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  • 1. Stream Assessment
    Greg Jennings, PhD, PE
    Professor, Biological & Agricultural Engineering
    North Carolina State University
    jennings@ncsu.edu
    Jason Zink, PE
    Zan Price, PE
    Mike Shaffer, PE
    Dave Penrose
    Barbara Doll, PE
    Kris Bass, PE
    Karen Hall
    Mitch Woodward
  • 2. What is a Stream?
    … a body of water with a current, confined within a bed and streambanks
    Synonyms:  bayou, beck, branch, brook, burn, creek, crick, kill, lick, rill, river, rivulet, run, slough, syke
    A stream is:
    • conduit in the water cycle
    • 3. critical habitat
    • 4. connected to a watershed
  • Hydrologic (Water) Cycle: describes the flow of water on the planet in response to solar energy and gravity
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 5. Water Cycle Components:
    Precipitation
    Runoff
    Infiltration
    Evapotranspiration
    Groundwater flow
  • 6. Average annual precipitation is highly variable and the timing of rainfall each year is unpredictable
  • 7. Extreme Weather!
  • 8. Watershed:
    “Area of land that drains water, sediment, and dissolved materials to a common outlet at some point along a stream channel”
    Dunne and Leopold, 1978
    Watershed form is influenced by:
    Climate
    Geology & Soils
    Fluvial Geomorphology
    Vegetation
    Land Uses
  • 9. Watersheds include many land uses affecting flow and water quality
  • 10. From Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913) :
    Watershed, n [Cf. G. wasserscheide; wasserwater + scheidea place where two things separate, fr. scheidento separate.]
    The whole region or extent of country which contributes to the supply of a river or lake.
    The line of division between two adjacent rivers or lakes with respect to the flow of water by natural channels into them; the natural boundary of a basin.
    Other Terms: Catchment, Drainage basin, River basin
  • 11. North Carolina River Basins
    River basins include watersheds of varying sizes and shapes, each with a network of streams delivering water to an outlet
  • 12. Watershed Stream Network
    Neuse River Basin, NC
  • 13. Watershed Functions:
    Transport & Storage:
    Water
    Sediment
    Dissolved Materials
    Habitat:
    Animals
    Plants
    Humans
  • 14. Water Transport to Streams
    Rainfall moves across the land as runoff or through the ground toward streams to provide baseflow
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 15. Groundwater Influences Streamflow
    Losing Stream Gaining Stream
    Groundwater Recharge Groundwater Discharge
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 16. Streamflow Duration and Frequency:
    Classification based on connection to groundwater
    Perennial
    (gaining stream)
    Ephemeral
    (losing stream)
    Intermittent
    (sometimes losing)
  • 17.
  • 18. Strahler Stream Order:
    Classification system describing position within the drainage network
    First order streams may be ephemeral, intermittent, or perennial in relation to groundwater connection
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 19. Stream Functions
    Transport water
    Transport sediment
    Habitat (aquatic & terrestrial)
    Recreation
    Aesthetics
    Safe Water Supply
  • 20. Water Transport & Storage
    Hydrology: The study of the flow of the earth’s waters through the hydrologic cycle
    Hydrograph: Displays change in flow (discharge, Q, over time)
    Peak Flow
    Rising Limb
    Falling Limb
    Mean Daily Flow
    www.Geology.com
  • 21. Hydrologic Responses to Urbanization
    Increased discharge
    Increased peak discharge
    Increased velocities
    Shorter time to peak flow
    More frequent bankfull events
    Increased flooding
    Lower baseflow
    Less ground water recharge
  • 22. Hydrograph Changes Due to Urbanization
    Increased impervious surface results in more runoff and higher peak flow
    Urban
    Rural
  • 23. Stream Condition Related to Impervious Surface
    Water quality and stream health decline in relation to impervious surface percentage
    Good
    Fair
    Poor
    Protected
    Impaired
    Urban Drainage Network
    Degraded
    Source: Center for Watershed Protection
  • 24. Channel incision and bank erosion increase due to channelization and increased stormwater runoff
  • 25. Urban streams have special challenges due to urban infrastructure (storm sewer and sanitary sewer)
  • 26. In addition to stormwater and sewer systems, urban streams are also challenged by confinement
  • 27. Fluvial Geomorphology:
    study of landforms and the fluvial processes that shape them
  • 28. Fluvial Processes:
    associated with flowing water, including sediment erosion, transport, and deposition
  • 29. Stream: A system of fluvial forms & habitats
    Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University
  • 34. Fluvial Forms
  • Fluvial Processes and Landforms
    How do stream systems work?
    What determines stream size & shape (i.e. morphology)?
  • 50. Streams are ecosystems
    • Communities of organisms and their physical, chemical, and biological environments
    Courtesy of Francois Birgand, NCSU
  • 51. Stream Ecosystems
    Mostly downstream fluxes of energy and matter
    Lateral and vertical connections to the riparian and hyporheic zones
    Courtesy of Francois Birgand, NCSU
  • 52. River Continuum Concept
    Connections
    • Watershed to Corridor to Stream
    • 53. Biological communities upstream and downstream
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 54. Hyporheic Zone
  • 55. Field Investigations
    What is living in the stream?
