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Stream Restoration Project Implementation<br />Greg Jennings, PhD, PE<br />Professor & Extension Specialist<br />Biologica...
What is a Stream?<br />Body of water with a current, confined within a bed and streambanks<br />Synonyms:  brook, beck, bu...
A Stream is a System:<br /><ul><li>Channel (bed & banks)
Floodplain
Water
Sediment
Plants & animals</li></ul>Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University<br />
Stream Functions<br />Transport water<br />Transport sediment<br />Habitat (aquatic & terrestrial)<br />Recreation & aesth...
What Makes a Stream Healthy?<br /><ul><li>Bed stability & diversity
Sediment transport balance
In-stream habitat & flow diversity
Bank stability (native plant roots)
Riparian buffer (streamside forest)
Active floodplain</li></li></ul><li>Bed Stability & Diversity<br /><ul><li>Appropriate size sediments to resist shear stress
Riffle/Pool sequences in alluvial streams
Step/Pool sequences in high-gradient streams</li></ul>Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University<br />
Sediment Transport Balance<br /><ul><li>Minor erosion & deposition
Alluvial bars and benches
Sufficient stream power to avoid aggradation</li></li></ul><li>In-stream Habitat & Flow Diversity<br />Overhanging Bank<br...
Bank Stability<br /><ul><li>Dense native plant roots
Low banks with low stress</li></li></ul><li>Riparian Buffer (Streamside Forest)<br /><ul><li>Diverse native plants
Food and shade</li></li></ul><li>Active Floodplain<br /><ul><li>Regular (every year) flooding to relieve stress
Riparian wetlands
Stormwater retention & treatment</li></li></ul><li>Why Restoration?<br /><ul><li>Water quality impairments
Habitat loss
Ecosystem degradation
Land loss
Safety concerns
Infrastructure damage
Flooding
Aesthetics</li></li></ul><li>Why are Streams NOT Healthy?<br /><ul><li>Straightening
Dredging
Floodplain filling
Sedimentation
Stormwater
Utilities
Culverts & bridges
Buffer removal
Disdain & neglect</li></li></ul><li>Ecosystem Restoration<br />“activities that initiate or accelerate the recovery of eco...
Standards for ecologically successful river restoration<br />Palmer et al., Journal of Applied Ecology, 2005, 42, 208–217<...
Outcomes of Ecosystem Restoration<br /><ul><li>Habitats
Water quality
Natural flow regimes
Recreation & aesthetics</li></li></ul><li>High-quality “reference” streams serve as design templates<br />
Natural Stream Channel Stability<br />(from Leopold)<br />River has a stable dimension, pattern and profile<br />Maintains...
Restoration Components<br />Channel morphology & floodplain connection<br />In-stream structures<br />Streambankstabilizat...
1. Channel Morphology & Floodplain Connection<br /><ul><li>Dimension (bankfull & flood flow)
Pattern (meander)
Profile (bed profile)
Floodplain connection</li></ul>2005NCSU Rocky Branch2006<br />
2008NCSU Rocky Branch<br />
Bankfull Stage:  Water fills the active channel and begins to spread onto the floodplain<br />Stream Corridor Restoration:...
Priority 1<br />Priority 2<br />
Priority 1:Raise channel to existing valley and construct new meandering channel<br />Rain will come during and immediatel...
2008		          Town Creek Tributary<br />
Priority 1:Raise channel to existing valley and construct new meandering channel<br />2008Purlear Creek 	        2009<br />
2009Purlear Creek<br />
Priority 1:Raise channel to existing valley and construct new meandering channel<br />2005   South Fork Mitchell River    ...
2008   South Fork Mitchell River<br />
Priority 2:Excavate lower floodplain and construct new meandering channel<br />2007		   Cary Walnut Creek Tributary  	    ...
2008		   Cary Walnut Creek Tributary<br />
Priority 2:Excavate lower floodplain and construct new meandering channel<br />2004		          NCSU Rocky Branch  	       ...
2006<br />		          NCSU Rocky Branch<br />2006<br />
2008		          NCSU Rocky Branch<br />
Priority 2:Excavate lower floodplain and construct new meandering channel<br />2008Trib to Saugatchee Creek              2...
Entrenchment Ratio = Wfpa / Wbkf = 75/15 = 5 <br />Wfpa<br />Wbkf<br />
Priority 3. Excavate floodplain benches and add structures to maintain straight channel<br />2000		          NCSU Rocky Br...
