Attention Deficit disorder


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Attention Deficit disorder

  1. 1. What is ADD? Presented by Evelina and Janice
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>ADD or Attention Deficit Disorder is a neurological syndrome whose classic defining triad of symptoms include impulsivity, destructibility and hyperactivity or excess energy (Hallowell and Ratey, 1994, p.6) </li></ul>
  3. 3. ADD vs. ADHD <ul><li>In the past, people who had attention deficit disorders but no hyperactivity were diagnosed with ADD. However, health professionals now feel that ADD is a form of ADHD, without the hyperactivity (Capaccio G, 2008, p.11). </li></ul>
  4. 4. ADHD Subgroups: Where is ADD? (adapted from Wallace, 1996, p.74) ADHD Inattentive Very Impulsive Hyperactive Predominantly Inattentive Less Hyperactive Less Impulsive The ADD Group Inattentive Hyperactive But technically does not meet the Diagnostic & Statistic Manual For ADHD Not So Inattentive Highly Hyperactive Highly Impulsive
  5. 5. Statistics in Australia <ul><li>2-6% of children have ADD </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are more likely to have ADD or ADHD. Boys outnumber girls by 3:1. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Australian Bureau of Statistics, , Last updated 7 March 2008. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Possible Causes <ul><li>ADD is a neurological disorder, most likely caused by neurochemical imbalance in the brain. It is caused by poor neural transmission within receptive centres of the brain.(Wallace, 1996, p.74) </li></ul><ul><li>Recent research has indicated that genetic links have a great deal to do with ADD, more than any other cause. If a child has ADD, there is much greater chance (30-40%) that brothers and sisters will have ADD. (Wallace, 1996, p.75) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Symptoms & Characteristics <ul><li>Three Core Symptoms (adapted from Wallace, 1996, pp.76-79) </li></ul>1. Poorly Sustained Attention 2. Lack of Impulse Control 3. Hyperactivity
  8. 8. Symptoms & Characteristics <ul><li>Three Core Symptoms (adapted from Wallace, 1996, pp.76-79) </li></ul>1. Poorly Sustained Attention 2. Lack of Impulse Control 3. Hyperactivity <ul><li>Lose interest faster </li></ul><ul><li>Have high level of distractability </li></ul><ul><li>Actively search for stimulation in boring environment </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, they: </li></ul><ul><li>Often fail to complete tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Fail to pay close attention to detail </li></ul><ul><li>Appear not to listen or tune in </li></ul><ul><li>Fail to follow through with instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Can be forgetful and disorganised </li></ul>
  9. 9. Symptoms & Characteristics <ul><li>Three Core Symptoms (adapted from Wallace, 1996, pp.76-79) </li></ul>1. Poorly Sustained Attention 2. Lack of Impulse Control 3. Hyperactivity <ul><li>Acting without thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Blurting out answers </li></ul><ul><li>Not waiting turns </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupting talk </li></ul><ul><li>Playing recklessly </li></ul><ul><li>Talk incessantly </li></ul>
  10. 10. Symptoms & Characteristics <ul><li>Three Core Symptoms (adapted from Wallace, 1996, pp.76-79) </li></ul>1. Poorly Sustained Attention 2. Lack of Impulse Control 3. Hyperactivity <ul><li>Being on the go </li></ul><ul><li>Being overly active </li></ul><ul><li>Fidgeting, wriggling </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely being still, wandering about </li></ul><ul><li>Wanting to climb, run or crawl excessively in situations where settled behaviour is expected </li></ul>
  11. 11. Implications for Development <ul><li>The Healthy, Physically Active Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children will be overly active therefore they might not have enough rest which is also necessary in physical development. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Thinking Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children find it difficult to concentrate on their work therefore this might affect their learning of new concepts and they may have an inability to build on previous learning. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Implications for Development <ul><li>The Social Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children with ADD may find it difficult to form meaningful relationships with other children and adults because they often break social rules such as waiting for their turn and not interrupting somebody who is talking. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Feeling Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children lose interest fast so this may affect their inability to empathise with others. They may also become easily frustrated when they do not find something interesting to do every now and then. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Implications for Development <ul><li>The Communicating Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children with ADD interrupt others when speaking so this will affect their group interactions. They also appear not tuned in. This may affect their ability to receive information through hearing or seeing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Creative Child </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some children with ADD appear to be more creative and inspirational than their peers (Wallace, 1996, p.88). However, their inattentiveness and lack of focus might make it more difficult to express their creativity in various art media. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Modifications to the Service <ul><li>Provide alternative activities. Prepare for the fact that children with ADD will not stay or focus on a task. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the child safe by locking away any dangerous objects (i.e. scissors). Keep close supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide private spaces where children have their own belongings and where they can retreat to. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivate a supportive atmosphere in the centre. Encourage the children to pay attention to the child when he/she is behaving well. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the child work that is easy to complete and stage-appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a communication book or diary for parents, updated daily if possible. </li></ul>
  15. 15. What can be done at home? <ul><li>Seek help from a doctor, pediatrician and psychologist. Caregivers can refer specialists to the families. </li></ul><ul><li>The child with ADD must have his/her own private room. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide reassurance and an accepting environment for the child at home. Acknowledge the child’s efforts at focusing or behaving properly. Help him to settle and relax. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach the child to behave appropriately. Remain calm and listen to the child. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide structure for the child’s daily or weekly schedule. Attending playgroups on a regular basis may help teach the child to develop friendships with other children. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide alternative activities. Exercise, going for walks, martial arts, dancing, etc. </li></ul>
  16. 16. WATCH VIDEO <ul><li>We will now be showing you a 5-minute video about children with ADD and ADHD. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bibliography <ul><li>Australian Bureau of Statistics, < >, last accessed 23 August 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Capaccio George, 2008, Health Alert: ADD and ADHD, Marshall Cavendish Publishing Benchmark, New York, p.11. </li></ul><ul><li>Hallowell Edward M. and John J. Ratey, 1994, The International Bestseller: Attention Deficit Disorder , Fourth Estate Ltd London, p.6. </li></ul><ul><li>Train, Alan,2000, ADHD: How to Deal with Very Difficult Children , Souvenir Press (E&A, Ltd), London, pp.129-162. </li></ul><ul><li>Wallace Ian, 1996, Your and Your ADD Child: Practical Strategies for Coping With Everyday Problems , HarperCollins Publishers, Adelaide, Australia, pp.74-75. </li></ul>