Rc401 construction jennings intro
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Rc401 construction jennings intro

on

  • 579 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
579
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
579
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Rc401 construction jennings intro Rc401 construction jennings intro Presentation Transcript

    • Stream Restoration Project Implementation
      Greg Jennings, PhD, PE
      Professor & Extension Specialist
      Biological & Agricultural Engineering
      North Carolina State University
      jenningsenv@gmail.com
    • What is a Stream?
      Body of water with a current, confined within a bed and streambanks
      Synonyms:  brook, beck, burn, creek, crick, kill, lick, rill, river, syke, bayou, rivulet, run
      Streams are conduits in the water cycle and also important habitats
      Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University
    • A Stream is a System:
      • Channel (bed & banks)
      • Floodplain
      • Water
      • Sediment
      • Plants & animals
      Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University
    • Stream Functions
      Transport water
      Transport sediment
      Habitat (aquatic & terrestrial)
      Recreation & aesthetics
      Safe Water Supply
    • What Makes a Stream Healthy?
      • Bed stability & diversity
      • Sediment transport balance
      • In-stream habitat & flow diversity
      • Bank stability (native plant roots)
      • Riparian buffer (streamside forest)
      • Active floodplain
    • Bed Stability & Diversity
      • Appropriate size sediments to resist shear stress
      • Riffle/Pool sequences in alluvial streams
      • Step/Pool sequences in high-gradient streams
      Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University
    • Sediment Transport Balance
      • Minor erosion & deposition
      • Alluvial bars and benches
      • Sufficient stream power to avoid aggradation
    • In-stream Habitat & Flow Diversity
      Overhanging Bank
      Roots
      Wood
      Pool
      Leaf Pack
      Plants
      Riffle
      Rocks
    • Bank Stability
      • Dense native plant roots
      • Low banks with low stress
    • Riparian Buffer (Streamside Forest)
      • Diverse native plants
      • Food and shade
    • Active Floodplain
      • Regular (every year) flooding to relieve stress
      • Riparian wetlands
      • Stormwater retention & treatment
    • Why Restoration?
      • Water quality impairments
      • Habitat loss
      • Ecosystem degradation
      • Land loss
      • Safety concerns
      • Infrastructure damage
      • Flooding
      • Aesthetics
    • Why are Streams NOT Healthy?
      • Straightening
      • Dredging
      • Floodplain filling
      • Sedimentation
      • Stormwater
      • Utilities
      • Culverts & bridges
      • Buffer removal
      • Disdain & neglect
    • Ecosystem Restoration
      “activities that initiate or accelerate the recovery of ecosystem health, integrity, and sustainability” (SER, 2004)
    • Standards for ecologically successful river restoration
      Palmer et al., Journal of Applied Ecology, 2005, 42, 208–217
      design of an ecological river restoration project should be based on a specified guiding image of a more dynamic, healthy river that could exist at the site
      river’s ecological condition must be measurably improved
      river system must be more self-sustaining and resilient to external perturbations so that only minimal follow-up maintenance is needed
      during the construction phase, no lasting harm should be inflicted on the ecosystem
      both pre- and post-assessment must be completed and data made publicly available
    • Outcomes of Ecosystem Restoration
      • Habitats
      • Water quality
      • Natural flow regimes
      • Recreation & aesthetics
    • High-quality “reference” streams serve as design templates
    • Natural Stream Channel Stability
      (from Leopold)
      River has a stable dimension, pattern and profile
      Maintains channel features (riffles, pools, steps)
      Does not aggrade (fills) or degrade (erodes)
    • Restoration Components
      Channel morphology & floodplain connection
      In-stream structures
      Streambankstabilization
      Riparian buffers
      Stream crossings
      Stormwater/watershed management
      Monitoring & maintenance
      Public access & education
    • 1. Channel Morphology & Floodplain Connection
      • Dimension (bankfull & flood flow)
      • Pattern (meander)
      • Profile (bed profile)
      • Floodplain connection
      2005NCSU Rocky Branch2006
    • 2008NCSU Rocky Branch
    • Bankfull Stage: Water fills the active channel and begins to spread onto the floodplain
      Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
    • Priority 1
      Priority 2
    • Priority 1:Raise channel to existing valley and construct new meandering channel
      Rain will come during and immediately following construction!
