Phylum ChordataSuperclass Vertebrata Class Aves (Birds)
Class AvesCharacterized by: • 10,000 living species, inhabiting ecosystems• feathers, across the globe, from• wings the Arctic to the Antarctic.• a beak with no teeth, • Birds range in size from• the laying of hard-shelled the 2 in (Bee eggs, Hummingbird) to the 9 ft• a high metabolic rate, (Ostrich).• a four-chambered heart, and• a lightweight but strong skeleton (hollow bones).
• Types of Dinosaur. – The fossil record indicates that birds emerged during the Jurassic period, around 160 million years ago. Paleontologists regard birds as the only clade of dinosaurs to have survived the Cretaceous– Paleogene extinction event.• All living species of birds have wings.• Wings are evolved forelimbs, and most bird species can fly.• Flightless birds include ratites, penguins, and a number of diverse endemic island species.• Birds also have unique digestive and respiratory systems that are highly adapted for flight.• Bird species manufacture and use tools, and many social species exhibit cultural transmission of knowledge across generations.
Respiratory SystemDue to their high metabolic rate required for flight, birds have ahigh oxygen demand.
Digestive System – Crop - stores and softens food after it is swallowed stomach covers food in chemical to begin breaking it down – Stomach (proventriculus) – Gizzard - contains many small stones bird has swallowed act like teeth to grind food up – Cloaca – combination of the digestive and urinary systems
Eggs • Eggs are usually laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching
Social Behaviors• Long distance annual migrations (some) or perform shorter irregular movements (others).• Birds are social; they communicate using visual signals and through calls and songs, – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VjE0Kdfos4Y• They participate in social behaviors, including – cooperative breeding, – hunting, – flocking, – mobbing of predators.
Blue footed boobieAjax Bay GentooPenguins (pebble) Socially monogamous, one breeding season at a time or sometimes for years, but rarely for life. Other species have polygynous ("many females") or, rarely, polyandrous ("many males")
Key to the Map(from Artic Refuge in the summer) – 1) Northern Wheatear to Africa – 2) Bluethroat to southern Asia – 3) Eastern Yellow Wagtail to Indonesia – 4) Dunlin to Japan – 5) Wandering Tattler to Polynesia – 6) Bar-tailed Godwit to New Zealand – 7) Arctic Tern to Antarctica – 8) Sandhill Crane to western United States – 9) Brant to western Mexico – 10) Smiths Longspur to central United States – 11) American Golden Plover to southern South America – 12) Tundra Swan to Chesapeake Bay in eastern North America – 13) Semipalmated Sandpiper to northeastern South America
Examples• BBC Life Episode 05 Birds http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Dbtc7ffZaI• NATURE Hummingbirds: Magic in the air• http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/hum
Homework due Friday 3/9• Watch the following:• The Life of Birds: Fishing for a Living http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JHPcQc_K8• Assignment: – Describe three of your favorite examples tomorrow and why they were interesting to you. Bring to class tomorrow, I will collect it.