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  • 1. Stream Restoration Project Implementation
    Greg Jennings, PhD, PE
    Professor & Extension Specialist
    Biological & Agricultural Engineering
    North Carolina State University
    jenningsenv@gmail.com
  • 2. What is a Stream?
    Body of water with a current, confined within a bed and streambanks
    Synonyms:  brook, beck, burn, creek, crick, kill, lick, rill, river, syke, bayou, rivulet, run
    Streams are conduits in the water cycle and also important habitats
    Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University
  • 3. A Stream is a System:
    Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University
  • 8. Stream Functions
    Transport water
    Transport sediment
    Habitat (aquatic & terrestrial)
    Recreation & aesthetics
    Safe Water Supply
  • 9. What Makes a Stream Healthy?
    • Bed stability & diversity
    • 10. Sediment transport balance
    • 11. In-stream habitat & flow diversity
    • 12. Bank stability (native plant roots)
    • 13. Riparian buffer (streamside forest)
    • 14. Active floodplain
  • Bed Stability & Diversity
    • Appropriate size sediments to resist shear stress
    • 15. Riffle/Pool sequences in alluvial streams
    • 16. Step/Pool sequences in high-gradient streams
    Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University
  • 17. Sediment Transport Balance
    • Minor erosion & deposition
    • 18. Alluvial bars and benches
    • 19. Sufficient stream power to avoid aggradation
  • In-stream Habitat & Flow Diversity
    Overhanging Bank
    Roots
    Wood
    Pool
    Leaf Pack
    Plants
    Riffle
    Rocks
  • 20. Bank Stability
    • Dense native plant roots
    • 21. Low banks with low stress
  • Riparian Buffer (Streamside Forest)
    • Diverse native plants
    • 22. Food and shade
  • Active Floodplain
    • Regular (every year) flooding to relieve stress
    • 23. Riparian wetlands
    • 24. Stormwater retention & treatment
  • Why Restoration?
  • Why are Streams NOT Healthy?
  • Ecosystem Restoration
    “activities that initiate or accelerate the recovery of ecosystem health, integrity, and sustainability” (SER, 2004)
  • 40. Standards for ecologically successful river restoration
    Palmer et al., Journal of Applied Ecology, 2005, 42, 208–217
    design of an ecological river restoration project should be based on a specified guiding image of a more dynamic, healthy river that could exist at the site
    river’s ecological condition must be measurably improved
    river system must be more self-sustaining and resilient to external perturbations so that only minimal follow-up maintenance is needed
    during the construction phase, no lasting harm should be inflicted on the ecosystem
    both pre- and post-assessment must be completed and data made publicly available
  • 41. Outcomes of Ecosystem Restoration
    • Habitats
    • 42. Water quality
    • 43. Natural flow regimes
    • 44. Recreation & aesthetics
  • High-quality “reference” streams serve as design templates
  • 45. Natural Stream Channel Stability
    (from Leopold)
    River has a stable dimension, pattern and profile
    Maintains channel features (riffles, pools, steps)
    Does not aggrade (fills) or degrade (erodes)
  • 46. Restoration Components
    Channel morphology & floodplain connection
    In-stream structures
    Streambankstabilization
    Riparian buffers
    Stream crossings
    Stormwater/watershed management
    Monitoring & maintenance
    Public access & education
  • 47. 1. Channel Morphology & Floodplain Connection
    • Dimension (bankfull & flood flow)
    • 48. Pattern (meander)
    • 49. Profile (bed profile)
    • 50. Floodplain connection
    2005NCSU Rocky Branch2006
  • 51. 2008NCSU Rocky Branch
  • 52. Bankfull Stage: Water fills the active channel and begins to spread onto the floodplain
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 53. Priority 1
    Priority 2
  • 54. Priority 1:Raise channel to existing valley and construct new meandering channel
    Rain will come during and immediately following construction!
    2006 Town Creek Tributary 2007
  • 55. 2008 Town Creek Tributary
  • 56. Priority 1:Raise channel to existing valley and construct new meandering channel
    2008Purlear Creek 2009
  • 57. 2009Purlear Creek
  • 58. Priority 1:Raise channel to existing valley and construct new meandering channel
    2005 South Fork Mitchell River 2006
    Photo Credits: Darrell Westmoreland, North State Environmental, Inc.
  • 59. 2008 South Fork Mitchell River
  • 60. Priority 2:Excavate lower floodplain and construct new meandering channel
    2007 Cary Walnut Creek Tributary 2008
    Photo Credit: David Bidelspach, Stantec, Inc.
