I'll take those.
("Those" refers to bags that are at a distance from the speaker.)
We bought this last year.
("This" refers to something that is singular, near the speaker and readily understood in the context of the conversation.)
this these that those Singular Plural “near the speaker” “at a distance from the speaker”
For determining the grammatical construction of a sentence. Providing you with useful information and telling you three different functions, if the demonstrative and the word it is referring is a subject, direct object and object of the preposition.
Examples of demonstrative pronoun functions when referring to a singular form (“this” & “that”) and plural form (“these” & “those”).
As a subject:
This has been a difficult decade for the Philippine Presidency.
That is fantastic.
This is what I am meant.
Those attempting to purchase handguns must wait seven days.
These are the best pants I have ever bought.
Those are terrible jokes.
As a direct object:
Would you deliver this?
Give me that!
Cristina initiated this.
Jenny donated those to the charity.
We should have sent these messages this morning.
Lilibeth ate those chocolates.
As a object of the preposition:
Wendell will put a new coat of paint on that if necessary.
Snoring in class is not allowed in this room.
Gina's gift is hidden under that old coffin.
Please climb over these before you continue the course.
We marched behind those sickly Camels.
Arlan and Allen, will you stop sneaking among these ladies?
if the context makes clear the noun to which the demonstrative pronoun refers. A list, for example, in close proximity to (either before or after) “these” or “those” would be clear enough.
“Raindrops on roses and whiskers on kittens, bright copper kettles and warm woolen mittens, brown paper packages tied up with strings – these are a few of my favorite things.”
Or if you could refer to a description of an object, activity or situation as “this” or “that” if you do so immediately following the description.
They make you wear rented shoes, you always smell bad when you leave, my thumb nail always breaks off, and I’m not good at it. That is why I hate bowling.
4. Indefinite Pronouns
Are words which replace nouns without specifying which noun they replace. It also refer to one or more non-specific persons, objects, or places.
Although they can seem to refer to more than one person or thing, most of it take singular pronouns.
Indefinite pronoun, like collective nouns, can be singular or plural, depending on how they are used in a sentence. Singular indefinite pronouns take a singular verb; plural indefinite pronouns take a plural verb.
Most common indefinite pronouns and guidelines:
Indefinite pronouns that end in -one and –bodyare always singular.
one, no one, everyone, anyone, someone, everybody, anybody, nobody, somebody.
Someone should fix that.
Clearly somebody murdered him. It was not suicide.
Everyone need an up-to-date e-mail address book.
Everybody has arrived.
Can anyone answer this question?
Is everyone happy with their gift?
Is everyone happy with his gift?
Most common indefinite pronouns and guidelines:
Other Indefinite pronouns that are always singular forms:
Few are deleting old e-mail messages from their inbox.
Most common indefinite pronouns and guidelines:
Some Indefinite pronouns that are Singular or Plural forms, that varies if there's an intervening modifying phrase are:
all, any, more, most, none, some
We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the comet.
Some think that the delete key permanently erases e-mail and that nobody will ever see it.
All of the people clapped their hands. (All refers to people, which is plural.)
All of the newspaper was soaked
(Here all refers to newspaper, which is singular.)
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 26 5. Interrogative Pronouns These pronouns are used in questions. Although they are classified as pronouns, it is not easy to see how they replace nouns. The following pronouns are interrogative: who what whose which whom whatever whoever whomever whichever
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 27
You will find "who," "whom," and occasionally "which" used to refer to people, and "which" and "what" used to refer to things and to animals.
"Who" acts as the subject of a verb, while "whom" acts as the object of a verb, preposition, or a verbal.
Use a question mark at the end of a direct question and a period after an indirect question.
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 28 Example Direct questions: Who told you to do that? Which wants to see the dentist first? Whom do you think we should invite? What did she say? Indirect questions: I wonder what the new e-mail policy will be. Jerri askedwhich of the Internet service providers was more reliable.
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 29 6. Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns are used to add more information to sentence. Used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are: who which whoever whichever whom that whomever whose
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 30 Who, Whom, Whose Relate to people. Require different forms for each case. That Relate to things and persons (only when a class or type of person is meant). Restrict the meaning of the sentence, making the words that follow necessary to the meaning of the sentence. Which Refers primarily to things. Introduces nonrestrictive (nonessential clauses).
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 31 Who and whoever nominative case pronouns, use to refer to persons (I, we, he, she, or they could substitute) Whom and whomever
objective case pronouns, use to refer to persons
(me, us, him, her, orthemcould substitute)
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 32 Example Dr. Rey Abad, who lectured at ICSA for more than 12 years, should have known the difference. (In this example, the relative pronoun "who" introduces the clause "who studied at ICSA for 12 years" and refers back to "Dr. Rey Abad".) The man who first saw the comet reported it as a UFO. (In this example, the relative pronoun "who" introduces the clause "who first saw the comet" and refers back to "the man".)
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 33 Example Whoever designed this laptop had my needs in mind. (She designed this laptop.) Juan will hire whomever is most qualified. (Juan will hire him.) Whose computer had problems accessing the network? Who’s responsible for monitoring Web-based e-mail accounts?
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 34 7. Absolute Possessive Pronouns These pronouns also show possession. Unlike possessive pronouns, which are adjectives to nouns, these pronouns sit by themselves. The absolute pronouns are: mine yours ours hers his theirs Absolute possessive pronouns are actually used quite often even though you may be accustomed to simply referring to them as possessive pronouns.
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 35 The tickets are as good as ours. Shall we take yours or theirs? Their money is as good as ours. Is this coat yours? Mine is the coat with the fur collar. This gift is hers. Our dog is well behaved but theirs barks all night long. Example
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 36 Conjointform Absoluteform my mine your yours his his her hers its its our ours their theirs
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 37 8. Reciprocal Pronouns Reciprocal pronouns are used for actions or feelings that are reciprocated. The two most common reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another. The term “reciprocate” means to give in return. This definition will serve you well as you learn about a type of pronoun called reciprocal pronoun. For this reason, it always refers to more than one person.
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 38 Example Melita is talking to Leilani and Leilani is talking to Melita. So we say: Melita and Leilani are talking to each other.
Actually, the two reciprocal pronouns are actually phrases, not individual words, and they are:
each other one another
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 39 Example In the sentences below there is emphasis on the fact that the people involved are equally participating in an action or feeling. Read on and you’ll see what I mean. Jingle and Allen admire each other. They like one another. Lyn and Eric waved goodbye to each other as they left the school. They talk to each other like they're babies. The students helped one another perform the group activity. The twelve angry men were all pointing fingers at one another.
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 40 Please note… You may have noticed that in our examples – one another was used when three or more people or things were involved. That’s what some grammar experts state as correct, even though we don’t commonly use the phrase. But if only two people or things are involved, all agree to use each other.
Group 2 - BSBA Saturday Class 41 In case you were wondering, reciprocal pronouns also have possessive forms. Adding the apostrophe “s” to the end of the reciprocal pronoun creates them. For example: Carla and Angie can wear each other’s clothes. (Since Carla and Angie both own clothes that the other can wear, then this is correct expression of the possessive form.)