Are describing words A word whose main role is to qualify a noun or noun phrase giving more information about the object signified. They give the reader more information about a noun and pronoun and to make your writing more interesting. ADJECTIVES
Adjectives are said to modify nouns and are necessary to make the meanings of sentences clearer or more exact. Adjectives are added to nouns to state what kind, what color, which one or how many. Adjectives Modify Noun
Follow the yellow cab.(In this example the adjective ‘yellow’ modifies the noun ‘cab’)
The principal words should be in bold.(In this example the adjective ‘principal’ modifies the noun ‘words’ and since it is not attached to a proper noun it cannot be capitalized.
They gathers all the white horses. Examples Adjectives Modify Noun
Although less common, adjective can also modify pronouns Examples It is a blue one. Only a brave few have received a recommendation. Adjectives Modify Pronouns
Personal titles are classified as adjectives when they are attached to a name. Examples 1. Personal Titles Mr. or Ms. King or Queen Uncle or Auntie Prince or Princess Sir or Dame Dean or Professor Count or Countess Pope
2. Possessive Adjectives are used to show possession, also known as possessivedeterminers that modify a noun by attributing possession. List of determiners are: my, your, his, her, its, our and their Examples She is my sister. The doctor is waiting for your laboratory results. Today is our duty to prepare their coffee. The documents are lost in his office.
3. The Articles The words a, an, and the are known as articles and are classified as adjectives too. ‘a’ and ‘an’ are called indefinite articles, as they do not indicate a specific noun ‘the’ is called the definite article, because it does point to specific noun Examples: A cup. (any cup) The cup. (specific cup) We need an office big enough. (any office) We need the office clean today. (specific office)
are words to demonstrate or indicate specific things. It shows whether the noun they refer to is singular or plural, whether it is located near to or far from the speaker or narrator. They always answer the question “Which one?” 4. Demonstrative Adjectives
If I hear that parrot again, I will call the owner.(demonstrative adjective ‘that’ refers to specific ‘parrot’) The wedding was decorated by those flowers which brighten that room. Medals will only be given to those runners who complete the marathon in less than 8 hours.(‘those’ refers to specific people) All of these blouses are expensive. Examples: DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVES
They are formed from indefinite pronouns, they do not point out specific things. They almost always are placed before the noun they refer to, it modifies a noun, pronoun or noun phrase. Most common indefinite adjectives are: 5. Indefinite Adjectives Both Many All Several other No Some Specific None Any Not Every Certain Few Another Each Both
According to a council spokesman, there are no wallabies left in Derbyshire. However, over the past few months, many walkers have reported seeing several adults with young. We can travel to any old city. The singer can choose another song that she thinks many people will like. I wanted to buy a certain cloth. Examples: INDEFINITE ADJECTIVES
Numbers are classified as adjective too, because of the information they give is how many of a noun. They can be cardinal numbers – one, 2, three, 4, five, six….so on Or can be ordinal numbers – first, second, third, fourth…so on… Examples: Four dolphins stayed with the boat until dawn. The book has 200 pages left for me to read. The ladder had twelve steps. 6. Numbers
An interrogative adjective ‘which’ or ‘what’ is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own. Interrogative adjectives stand for the thing we do not know. 7. Interrogative Adjectives
Which flowers should we used for decorating the room?(adjective ‘which’ modifies the noun ‘flowers’) What movies are you going to watch tomorrow night? Which meal do you want to order? What project are you working right now? Examples: INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES
A compound adjective is an adjective that comprises more than one word. They are group of words that are not all adjectives, but make a meaning that is just one adjective. Is made of two or more words together to show that it is one adjective. Usually, hyphens are used to link the words together. 7. Compound Adjectives
all-too-common high-end up-town low-class Sub-class tune-up Some compound adjectives are
Examples Please request a four-foot table.(adjective ‘four-foot’ is describing the ‘table’, hyphen is used to link four and foot to show that it is one) It is a 6-page document. Nena worked as a part-time keeper at the safari park. That is an all-too-common mistake. This low-budget film got a first-class review. It was a well-written report. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES
KINDS OF COMPOUND ADJECTIVES 1. Compound Adjectives from Proper Nouns Often adjectives are formed from proper nouns (the name of things) which should be written using capital letters. In these circumstances, there is no need to group the words together using hyphen.