  • 61. 2008 Cary Walnut Creek Tributary
  • 62. Priority 2:Excavate lower floodplain and construct new meandering channel
    2004 NCSU Rocky Branch 2005
  • 63. 2006
    NCSU Rocky Branch
    2006
  • 64. 2008 NCSU Rocky Branch
  • 65. Priority 2:Excavate lower floodplain and construct new meandering channel
    2008Trib to Saugatchee Creek 2008
  • 66. Entrenchment Ratio = Wfpa / Wbkf = 75/15 = 5
    Wfpa
    Wbkf
  • 67. Priority 3. Excavate floodplain benches and add structures to maintain straight channel
    2000 NCSU Rocky Branch 2001
  • 68. NCSU
    Rocky Branch
    2008
  • 69. Priority 3:Excavate narrow floodplain benches in confined systems
    2009Little Shades Creek 2010
  • 70. Entrenchment Ratio = Wfpa / Wbkf = 60/38 = 1.6
    Wfpa
    Wbkf
  • 71. 2. In-Stream Structures (Logs & Rocks)
    • Streambankprotection
    • 72. Habitat enhancement (pools, aeration, cover)
    • 73. Grade control
    • 74. Sediment transport
  • Boulder Vane (single-arm)
  • 75. Runaway Truck Ramp
  • 76. J-Hook Boulder Vane
  • 77. J-Hook
    Boulder Vane
  • 78. J-Hook Boulder Vane
  • 79. J-Hook Boulder Vane
  • 80. J-Hook
    Log Vane
  • 81. J-Hook Log Vane
  • 82. J-Hook Log Vane
  • 83. Double Drop J-Hook Log Vane
  • 84. Multiple Log Vanes
    Saugahatchee Creek
    2007
    2008
  • 85. Multiple Log Vanes
    Saugahatchee Creek
    2009 January
    2009 July
    Photo Credit: Dan Ballard, Town of Auburn
  • 86. Boulder Cross Vane
  • 87. Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane
    Photo Credit: Darrell Westmoreland, North State Environmental, Inc.
  • 88. Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane
    Photo Credit: Darrell Westmoreland, North State Environmental, Inc.
  • 89. Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane
  • 90. Double-Drop Offset Boulder Cross Vane
  • 91. Double-Drop Offset Boulder Cross Vane
    Photo Credit: CAWACO RC&D
  • 92.
  • 93. Offset Boulder Cross Vane at a Bridge
  • 94. Boulder W-Vane
  • 95. Boulder Double Wing Deflector
  • 96. Boulder Double Wing Deflector
  • 97. Boulder Single Wing Deflector
  • 98. Constructed Riffle
  • 99. Z - Vane
  • 100. Constructed Step-Pool
  • 101. Constructed Step-Pool
  • 102. Constructed Step-Pool + Cross Vane
  • 103. Habitat Enhancements
  • Pool Maintenance
  • 107. Successful Structures
    • Properly designed and located
    • 108. Low profile
    • 109. Constructed to withstand stress
    • 110. Excellent vegetation
  • 3. Streambank Stabilization
    • Temporary matting
    • 111. Root wads
    • 112. Bioengineering (living brush mattress)
    • 113. Armoring
  • Temporary Matting
    • Biodegradable (coir, jute, excelsior)
    • 114. Seed and straw UNDER mat
    • 115. Keep matting relaxed
    • 116. Key in at top
    • 117. Stakes: wood or biodegradable plastic
  • Root Wads
    10-15 ft tree trunk attached
  • 118.
  • 119. Streambank Bioengineering:
    Integrating living woody and herbaceous materials to increase strength and structure of the soil (i.e. increase critical shear stress)
    2007 NCSU Rocky Branch 2008
  • 120. Brush Mattress
    live cuttings of silky willow in dormant season
    2007 October
    2009 August
  • 121. Newland Kentucky Creek
    bioengineering with black willow cuttings
  • 122. 4. Riparian Buffer (Streamside Forest)
  • Grasses: temporary & permanent ground covers (wheat, rye, millet, switchgrass)
    Wetland plants: transplants, containers, seed (rushes, sedges, flowering plants)
  • 126. Live Stakes(willows, dogwoods, elderberry, birch, ninebark, etc)
  • 127. Transplants, Bare roots, & Containers
  • 128. 5. Stormwater Management
    • Energy dissipation
    • 129. Floodplain retention
    • 130. Channel protection
    • 131. Water quality treatment
  • Floodplain stormwater retention and treatment
  • 132. 6. Stream Crossings
    • Aquatic organism passage
    • 133. Minimize geomorphic impacts
    • 134. Pass flood flows
  • 135. 7. Monitoring & Maintenance
    • Projects are most vulnerable early
    • 136. Natural adjustments to hydrologic & habitat conditions
  • 8. Public Access & Education
  • Why do Projects Fail?
    Faulty design
    Faulty construction
    Poor vegetation
    Constraints in valley
    Watershed conditions