NCSU <br />Rocky Branch<br />2008<br />
Priority 3:Excavate narrow floodplain benches in confined systems<br />2009Little Shades Creek              	      2010<br />
Entrenchment Ratio = Wfpa / Wbkf = 60/38 = 1.6 <br />Wfpa<br />Wbkf<br />
2. In-Stream Structures (Logs & Rocks)<br /><ul><li>Streambankprotection
Habitat enhancement (pools, aeration, cover)
Grade control
Sediment transport</li></li></ul><li>Boulder Vane (single-arm)<br />
Runaway Truck Ramp<br />
J-Hook Boulder Vane<br />
J-Hook<br />Boulder Vane<br />
J-Hook Boulder Vane<br />
J-Hook Boulder Vane<br />
J-Hook<br />Log Vane<br />
J-Hook Log Vane<br />
J-Hook Log Vane<br />
Double Drop J-Hook Log Vane<br />
Multiple Log Vanes<br />Saugahatchee Creek<br />2007<br />2008<br />
Multiple Log Vanes<br />Saugahatchee Creek<br />2009 January<br />2009 July<br />Photo Credit: Dan Ballard, Town of Auburn...
Boulder Cross Vane<br />
Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane<br />Photo Credit: Darrell Westmoreland, North State Environmental, Inc.<br />
Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane<br />Photo Credit: Darrell Westmoreland, North State Environmental, Inc.<br />
Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane<br />
Double-Drop Offset Boulder Cross Vane<br />
Double-Drop Offset Boulder Cross Vane<br />Photo Credit:  CAWACO RC&D<br />
Offset Boulder Cross Vane at a Bridge<br />
Boulder W-Vane<br />
Boulder Double Wing Deflector<br />
Boulder Double Wing Deflector<br />
Boulder Single Wing Deflector<br />
Constructed Riffle<br />
Z - Vane<br />
Constructed Step-Pool<br />
Constructed Step-Pool<br />
Constructed Step-Pool + Cross Vane<br />
Habitat Enhancements<br /><ul><li>Food sources
Cover
Scour pools
Flow diversity</li></li></ul><li>Pool Maintenance<br />
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Transcript of "Rc401 construction jennings intro"

  1. 1. Stream Restoration Project Implementation<br />Greg Jennings, PhD, PE<br />Professor & Extension Specialist<br />Biological & Agricultural Engineering<br />North Carolina State University<br />jenningsenv@gmail.com<br />
  2. 2. What is a Stream?<br />Body of water with a current, confined within a bed and streambanks<br />Synonyms:  brook, beck, burn, creek, crick, kill, lick, rill, river, syke, bayou, rivulet, run<br />Streams are conduits in the water cycle and also important habitats<br />Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University<br />
  3. 3. A Stream is a System:<br /><ul><li>Channel (bed & banks)
  4. 4. Floodplain
  5. 5. Water
  6. 6. Sediment
  7. 7. Plants & animals</li></ul>Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University<br />
  8. 8. Stream Functions<br />Transport water<br />Transport sediment<br />Habitat (aquatic & terrestrial)<br />Recreation & aesthetics<br />Safe Water Supply<br />
  9. 9. What Makes a Stream Healthy?<br /><ul><li>Bed stability & diversity
  10. 10. Sediment transport balance
  11. 11. In-stream habitat & flow diversity
  12. 12. Bank stability (native plant roots)
  13. 13. Riparian buffer (streamside forest)
  14. 14. Active floodplain</li></li></ul><li>Bed Stability & Diversity<br /><ul><li>Appropriate size sediments to resist shear stress
  15. 15. Riffle/Pool sequences in alluvial streams
  16. 16. Step/Pool sequences in high-gradient streams</li></ul>Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University<br />
  17. 17. Sediment Transport Balance<br /><ul><li>Minor erosion & deposition
  18. 18. Alluvial bars and benches
  19. 19. Sufficient stream power to avoid aggradation</li></li></ul><li>In-stream Habitat & Flow Diversity<br />Overhanging Bank<br />Roots<br />Wood<br />Pool<br />Leaf Pack<br />Plants<br />Riffle<br />Rocks<br />
  20. 20. Bank Stability<br /><ul><li>Dense native plant roots
  21. 21. Low banks with low stress</li></li></ul><li>Riparian Buffer (Streamside Forest)<br /><ul><li>Diverse native plants
  22. 22. Food and shade</li></li></ul><li>Active Floodplain<br /><ul><li>Regular (every year) flooding to relieve stress
  23. 23. Riparian wetlands
  24. 24. Stormwater retention & treatment</li></li></ul><li>Why Restoration?<br /><ul><li>Water quality impairments
  25. 25. Habitat loss
  26. 26. Ecosystem degradation
  27. 27. Land loss
  28. 28. Safety concerns
  29. 29. Infrastructure damage
  30. 30. Flooding
  31. 31. Aesthetics</li></li></ul><li>Why are Streams NOT Healthy?<br /><ul><li>Straightening
  32. 32. Dredging
  33. 33. Floodplain filling
  34. 34. Sedimentation
  35. 35. Stormwater
  36. 36. Utilities
  37. 37. Culverts & bridges
  38. 38. Buffer removal
  39. 39. Disdain & neglect</li></li></ul><li>Ecosystem Restoration<br />“activities that initiate or accelerate the recovery of ecosystem health, integrity, and sustainability” (SER, 2004)<br />
