Rc201 day 3 jennings 10

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Rc201 day 3 jennings 10

  1. 1. Restoration Components<br />Channel morphology & floodplain connection<br />In-stream structures<br />Streambank bioengineering<br />Riparian buffers & habitat enhancements<br />Stream crossings<br />Stormwater/watershed management<br />Monitoring & maintenance<br />Public access & education<br />
  2. 2. 2. In-Stream Structures (Logs & Rocks)<br /><ul><li>Streambankprotection
  3. 3. Habitat enhancement (pools, aeration, cover)
  4. 4. Grade control
  5. 5. Sediment transport</li></li></ul><li>J-Hook Boulder Vane<br />
  6. 6. Runaway Truck Ramp<br />
  7. 7. J-Hook<br />Boulder Vane<br />
  8. 8. J-Hook Boulder Vane (scour pool)<br />
  9. 9. J-Hook Log Vane<br />
  10. 10. J-Hook Log Vane<br />
  11. 11. Multiple Log Vanes<br />Saugahatchee Creek<br />2007<br />2008<br />
  12. 12. Multiple Log Vanes<br />Saugahatchee Creek<br />2009 January<br />2009 July<br />Photo Credit: Dan Ballard, Town of Auburn<br />
  13. 13. Boulder Cross Vane<br />
  14. 14. Double-Drop Boulder Cross Vane<br />
  15. 15. Double-Drop Offset Boulder Cross Vane<br />
  16. 16. Double-Drop Offset Boulder Cross Vane<br />Photo Credit: CAWACO RC&D<br />
  17. 17. Offset Boulder Cross Vane at a Bridge<br />
  18. 18. Boulder Double Wing Deflector<br />
  19. 19. Constructed Riffle<br />
  20. 20. Z - Vane<br />
  21. 21. Constructed Step-Pool<br />
  22. 22. Constructed Step-Pool<br />
  23. 23. Constructed Step-Pool + Cross Vane<br />
  24. 24. Habitat Enhancements<br /><ul><li>Food sources
  25. 25. Cover
  26. 26. Scour pools
  27. 27. Flow diversity</li></li></ul><li>Pool Maintenance<br />
  28. 28. Successful Structures<br /><ul><li>Properly designed and located
  29. 29. Low profile
  30. 30. Constructed to withstand stress
  31. 31. Excellent vegetation</li></li></ul><li>3. Streambank Stabilization<br /><ul><li>Temporary matting
  32. 32. Root wads
  33. 33. Bioengineering (living brush mattress)
  34. 34. Armoring</li></li></ul><li>Temporary Matting<br /><ul><li>Biodegradable (coir, jute, excelsior)
  35. 35. Seed and straw UNDER mat
  36. 36. Keep matting relaxed
  37. 37. Key in at top
  38. 38. Stakes: wood or biodegradable plastic</li></li></ul><li>Root Wads<br />10-15 ft tree trunk attached<br />
  39. 39. Streambank Bioengineering:<br />Integrating living woody and herbaceous materials to increase strength and structure of the soil (i.e. increase critical shear stress)<br />2007 NCSU Rocky Branch 2008<br />
  40. 40. Brush Mattress <br />live cuttings of silky willow in dormant season<br />2007 October<br />2009 August<br />
  41. 41. Newland Kentucky Creek<br />bioengineering with black willow cuttings<br />
  42. 42. Successful Matting<br /><ul><li>Biodegradable (coir, jute, excelsior)
  43. 43. Seed and mulch under matting
  44. 44. Wooden stakes (long stakes at toe)
  45. 45. Key at top of bank
  46. 46. Keep matting relaxed</li></li></ul><li>
  47. 47. No Plastic!<br />
  48. 48. Seed & mulch UNDER matting<br />
  49. 49.
  50. 50. Problems:Poor stakingHigh shearOverland flow<br />
  51. 51.
  52. 52. Root Wads<br />Temporary Non-living Revetment<br />
  53. 53. Root Wads<br /><ul><li>Temporary streambank protection
  54. 54. Absorb streamflow energy
  55. 55. Enhance habitat
  56. 56. Use with transplants or adjacent to mature vegetation
  57. 57. Placement should be at the toe of the bank and facing into stream velocity vectors
  58. 58. May result in eddy scour</li></li></ul><li>
  59. 59. Root Wads with Brush Layer<br />
  60. 60. Brush Mattress<br />Bank armoring where hand labor makes sense<br />
  61. 61. Live cuttings in dormant season<br />
  62. 62. Cover with soil, straw, and wire<br />
