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  1. 1. Urbanization The Challenges Facing American Cities
  2. 2. Americanization Movement <ul><li>Most immigrants who streamed into the US in the late 19 th Century became city dwellers </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li> -Cheap </li></ul><ul><li> -Convenient </li></ul><ul><li> -Jobs for Unskilled Labors (mills & factories) </li></ul><ul><li>The movement was designed to assimilate people from a wide range of cultures into the dominant culture </li></ul>
  3. 3. Problems With Assimilation <ul><li>Immigrants did not want to abandon their traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Cities hosted ethnic communities providing social support for new immigrants from the same countries </li></ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul><ul><li>-China Town(SF) -Japan Town(SF) </li></ul><ul><li>-Brooklyn(NY) -Queens(NY) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Migration: Country to City <ul><li>Improvements in farming technology was both good news and bad news for farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Inventions? </li></ul><ul><li>-McCormick Reaper -Steel Plow </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient farming but fewer laborers needed </li></ul><ul><li>Southern farmers lost their livelihoods to African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1890 and 1910 about 200,000 African Americans moved north and west to escape racial violence, economic hardship, and political oppression </li></ul>
  5. 5. Urban Problems <ul><li>Urban population skyrocketed, city governments faced problems of how to provide residents with needed services and safe living conditions </li></ul><ul><li>There are six main problems every urban city in American found themselves facing </li></ul><ul><li>Housing Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Water Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Crime Fire (Earthquake SF) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Housing <ul><li>Two housing options at the start of the industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Buy a House on the outskirts of town </li></ul><ul><li>Rent cramped room in one of the many boarding houses in the center of the city </li></ul><ul><li>But as the population increased, the housing options planed to house single families now housed two & three at a time </li></ul><ul><li>This housing situation is known as tenements </li></ul>
  7. 7. Transportation <ul><li>Mass transit was designed to move large numbers of people on fixed routes </li></ul><ul><li>Examples? </li></ul><ul><li>-Street Car(SF) -Electric Subway(Boston) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban areas now were linked with city neighborhoods </li></ul>
  8. 8. Water <ul><li>Cities failed to supply safe drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Cities like NY and Cleveland built public waterworks to handle the increased demand </li></ul><ul><li>Homes did not have indoor plumbing </li></ul><ul><li>Residents had to collect water in pails from faucets on the street and heat for bathing </li></ul><ul><li>Unsafe water lead to diseases like cholera and typhoid fever </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sanitation <ul><li>Horse manure piled on the streets </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage flowed through open gutters </li></ul><ul><li>Factories spewed foul smoke into the air </li></ul><ul><li>No dependable trash collection </li></ul><ul><li>People dumped their garbage into the streets </li></ul>
  10. 10. Crime <ul><li>As city population increased, pickpockets and thieves flourished </li></ul><ul><li>New York organized a full time police force in 1844 </li></ul><ul><li>No other city in America had the means to handle the crime </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fire (Earthquake SF) <ul><li>Major fires occurred in almost every large city in America largely due to the lack to reliable water </li></ul><ul><li>City buildings had been built out of wood </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings we close together </li></ul><ul><li>Candles and Kerosene heater were used for lighting and heating and posed as a fire hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Firefighters for the most part were volunteers and were not always available then they were needed </li></ul><ul><li>1853 Cincinnati established the first paid fire department </li></ul>