Stream Classification<br />Why Classify Streams?<br /><ul><li>Communication Tool
Describe Existing Conditions & Trends
Describe Restoration Goals
Research Tool</li></li></ul><li>Morphologic Stream Classification Systems<br />Schumm (1977)<br />Alluvial channels<br />M...
Rosgen Classification of Natural Rivers<br />Based on physical characteristics (empirical)<br />Requires field measurement...
What factors affect stream morphology?<br /><ul><li>Width
Depth
Slope
Velocity
Discharge
Flow resistance
Sediment size
Sediment load</li></ul>Leopold et al (1964)<br />
Rosgen Classification of Natural Rivers<br />Dimension (cross-section)<br />Pattern (plan form)<br />Profile (bed form)<br...
Level 1 Rosgen Classification<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
Level 2 Rosgen Classification<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
A Streams<br />Incised, Narrow & Deep, Steep Slope<br />Colluvial Valley<br />
A Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d...
A2 Western NC<br />
Aa+ Streams<br />Very Steep<br />(>0.1 ft/ft)<br />A1a+ Western NC<br />
B Streams<br />Moderately Incised, Wide & Shallow, Moderate Slope, Colluvial Valley<br />
B Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf = 1....
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
B3 Western NC<br />
C Streams<br />Not Incised, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />Alluvial Valley<br />
C Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2....
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
C4 New Zealand<br />
C4 Utah<br />
E Streams<br />Not Incised, Narrow & Deep, Low Slope<br />Alluvial Valley<br />
E Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2<br />W/d...
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
E4 Western NC<br />
E4 Central NC<br />
E4b Western  NC<br />
E4 Western NC<br />
E4 Western  NC<br />
G Streams<br />Incised<br />Narrow & Deep<br />Moderate Slope<br />
G Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d...
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
G4 Western NC<br />
G4 Eastern NC<br />
G4c Central NC<br />
G5c Alabama<br />
G4<br />
F Streams<br />Incised, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />
F Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1....
Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
F4 Texas<br />
F4 Alabama<br />
F5 South Carolina<br />
Ugg Texas<br />
D & DA Streams<br />Multiple Channels, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />D4 Virginia<br />
D Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Multiple Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > ...
Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
D4 New Zealand<br />
D4 Pennsylvania<br />
C4 -> D4 Western NC<br />
ER=11; W/d=16; S=0.004; D50=1 mm<br />
ER=1.3; W/d=7; S=0.007; D50=1.5 mm<br />
ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.024; D50=75 mm<br />
ER=6.5; W/d=10.5; S=0.008; D50=1.5 mm<br />
ER=1.5; W/d=10; S=0.009; D50=2 mm<br />
ER=1.4; W/d=10; S=0.050; D50=50 mm<br />
ER=1.3; W/d=15; S=0.002; D50=0.5 mm<br />
ER=1.3; W/d=7; S=0.007; D50=1.5 mm<br />
ER=5.5; W/d=29; S=0.009; D50=15 mm<br />
ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.035; D50=110 mm<br />
ER=5.5; W/d=8.2; S=0.025; D50=12 mm<br />
ER=2.1; W/d=15; S=0.065; D50=120 mm<br />
ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.024; D50=75 mm<br />
Stream Channel Succession (WARSSS)<br />
Stream Channel Succession (WARSSS)<br />http://www.epa.gov/WARSSS/sedsource/successn.htm<br />
Bank ErosionMonitoring <br />
Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI)<br />
Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI)<br />
Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI)<br />
Stream Classification<br />Why Classify Streams?<br /><ul><li>Communication Tool
Describe Existing Conditions & Trends
Describe Restoration Goals
Research Tool</li></li></ul><li>Morphologic Stream Classification Systems<br />Schumm (1977)<br />Alluvial channels<br />M...
Rosgen Classification of Natural Rivers<br />Based on physical characteristics (empirical)<br />Requires field measurement...