      2006 Town Creek Tributary 2007
    • 2008 Town Creek Tributary
    • Priority 1:Raise channel to existing valley and construct new meandering channel
      2008Purlear Creek 2009
    • 2009Purlear Creek
    • Priority 1:Raise channel to existing valley and construct new meandering channel
      2005 South Fork Mitchell River 2006
      Photo Credits: Darrell Westmoreland, North State Environmental, Inc.
    • 2008 South Fork Mitchell River
    • Priority 2:Excavate lower floodplain and construct new meandering channel
      2007 Cary Walnut Creek Tributary 2008
      Photo Credit: David Bidelspach, Stantec, Inc.
    • 2008 Cary Walnut Creek Tributary
    • Priority 2:Excavate lower floodplain and construct new meandering channel
      2004 NCSU Rocky Branch 2005
    • 2006
      NCSU Rocky Branch
      2006
    • 2008 NCSU Rocky Branch
    • Priority 2:Excavate lower floodplain and construct new meandering channel
      2008Trib to Saugatchee Creek 2008
    • Entrenchment Ratio = Wfpa / Wbkf = 75/15 = 5
      Wfpa
      Wbkf
    • Priority 3. Excavate floodplain benches and add structures to maintain straight channel
      2000 NCSU Rocky Branch 2001
    • NCSU
      Rocky Branch
      2008
    • Priority 3:Excavate narrow floodplain benches in confined systems
      2009Little Shades Creek 2010
    • Entrenchment Ratio = Wfpa / Wbkf = 60/38 = 1.6
      Wfpa
      Wbkf
    • 2. In-Stream Structures (Logs & Rocks)
      • Streambankprotection
      • Habitat enhancement (pools, aeration, cover)
      • Grade control
      • Sediment transport
    • Boulder Vane (single-arm)
    • Runaway Truck Ramp
    • J-Hook Boulder Vane
    • J-Hook
      Boulder Vane
    • J-Hook Boulder Vane
    • J-Hook Boulder Vane
    • J-Hook
      Log Vane
    • J-Hook Log Vane
    • J-Hook Log Vane
    • Double Drop J-Hook Log Vane
    • Multiple Log Vanes
      Saugahatchee Creek
      2007
      2008
    • Multiple Log Vanes
      Saugahatchee Creek
      2009 January
      2009 July
      Photo Credit: Dan Ballard, Town of Auburn
    • Boulder Cross Vane
    • Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane
      Photo Credit: Darrell Westmoreland, North State Environmental, Inc.
    • Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane
      Photo Credit: Darrell Westmoreland, North State Environmental, Inc.
    • Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane
    • Double-Drop Offset Boulder Cross Vane
    • Double-Drop Offset Boulder Cross Vane
      Photo Credit: CAWACO RC&D
    • Offset Boulder Cross Vane at a Bridge
    • Boulder W-Vane
    • Boulder Double Wing Deflector
    • Boulder Double Wing Deflector
    • Boulder Single Wing Deflector
    • Constructed Riffle
    • Z - Vane
    • Constructed Step-Pool
    • Constructed Step-Pool
    • Constructed Step-Pool + Cross Vane
    • Habitat Enhancements
      • Food sources
      • Cover
      • Scour pools
      • Flow diversity
    • Pool Maintenance
    • Successful Structures
      • Properly designed and located
      • Low profile
      • Constructed to withstand stress
      • Excellent vegetation
    • 3. Streambank Stabilization
      • Temporary matting
      • Root wads
      • Bioengineering (living brush mattress)
      • Armoring
    • Temporary Matting
      • Biodegradable (coir, jute, excelsior)
      • Seed and straw UNDER mat
      • Keep matting relaxed
      • Key in at top
      • Stakes: wood or biodegradable plastic
    • Root Wads
      10-15 ft tree trunk attached
    • Streambank Bioengineering:
      Integrating living woody and herbaceous materials to increase strength and structure of the soil (i.e. increase critical shear stress)
      2007 NCSU Rocky Branch 2008
    • Brush Mattress
      live cuttings of silky willow in dormant season
      2007 October
      2009 August
    • Newland Kentucky Creek
      bioengineering with black willow cuttings
    • 4. Riparian Buffer (Streamside Forest)
      • Temporary ground covers
      • Permanent grasses
      • Wetland plants
      • Shrubs and trees
    • Grasses: temporary & permanent ground covers (wheat, rye, millet, switchgrass)
      Wetland plants: transplants, containers, seed (rushes, sedges, flowering plants)
    • Live Stakes(willows, dogwoods, elderberry, birch, ninebark, etc)
    • Transplants, Bare roots, & Containers
    • 5. Stormwater Management
      • Energy dissipation
      • Floodplain retention
      • Channel protection
      • Water quality treatment
    • Floodplain stormwater retention and treatment
    • 6. Stream Crossings
      • Aquatic organism passage
      • Minimize geomorphic impacts
      • Pass flood flows
    • 7. Monitoring & Maintenance
      • Projects are most vulnerable early
      • Natural adjustments to hydrologic & habitat conditions
    • 8. Public Access & Education
      • Greenways & paths
      • Signs
      • Tours
    • Why do Projects Fail?
      Faulty design
      Faulty construction
      Poor vegetation
      Constraints in valley
      Watershed conditions