Ptolemy, Copernicus, and the ChurchPresentation Transcript
Ptolemy, Copernicus & the Church
In social studies, as in science, it is essential that we recognize and distinguish between what we see and how we interpret what we see.
There is a fundamental difference between describing an event and explaining its cause--in science, it's delineating the dynamics ( The branch of mechanics that is concerned with the effects of forces on the motion of a body or system of bodies, especially of forces that do not originate within the system itself ) from the kinematics ( The branch of mechanics that studies the motion of a body or a system of bodies without consideration given to its mass or the forces acting on it ). Yet, students constantly confuse the two.
Rabbit or Duck?
Young Woman or Old Women?
Chalice or Faces?
Which image has the biggest center circle?
Which line is longer?
Are the red lines straight or curved?
Following Oral Instructions
Draw a circle
Now draw a second circle, make sure they touch on only one side
Finally draw a third circle, it must intersect only one of your two circles in two locations
Share your drawing with someone around you. What does this say about oral instructions and individual interpretation?
Geocentric & Heliocentric Retrograde Motion
The theory that Earth is the center of the Universe and that other objects go around it. This theory was embraced by both Aristotle & Ptolemy.
The theory that the Sun is the center of the Universe. This theory was mathematically tested by astronomer Nicolas Copernicus.
So What is the Scientific Revolution?
When & Where?
The Scientific Revolution began in Europe during the late 1500s. It reached its peak in the 1600s.
The Scientific Revolution was the beginning of modern science. Scientist said…
We challenge all acceptable knowledge
We believe something only if it can be tested and proven by experience and observation
We conduct systematic experiments to reveal all the laws of nature
The Greeks (Aristotle) used reason to figure out scientific explication, but never ran experiments
Muslims (Avicenna) used reason to figure out scientific explanations, but never ran experiments
Renaissance humanists (Leonardo da Vinci) explored new ideas in every field, but never ran experiments
Reformation leaders (Martin Luther) discarded traditional ideas
The Age of Exploration
Christopher Columbus had a theory; if he sailed west he would reach Asia. In 1492 Columbus tested his theory. He was dead wrong. There were two “new” continents Europeans had no knowledge of. This made scientists throw “accepted ideas” out the window. From then on, they quested everything !
Galileo 1632 Italy
Vesalius 1543 Flanders
William Harvey 1628 England
Robert Boyle 1662 Ireland
Francis Bacon 1620 England
Descartes 1641 France
Scientists ran experiments using a fixed pattern, called The Scientific Method
State your theory. This can be the “accepted knowledge” that everybody believes.
Run an experiment . . . To test your theory!
Observe the experiment. Don’t rely on the human eye. Use scientific instruments (telescope, microscope, thermometer, etc.)
Record the results. Use math calculations.
Make general statements. Use math to test your logic!