What factors affect stream morphology?<br /><ul><li>Width
Depth
Slope
Velocity
Discharge
Flow resistance
Sediment size
Sediment load</li></ul>Leopold et al (1964)<br />
Rosgen Classification of Natural Rivers<br />Dimension (cross-section)<br />Pattern (plan form)<br />Profile (bed form)<br...
Level 1 Rosgen Classification<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
Level 2 Rosgen Classification<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
Riffle Dimensions<br />Wbkf<br />Bankfull<br />Abkf<br />dbkf<br />Measure Bankfull Width (Wbkf) and Bankfull Area (Abkf)<...
W/d = 9.3 / 1.5 = 6.2 <br />Wbkf<br />dbkf<br />Abkf<br />
Entrenchment Ratio<br />ER = Wfpa / Wbkf<br />Wfpa = Width of Flood Prone Area measured at the elevation twice bankfull ma...
ER = Wfpa / Wbkf = 63/ 15 = 4.2 <br />Wfpa<br />Wbkf<br />
Bed Material (Substrate)<br />Silt/Clay: < 0.062 mm<br />Sand: 0.062 – 2 mm<br />Gravel: 2 – 64 mm<br />Cobble: 64 – 256 m...
Substrate CharacterizationWolman Pebble Count<br />
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
Valley Types:  (www.epa.gov/watertrain/stream_class)<br />Valley Type II Moderately steep, gentle sloping side slopes ofte...
Valley Types:  (www.epa.gov/watertrain/stream_class)<br />Valley Type VIII Wide, gentle valley slope with well-developed f...
Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
A Streams<br />Incised, Narrow & Deep, Steep Slope<br />Colluvial Valley<br />
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
A Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d...
A2 Western NC<br />
A2 Montana<br />
A3 Western NC<br />
Aa+ Streams<br />Very Steep<br />(>0.1 ft/ft)<br />A1a+ Western NC<br />
A1a+ Western NC<br />
A1a+ Tennessee<br />
B Streams<br />Moderately Incised, Wide & Shallow, Moderate Slope, Colluvial Valley<br />
B Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf = 1....
Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
B3 Western NC<br />
B3 Western NC<br />
B3 Western NC<br />
B4 Tennessee<br />
B3 Western NC<br />
B4 Western NC<br />
B4c Western NC<br />
C Streams<br />Not Incised, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />Alluvial Valley<br />
C Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2....
Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
C4 Western NC<br />
C4 Western NC<br />
C4 Washington<br />
C4 New Zealand<br />
C4 Western NC<br />
C5 Alabama<br />
C4 Utah<br />
C4 Western NC<br />
E Streams<br />Not Incised, Narrow & Deep, Low Slope<br />Alluvial Valley<br />
E Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2<br />W/d...
Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
E4 Western NC<br />
E4 Central NC<br />
E4 Central NC<br />
E4 Western NC<br />
E4 Western NC<br />
E4b Western  NC<br />
E4 Western  NC<br />
E5 Central NC<br />
E4 Central NC<br />
E4 Western NC<br />
E4 Western  NC<br />
E5 -> G5c AL<br />
G Streams<br />Incised<br />Narrow & Deep<br />Moderate Slope<br />
G Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d...
Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
G4 Western NC<br />
G4 Eastern NC<br />
G5 Headcut Georgia<br />
G5 Headcut Georgia<br />
G4c Central NC<br />
G4c Alabama<br />
G4c Alabama<br />
G5c Eastern NC<br />
G5c Alabama<br />
G5c Florida<br />
G4<br />
2000<br />2001<br />2003<br />2003<br />
F Streams<br />Incised, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />
F Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1....
Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
F1 Asheville<br />
F2 New Zealand<br />
F2 New Zealand<br />
F3 New Zealand<br />
F4 Western NC<br />
F4 Texas<br />
F4 Texas<br />
F4 Alabama<br />
F5 Georgia<br />
F5 South Carolina<br />
Ugg Texas<br />
D & DA Streams<br />Multiple Channels, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />D4 Virginia<br />
D Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Multiple Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > ...
Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
D4 Georgia<br />
D4 New Zealand<br />
D4 Oregon<br />
D4 Pennsylvania<br />
C4 -> D4 Western NC<br />
C4 -> D4 Western NC<br />
DA5 Florida<br />
www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
ER=11; W/d=16; S=0.004; D50=1 mm<br />
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Rc101 day2

  1. 1. Stream Classification<br />Why Classify Streams?<br /><ul><li>Communication Tool
  2. 2. Describe Existing Conditions & Trends
  3. 3. Describe Restoration Goals
  4. 4. Research Tool</li></li></ul><li>Morphologic Stream Classification Systems<br />Schumm (1977)<br />Alluvial channels<br />Meandering, straight, braided<br />Type related to channel stability & sediment transport<br />Montgomery & Buffington (1993)<br />Alluvial, colluvial, bedrock channels<br />Channel response related to sediment inputs<br />6 classes of alluvial channels: cascade, step-pool, plane-bed, riffle-pool, regime, and braided<br />Rosgen (1994)<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  5. 5. Rosgen Classification of Natural Rivers<br />Based on physical characteristics (empirical)<br />Requires field measurements<br />Requires bankfull dimensions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  6. 6. What factors affect stream morphology?<br /><ul><li>Width
  7. 7. Depth
  8. 8. Slope
  9. 9. Velocity
  10. 10. Discharge
  11. 11. Flow resistance
  12. 12. Sediment size
  13. 13. Sediment load</li></ul>Leopold et al (1964)<br />
  14. 14. Rosgen Classification of Natural Rivers<br />Dimension (cross-section)<br />Pattern (plan form)<br />Profile (bed form)<br />Bed material (substrate)<br />
  15. 15. Level 1 Rosgen Classification<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  16. 16. Level 2 Rosgen Classification<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  17. 17. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  18. 18. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  19. 19. A Streams<br />Incised, Narrow & Deep, Steep Slope<br />Colluvial Valley<br />
  20. 20. A Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf < 12<br />S > 0.04 ft/ft<br />Wbkf<br />
  21. 21. A2 Western NC<br />
  22. 22. Aa+ Streams<br />Very Steep<br />(>0.1 ft/ft)<br />A1a+ Western NC<br />
  23. 23. B Streams<br />Moderately Incised, Wide & Shallow, Moderate Slope, Colluvial Valley<br />
  24. 24. B Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf = 1.4 – 2.2<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 12<br />S = 0.02 – 0.04 ft/ft<br />
  25. 25. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  26. 26. B3 Western NC<br />
  27. 27. C Streams<br />Not Incised, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />Alluvial Valley<br />
  28. 28. C Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 12<br />S < 0.02 ft/ft<br />
  29. 29. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  30. 30. C4 New Zealand<br />
  31. 31. C4 Utah<br />
  32. 32. E Streams<br />Not Incised, Narrow & Deep, Low Slope<br />Alluvial Valley<br />
  33. 33. E Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf < 12<br />S < 0.02 ft/ft<br />Wbkf<br />
  34. 34. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  35. 35. E4 Western NC<br />
  36. 36. E4 Central NC<br />
  37. 37. E4b Western NC<br />
  38. 38. E4 Western NC<br />
  39. 39. E4 Western NC<br />
  40. 40. G Streams<br />Incised<br />Narrow & Deep<br />Moderate Slope<br />
  41. 41. G Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf < 12<br />S = 0.02 – 0.04 ft/ft<br />Wbkf<br />
  42. 42. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  43. 43. G4 Western NC<br />