  63. 63. Kentucky Creek<br />Newland, NC<br />April, 2004<br />
  64. 64. Vegetative<br />Geolifts<br />
  65. 65. 2006<br />
  66. 66. Cane Creek<br />Fletcher, NC<br />
  67. 67.
  68. 68.
  69. 69.
  70. 70.
  71. 71.
  72. 72.
  73. 73. 2007<br />
  74. 74. Successful Streambank Stabilization<br /><ul><li>Low streambanks
  75. 75. Dense vegetation
  76. 76. Temporary biodegradable matting
  77. 77. Bioengineering in high-stress areas
  78. 78. Proper channel morphology</li></li></ul><li>4. Riparian Buffer (Streamside Forest)<br /><ul><li>Temporary ground covers
  79. 79. Permanent grasses
  80. 80. Wetland plants
  81. 81. Shrubs and trees</li></li></ul><li>Mulch> 75% cover2 tons/ac<br />
  82. 82. Wheat or MilletTemporary Nurse Crop<br />
  83. 83. Permanent Grass Cover<br />
  84. 84. Root depth matters<br />
  85. 85. Live Stakes<br />
  86. 86.
  87. 87.
  88. 88. 2007<br />
  89. 89.
  90. 90. Transplants<br />
  91. 91.
  92. 92. Bare Root Seedlings<br />1996<br />2005<br />2005<br />
  93. 93. Container Plants<br />
  94. 94. Successful Vegetation<br /><ul><li>Natives only
  95. 95. Quality plants
  96. 96. Installed correctly
  97. 97. Watered and fertilized if needed</li></li></ul><li>
  98. 98. 5. Stormwater Management<br /><ul><li>Energy dissipation
  99. 99. Floodplain retention
  100. 100. Channel protection
  101. 101. Water quality treatment</li></li></ul><li>Floodplain stormwater retention and treatment<br />
  102. 102. Pollution Prevention<br /><ul><li>Cattle exclusion
  103. 103. Illicit discharge removal
  104. 104. Runoff treatment</li></li></ul><li>Agricultural best management practices ( BMPs)<br />“Passive Restoration”<br />
  105. 105. 6. Stream Crossings<br /><ul><li>Aquatic organism passage
  106. 106. Minimize geomorphic impacts
  107. 107. Pass flood flows</li></li></ul><li>Rocky Branch<br />Arch Culvert<br />
  108. 108.
  109. 109. 7. Monitoring & Maintenance<br /><ul><li>Projects are most vulnerable early
  110. 110. Natural adjustments to hydrologic & habitat conditions</li></li></ul><li>Jumping Run Creek, Payne Dairy, Alexander Co, NC<br />2001 - 2009<br />Restoration?<br />Mission accomplished?<br />
  111. 111. After 8 years:<br /><ul><li> Cattle excluded
  112. 112. Vegetation established
  113. 113. Bank erosion halted
  114. 114. Bed form enhanced
  115. 115. Aesthetics improved</li></ul>Questions:<br />Water quality improved?<br />Habitat improved?<br />Restoration achieved?<br />
  116. 116. Jumping Run Creek, Payne Dairy, Alexander Co, NC<br />Annual Geomorphic Surveys, 2001 - 2009<br />
  117. 117. Jumping Run Creek, Payne Dairy, Alexander Co, NC<br />Annual Macroinvertebrate Sampling, 2000 - 2009<br />
  118. 118. Was this Restoration Effective?<br /><ul><li>Streambank erosion is minimal
  119. 119. Sediment transport is in equilibrium
  120. 120. Water quality and habitats are improving
  121. 121. Downstream water quality improved</li></li></ul><li>Lessons Learned:<br /><ul><li>Need more focus on macro- and micro-habitats:
  122. 122. Riffles, pools, glides
  123. 123. Fine roots
  124. 124. Wood
  125. 125. Cover and food sources
  126. 126. Hyporheic connections
  127. 127. Reduce large steps with inappropriately large boulders
  128. 128. Provide floodplain connection
  129. 129. Expect beavers</li></li></ul><li>8. Public Access & Education<br /><ul><li>Greenways & paths
  130. 130. Signs
  131. 131. Tours</li></li></ul><li>Charlotte-Mecklenburg: Little Sugar Creekwww.charmeck.org/Departments/StormWater/Projects<br />
  132. 132. Successful Ecosystem Restoration<br /><ul><li>Achieve ecological goals
  133. 133. Self-sustaining
  134. 134. Serve as model for future projects
  135. 135. Accepted by the public</li>

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