Examples Did you manage to get a Harry Potter tickets? Student is encouraged to watch the National Geographic episodes. Let us all support Green Peace activities in the world. The company is giving away free Pepsi Cola bag. Once a year we visit Jose Rizal shrine in Luneta Park area. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES FROM PROPER NOUN
KINDS OF COMPOUND ADJECTIVES 2. Compound Adjectives WITH QUOTATION MARKS & ITALICS Although a less common practice, it is also possible to group the words in a compound adjective using quotation marks, italics or combination of two. (Italicstend to be used for foreign words)
Examples It is an ab initio course. (i.e. for beginners) The latest haute couture plays an important part in the fashion world. Steven Spielberg won his Oscar for “Schindler’s List” film. My sister was my de facto mother all these years. (by practice) They ended de jure black segregation in 1955. (by law) For more than ten years, Wilma claimed to be part of the “Mary Celeste” crew before admitting to his cousin at a party that she is not. Amber looked at the stick in the water, looked me in the eye and then turned away, giving me a “get it yourself” look. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES WITH QUOTATION MARKS & ITALICS
KINDS OF COMPOUND ADJECTIVES 3. ADVERBS & Compound Adjectives An adjective is often preceded by adverbs, it describes the adjectives. There is no need to link an adverb to an adjective using hyphen. Usually tells you when, where, how, in what manner or what extend an action is performed. Some adverbs are: But some adverbs are formed by adding -y or –ly to an adjective Very Fast Quite almost most More Far Well Never Often Always Least Less there Beautifully extremely lovely friendly Slowly gracefully skillfully kindly
Examples Jean Joy is an extremely brave girl. (the adverb ‘extremely’ modifies the adjective ‘brave’ but is not part of it; there is no need to group it together with a hyphen) It was a beautifully painted portrait in a skillfully carved frame.(the adverb ‘beautifully’ modifies the adjective ‘painted’ and ‘skillfully’ modifies ‘carved’) She is a very studious girl. The schools always print newsletters. The insurance was quite expensive plan to continue without a regular income. ADVERBS & COMPOUND ADJECTIVES
FORMING ADJECTIVES Adjectives can be formed from: NOUNS, VERB, ADJECTIVES & PROPER NOUNS
DEGREE OF ADJECTIVES Positive degree – the simplest form Comparative degree – comparing two things or person Superlative degree – comparing three or more things or person
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 1. Add –erand –estto short adjectives of one syllables (sometimes two syllables)
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 2. If the short adjective ends with consonant and y, change the y to iand add –er and est.
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 3. If the short adjective ends with e add –erand st
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 4. Put more (less) and most (least) in front of longer adjectives (with two or more syllables) to show comparison.
COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES Some adjectives are irregular adjectives and don’t follow the rules. They change form considerably from one degree to the next.
! Never use er or est at the same time you use more or more. These are incorrect. more shorter most shortest more older most oldest more uglier most ugliest more smaller most smallest
ADJECTIVE ORDER In many languages, attributive adjectives usually occur in a specific order or the order of adjectives in a series The categories are: Quantity or number Quality or opinion – observation Size and Shape – adjectives subject to objective measure Age – adjectives denoting age Color – adjectives denoting color Origin – adjective denoting source of noun (proper adjective) Material – adjective denoting what something is made of Qualifier or purpose – final limiter often regarded as part of the noun
Examples of the sequence of the Multiple adjectives in chart form:
When adjective belong to a same class, they become coordinated adjectives, we need to put a comma between them. Examples: The expensive, comfortable black English leather shoescan be found in ShoeMart.(expensive and comfortable belong to the same class ‘quality’) The beautiful, expensive red Chinese silk dress is on sale.