  40. 40. Standards for ecologically successful river restoration<br />Palmer et al., Journal of Applied Ecology, 2005, 42, 208–217<br />design of an ecological river restoration project should be based on a specified guiding image of a more dynamic, healthy river that could exist at the site<br />river’s ecological condition must be measurably improved<br />river system must be more self-sustaining and resilient to external perturbations so that only minimal follow-up maintenance is needed <br />during the construction phase, no lasting harm should be inflicted on the ecosystem<br />both pre- and post-assessment must be completed and data made publicly available<br />
  41. 41. Outcomes of Ecosystem Restoration<br /><ul><li>Habitats
  42. 42. Water quality
  43. 43. Natural flow regimes
  44. 44. Recreation & aesthetics</li></li></ul><li>High-quality “reference” streams serve as design templates<br />
  45. 45. Natural Stream Channel Stability<br />(from Leopold)<br />River has a stable dimension, pattern and profile<br />Maintains channel features (riffles, pools, steps)<br />Does not aggrade (fills) or degrade (erodes)<br />
  46. 46. Restoration Components<br />Channel morphology & floodplain connection<br />In-stream structures<br />Streambankstabilization<br />Riparian buffers<br />Stream crossings<br />Stormwater/watershed management<br />Monitoring & maintenance<br />Public access & education<br />
  47. 47. 1. Channel Morphology & Floodplain Connection<br /><ul><li>Dimension (bankfull & flood flow)
  48. 48. Pattern (meander)
  49. 49. Profile (bed profile)
  50. 50. Floodplain connection</li></ul>2005NCSU Rocky Branch2006<br />
  51. 51. 2008NCSU Rocky Branch<br />
  52. 52. Bankfull Stage: Water fills the active channel and begins to spread onto the floodplain<br />Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.<br />
  53. 53. Priority 1<br />Priority 2<br />
  54. 54. Priority 1:Raise channel to existing valley and construct new meandering channel<br />Rain will come during and immediately following construction!<br />2006 Town Creek Tributary 2007<br />
  55. 55. 2008 Town Creek Tributary<br />
  56. 56. Priority 1:Raise channel to existing valley and construct new meandering channel<br />2008Purlear Creek 2009<br />
  57. 57. 2009Purlear Creek<br />
  58. 58. Priority 1:Raise channel to existing valley and construct new meandering channel<br />2005 South Fork Mitchell River 2006<br />Photo Credits: Darrell Westmoreland, North State Environmental, Inc.<br />
  59. 59. 2008 South Fork Mitchell River<br />
  60. 60. Priority 2:Excavate lower floodplain and construct new meandering channel<br />2007 Cary Walnut Creek Tributary 2008<br />Photo Credit: David Bidelspach, Stantec, Inc.<br />
  61. 61. 2008 Cary Walnut Creek Tributary<br />
  62. 62. Priority 2:Excavate lower floodplain and construct new meandering channel<br />2004 NCSU Rocky Branch 2005<br />
  63. 63. 2006<br /> NCSU Rocky Branch<br />2006<br />
  64. 64. 2008 NCSU Rocky Branch<br />
  65. 65. Priority 2:Excavate lower floodplain and construct new meandering channel<br />2008Trib to Saugatchee Creek 2008<br />
  66. 66. Entrenchment Ratio = Wfpa / Wbkf = 75/15 = 5 <br />Wfpa<br />Wbkf<br />
  67. 67. Priority 3. Excavate floodplain benches and add structures to maintain straight channel<br />2000 NCSU Rocky Branch 2001<br />
  68. 68. NCSU <br />Rocky Branch<br />2008<br />
  69. 69. Priority 3:Excavate narrow floodplain benches in confined systems<br />2009Little Shades Creek 2010<br />
  70. 70. Entrenchment Ratio = Wfpa / Wbkf = 60/38 = 1.6 <br />Wfpa<br />Wbkf<br />
  71. 71. 2. In-Stream Structures (Logs & Rocks)<br /><ul><li>Streambankprotection
  72. 72. Habitat enhancement (pools, aeration, cover)
  73. 73. Grade control
  74. 74. Sediment transport</li></li></ul><li>Boulder Vane (single-arm)<br />
  75. 75. Runaway Truck Ramp<br />
  76. 76. J-Hook Boulder Vane<br />
  77. 77. J-Hook<br />Boulder Vane<br />
  78. 78. J-Hook Boulder Vane<br />
  79. 79. J-Hook Boulder Vane<br />
  80. 80. J-Hook<br />Log Vane<br />
  81. 81. J-Hook Log Vane<br />
  82. 82. J-Hook Log Vane<br />
  83. 83. Double Drop J-Hook Log Vane<br />
  84. 84. Multiple Log Vanes<br />Saugahatchee Creek<br />2007<br />2008<br />
  85. 85. Multiple Log Vanes<br />Saugahatchee Creek<br />2009 January<br />2009 July<br />Photo Credit: Dan Ballard, Town of Auburn<br />
  86. 86. Boulder Cross Vane<br />
  87. 87. Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane<br />Photo Credit: Darrell Westmoreland, North State Environmental, Inc.<br />
  88. 88. Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane<br />Photo Credit: Darrell Westmoreland, North State Environmental, Inc.<br />
  89. 89. Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane<br />
  90. 90. Double-Drop Offset Boulder Cross Vane<br />
  91. 91. Double-Drop Offset Boulder Cross Vane<br />Photo Credit: CAWACO RC&D<br />
  92. 92.