  44. 44. G4 Eastern NC<br />
  45. 45. G4c Central NC<br />
  46. 46. G5c Alabama<br />
  47. 47. G4<br />
  48. 48. F Streams<br />Incised, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />
  49. 49. F Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 12<br />S < 0.02 ft/ft<br />
  50. 50. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  51. 51. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  52. 52. F4 Texas<br />
  53. 53. F4 Alabama<br />
  54. 54. F5 South Carolina<br />
  55. 55. Ugg Texas<br />
  56. 56. D & DA Streams<br />Multiple Channels, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />D4 Virginia<br />
  57. 57. D Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Multiple Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 40<br />
  58. 58. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  59. 59. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  60. 60. D4 New Zealand<br />
  61. 61. D4 Pennsylvania<br />
  62. 62. C4 -> D4 Western NC<br />
  63. 63. ER=11; W/d=16; S=0.004; D50=1 mm<br />
  64. 64. ER=1.3; W/d=7; S=0.007; D50=1.5 mm<br />
  65. 65. ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.024; D50=75 mm<br />
  66. 66. ER=6.5; W/d=10.5; S=0.008; D50=1.5 mm<br />
  67. 67. ER=1.5; W/d=10; S=0.009; D50=2 mm<br />
  68. 68. ER=1.4; W/d=10; S=0.050; D50=50 mm<br />
  69. 69. ER=1.3; W/d=15; S=0.002; D50=0.5 mm<br />
  70. 70. ER=1.3; W/d=7; S=0.007; D50=1.5 mm<br />
  71. 71. ER=5.5; W/d=29; S=0.009; D50=15 mm<br />
  72. 72. ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.035; D50=110 mm<br />
  73. 73. ER=5.5; W/d=8.2; S=0.025; D50=12 mm<br />
  74. 74. ER=2.1; W/d=15; S=0.065; D50=120 mm<br />
  75. 75. ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.024; D50=75 mm<br />
  76. 76. Stream Channel Succession (WARSSS)<br />
  77. 77. Stream Channel Succession (WARSSS)<br />http://www.epa.gov/WARSSS/sedsource/successn.htm<br />
  78. 78. Bank ErosionMonitoring <br />
  79. 79. Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI)<br />
  80. 80. Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI)<br />
  81. 81. Bank Erosion Hazard Index (BEHI)<br />
  82. 82.
  83. 83.
  84. 84.
  85. 85. Stream Classification<br />Why Classify Streams?<br /><ul><li>Communication Tool
  86. 86. Describe Existing Conditions & Trends
  87. 87. Describe Restoration Goals
  88. 88. Research Tool</li></li></ul><li>Morphologic Stream Classification Systems<br />Schumm (1977)<br />Alluvial channels<br />Meandering, straight, braided<br />Type related to channel stability & sediment transport<br />Montgomery & Buffington (1993)<br />Alluvial, colluvial, bedrock channels<br />Channel response related to sediment inputs<br />6 classes of alluvial channels: cascade, step-pool, plane-bed, riffle-pool, regime, and braided<br />Rosgen (1994)<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  89. 89. Rosgen Classification of Natural Rivers<br />Based on physical characteristics (empirical)<br />Requires field measurements<br />Requires bankfull dimensions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  90. 90. What factors affect stream morphology?<br /><ul><li>Width
  91. 91. Depth
  92. 92. Slope
  93. 93. Velocity
  94. 94. Discharge
  95. 95. Flow resistance
  96. 96. Sediment size
  97. 97. Sediment load</li></ul>Leopold et al (1964)<br />
  98. 98. Rosgen Classification of Natural Rivers<br />Dimension (cross-section)<br />Pattern (plan form)<br />Profile (bed form)<br />Bed material (substrate)<br />