  93. 93. Offset Boulder Cross Vane at a Bridge<br />
  94. 94. Boulder W-Vane<br />
  95. 95. Boulder Double Wing Deflector<br />
  96. 96. Boulder Double Wing Deflector<br />
  97. 97. Boulder Single Wing Deflector<br />
  98. 98. Constructed Riffle<br />
  99. 99. Z - Vane<br />
  100. 100. Constructed Step-Pool<br />
  101. 101. Constructed Step-Pool<br />
  102. 102. Constructed Step-Pool + Cross Vane<br />
  103. 103. Habitat Enhancements<br /><ul><li>Food sources
  104. 104. Cover
  105. 105. Scour pools
  106. 106. Flow diversity</li></li></ul><li>Pool Maintenance<br />
  107. 107. Successful Structures<br /><ul><li>Properly designed and located
  108. 108. Low profile
  109. 109. Constructed to withstand stress
  110. 110. Excellent vegetation</li></li></ul><li>3. Streambank Stabilization<br /><ul><li>Temporary matting
  111. 111. Root wads
  112. 112. Bioengineering (living brush mattress)
  113. 113. Armoring</li></li></ul><li>Temporary Matting<br /><ul><li>Biodegradable (coir, jute, excelsior)
  114. 114. Seed and straw UNDER mat
  115. 115. Keep matting relaxed
  116. 116. Key in at top
  117. 117. Stakes: wood or biodegradable plastic</li></li></ul><li>Root Wads<br />10-15 ft tree trunk attached<br />
  118. 118.
  119. 119. Streambank Bioengineering:<br />Integrating living woody and herbaceous materials to increase strength and structure of the soil (i.e. increase critical shear stress)<br />2007 NCSU Rocky Branch 2008<br />
  120. 120. Brush Mattress <br />live cuttings of silky willow in dormant season<br />2007 October<br />2009 August<br />
  121. 121. Newland Kentucky Creek<br />bioengineering with black willow cuttings<br />
  122. 122. 4. Riparian Buffer (Streamside Forest)<br /><ul><li>Temporary ground covers
  123. 123. Permanent grasses
  124. 124. Wetland plants
  125. 125. Shrubs and trees</li></li></ul><li>Grasses: temporary & permanent ground covers (wheat, rye, millet, switchgrass)<br />Wetland plants: transplants, containers, seed (rushes, sedges, flowering plants)<br />
  126. 126. Live Stakes(willows, dogwoods, elderberry, birch, ninebark, etc)<br />
  127. 127. Transplants, Bare roots, & Containers<br />
  128. 128. 5. Stormwater Management<br /><ul><li>Energy dissipation
  129. 129. Floodplain retention
  130. 130. Channel protection
  131. 131. Water quality treatment</li></li></ul><li>Floodplain stormwater retention and treatment<br />
  132. 132. 6. Stream Crossings<br /><ul><li>Aquatic organism passage
  133. 133. Minimize geomorphic impacts
  134. 134. Pass flood flows</li></li></ul><li>
  135. 135. 7. Monitoring & Maintenance<br /><ul><li>Projects are most vulnerable early
  136. 136. Natural adjustments to hydrologic & habitat conditions</li></li></ul><li>8. Public Access & Education<br /><ul><li>Greenways & paths
  137. 137. Signs
  138. 138. Tours</li></li></ul><li>Why do Projects Fail?<br />Faulty design<br />Faulty construction<br />Poor vegetation <br />Constraints in valley<br />Watershed conditions<br />
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