  99. 99. Level 1 Rosgen Classification<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  100. 100. Level 2 Rosgen Classification<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  101. 101. Riffle Dimensions<br />Wbkf<br />Bankfull<br />Abkf<br />dbkf<br />Measure Bankfull Width (Wbkf) and Bankfull Area (Abkf)<br />Mean Depth, dbkf = Abkf / Wbkf<br />Width to Depth Ratio, W/d = Wbkf / dbkf<br />
  102. 102. W/d = 9.3 / 1.5 = 6.2 <br />Wbkf<br />dbkf<br />Abkf<br />
  103. 103. Entrenchment Ratio<br />ER = Wfpa / Wbkf<br />Wfpa = Width of Flood Prone Area measured at the elevation twice bankfull max depth above thalweg<br />Wbkf = Width of Bankfull Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />2 x dmax<br />above thalweg<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />
  104. 104. ER = Wfpa / Wbkf = 63/ 15 = 4.2 <br />Wfpa<br />Wbkf<br />
  105. 105. Bed Material (Substrate)<br />Silt/Clay: < 0.062 mm<br />Sand: 0.062 – 2 mm<br />Gravel: 2 – 64 mm<br />Cobble: 64 – 256 mm<br />Boulder: 256 – 2048 mm<br />
  106. 106. Substrate CharacterizationWolman Pebble Count<br />
  107. 107. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  108. 108. Valley Types: (www.epa.gov/watertrain/stream_class)<br />Valley Type II Moderately steep, gentle sloping side slopes often in colluvial valleys<br />From EPA Watershed Academy: Fundamentals of the Rosgen Stream Classification System<br />
  109. 109. Valley Types: (www.epa.gov/watertrain/stream_class)<br />Valley Type VIII Wide, gentle valley slope with well-developed floodplain adjacent to river terraces<br />From EPA Watershed Academy: Fundamentals of the Rosgen Stream Classification System<br />
  110. 110. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  111. 111. A Streams<br />Incised, Narrow & Deep, Steep Slope<br />Colluvial Valley<br />
  112. 112. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  113. 113. A Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf < 12<br />S > 0.04 ft/ft<br />Wbkf<br />
  114. 114. A2 Western NC<br />
  115. 115. A2 Montana<br />
  116. 116. A3 Western NC<br />
  117. 117. Aa+ Streams<br />Very Steep<br />(>0.1 ft/ft)<br />A1a+ Western NC<br />
  118. 118. A1a+ Western NC<br />
  119. 119. A1a+ Tennessee<br />
  120. 120. B Streams<br />Moderately Incised, Wide & Shallow, Moderate Slope, Colluvial Valley<br />
  121. 121. B Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf = 1.4 – 2.2<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 12<br />S = 0.02 – 0.04 ft/ft<br />
  122. 122. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  123. 123. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  124. 124. B3 Western NC<br />
  125. 125. B3 Western NC<br />
  126. 126. B3 Western NC<br />
  127. 127. B4 Tennessee<br />
  128. 128. B3 Western NC<br />
  129. 129. B4 Western NC<br />
  130. 130. B4c Western NC<br />
  131. 131. C Streams<br />Not Incised, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />Alluvial Valley<br />
  132. 132. C Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 12<br />S < 0.02 ft/ft<br />
  133. 133. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  134. 134. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  135. 135. C4 Western NC<br />
  136. 136. C4 Western NC<br />
  137. 137. C4 Washington<br />
  138. 138. C4 New Zealand<br />
  139. 139. C4 Western NC<br />
  140. 140. C5 Alabama<br />
  141. 141. C4 Utah<br />
  142. 142. C4 Western NC<br />
  143. 143. E Streams<br />Not Incised, Narrow & Deep, Low Slope<br />Alluvial Valley<br />
  144. 144. E Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf < 12<br />S < 0.02 ft/ft<br />Wbkf<br />
  145. 145. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  146. 146. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  147. 147. E4 Western NC<br />
  148. 148. E4 Central NC<br />
  149. 149. E4 Central NC<br />
  150. 150. E4 Western NC<br />
  151. 151. E4 Western NC<br />
  152. 152. E4b Western NC<br />
  153. 153. E4 Western NC<br />
  154. 154. E5 Central NC<br />
  155. 155. E4 Central NC<br />
  156. 156. E4 Western NC<br />
  157. 157. E4 Western NC<br />
  158. 158. E5 -> G5c AL<br />
  159. 159. G Streams<br />Incised<br />Narrow & Deep<br />Moderate Slope<br />
  160. 160. G Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf < 12<br />S = 0.02 – 0.04 ft/ft<br />Wbkf<br />
  161. 161. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  162. 162. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  163. 163. G4 Western NC<br />
  164. 164. G4 Eastern NC<br />
  165. 165. G5 Headcut Georgia<br />
  166. 166. G5 Headcut Georgia<br />
  167. 167. G4c Central NC<br />
  168. 168. G4c Alabama<br />
  169. 169. G4c Alabama<br />
  170. 170. G5c Eastern NC<br />
  171. 171. G5c Alabama<br />
  172. 172. G5c Florida<br />
  173. 173. G4<br />
  174. 174. 2000<br />2001<br />2003<br />2003<br />
  175. 175. F Streams<br />Incised, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />
  176. 176. F Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 12<br />S < 0.02 ft/ft<br />
  177. 177. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  178. 178. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  179. 179. F1 Asheville<br />
  180. 180. F2 New Zealand<br />
  181. 181. F2 New Zealand<br />
  182. 182. F3 New Zealand<br />
  183. 183. F4 Western NC<br />
  184. 184. F4 Texas<br />
  185. 185. F4 Texas<br />
  186. 186. F4 Alabama<br />
  187. 187. F5 Georgia<br />
  188. 188. F5 South Carolina<br />
  189. 189. Ugg Texas<br />
  190. 190. D & DA Streams<br />Multiple Channels, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />D4 Virginia<br />
  191. 191. D Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Multiple Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 40<br />
  192. 192. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  193. 193. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  194. 194. D4 Georgia<br />
  195. 195. D4 New Zealand<br />
  196. 196. D4 Oregon<br />
  197. 197. D4 Pennsylvania<br />
  198. 198. C4 -> D4 Western NC<br />
  199. 199. C4 -> D4 Western NC<br />
  200. 200. DA5 Florida<br />
  201. 201. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  202. 202. ER=11; W/d=16; S=0.004; D50=1 mm<br />
  203. 203. ER=1.3; W/d=7; S=0.007; D50=1.5 mm<br />
  204. 204. ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.024; D50=75 mm<br />
  205. 205. ER=1.5; W/d=10; S=0.009; D50=2 mm<br />
  206. 206. ER=4.5; W/d=14; S=0.033; D50=75 mm<br />
  207. 207. ER=3.4; W/d=13.2; S=0.012; D50=15 mm<br />
  208. 208. ER=6.5; W/d=10.5; S=0.008; D50=1.5 mm<br />
  209. 209. ER=10; W/d=9.5; S=0.005; D50=0.5 mm<br />
  210. 210. ER=1.5; W/d=10; S=0.009; D50=2 mm<br />
  211. 211. ER=1.4; W/d=10; S=0.050; D50=50 mm<br />
  212. 212. ER=1.3; W/d=15; S=0.002; D50=0.5 mm<br />
  213. 213. ER=1.3; W/d=7; S=0.007; D50=1.5 mm<br />
  214. 214. ER=5.5; W/d=29; S=0.009; D50=15 mm<br />
  215. 215. DA5 Florida<br />ER=18; W/d=45; S=0.0002; D50=0.1 mm<br />
  216. 216. ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.035; D50=110 mm<br />
  217. 217. ER=5.5; W/d=8.2; S=0.025; D50=12 mm<br />
  218. 218. ER=2.1; W/d=15; S=0.065; D50=120 mm<br />
  219. 219. ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.024; D50=75 mm<br />

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