    What are the physical and chemical conditions of the stream?
  • 56. Ecosystem Services
    • Provisioning – food, energy, industry
    • 57. Regulating – climate, waste, nutrients
    • 58. Supporting – water quality, pest control
    • 59. Cultural – recreation, inspiration
    • 60. Preserving – species diversity
  • Self-Design
    The reorganization, substitution and shifting of an ecosystem (dynamics and functional processes) whereby it adapts to the environment superimposed upon it. (Mitsch & Jorgensen, Ecological Engineering)
  • 61. What makes a stream healthy?
    Bed stability & diversity
    Sediment transport balance
    In-stream habitat & flow diversity
    Bank stability (native plant roots)
    Riparian buffer (streamside forest)
    Active floodplain
    Healthy watershed
  • 62. 1. Bed Stability & Diversity
    • Appropriate size sediments to resist shear stress
    • 63. Riffle/Pool sequences in alluvial streams
    • 64. Step/Pool sequences in high-gradient streams
    Photo Credit: Eve Brantley, Auburn University
  • 65. Bed Stability & Diversity – Problems
    • Headcut and excess scour
    • 66. Plane bed – filling of pools
    • 67. Armoring
  • 2. Sediment Transport Balance
    • Minor erosion & deposition
    • 68. Alluvial bars and benches
    • 69. Sufficient stream power to avoid aggradation
  • 2. Sediment Transport Balance
    • Excess stream power – eroding bed
    • 70. Insufficient stream power – aggradation
  • 3. In-stream Habitat & Flow Diversity
    Overhanging Bank
    Roots
    Wood
    Pool
    Leaf Pack
    Plants
    Riffle
    Rocks
  • 71. Stream Habitats
    Macrohabitats: riffles, runs, pools, glides, steps, side channels
    Microhabitats: roots, leaf packs, wood, rocks, plants, hyporheic zone
  • 72. Food Web
  • 73. Diversity of habitats
  • 74. What habitats do you see?
    Pool
    Leaf Pack
    Wood
    Rocks
    Roots
    Riffle
  • 75. 3. In-stream Habitat – Problems
    • Uniform flow – lack of diversity
    • 76. Lack of wood, leaves, roots
    • 77. Water quality –DO, nutrients, toxics
  • 4. Bank Stability
    • Dense native plant roots
    • 78. Low banks with low stress
  • 4. Bank Stability – Problems
    • Loss of vegetation
    • 79. High, steep banks – channelization
  • 5. Riparian Buffer (Streamside Forest)
    • Diverse native plants
    • 80. Food and shade
  • 5. Riparian Buffer – Problems
    • Mowers and moo’ers
    • 81. Invasive plants
    • 82. Armoring and impervious surfaces
  • 6. Active Floodplain
    • Regular (every year) flooding to relieve stress
    • 83. Riparian wetlands
    • 84. Stormwater retention & treatment
  • 6. Active Floodplain – Problems
    • Channel incision
    • 85. Floodplain fill and encroachment
  • 7. Healthy Watershed
    • Stormwater management
    • 86. Wastewater management
    • 87. Upstream sediment control
  • 7. Healthy Watershed – Problems
    • Stormwater energy and volume
    • 88. Point and nonpoint source pollution
    • 89. Erosion and sediment
  • Stream Impairments
    • Straightening & dredging
    • 90. Floodplain filling
    • 91. Watershed manipulation
    • 92. Sedimentation & stormwater
    • 93. Pollution discharges
    • 94. Utilities & culverts
    • 95. Buffer removal
    • 96. Disdain & neglect
  • Stream Impairment Causes (US EPA)
    Pathogens
    Sediment
    Nutrients
    Organic Enrichment
    Habitat Alterations
    PCBs
    Metals
    Flow Alterations
    Temperature
    Mercury
  • 97. Why Restoration?
  • Restoring Stream Health
    Watershed management
    Floodplain reconnection
    Channel morphology – dimension, pattern, profile
    Sediment transport balance
    Habitat enhancements
    Bank stabilization
    Riparian buffer – native plants
  • 105. Stream Functions
    Transport water
    Transport sediment
    Habitat (aquatic & terrestrial)
    Recreation & aesthetics
    Safe Water Supply
  • 106. Velocity & Discharge
    Q = VA = Discharge (cfs)
    V = Velocity (ft/s)
    A = Cross-Section Area (ft2)
    V related to slope, channel shape, and channel roughness
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 107. Manning Formula
  • 108.
  • 109. A = 40 sq ft
    W = 22 ft
    R = 1.7 ft
    S = 0.010 ft/ft
    n = 0.040
    V = 5.0 ft/s
    Q = 200 cfs
    A = 220 sq ft
    W = 55 ft
    R = 3.5 ft
    S = 0.004 ft/ft
    n = 0.035
    V = 6.1 ft/s
    Q = 1350 cfs
  • 110. R = 1.5 ft
    S = 0.0012 ft/ft
    n = 0.038
    V = 1.8 ft/s
    Q = 89 cfs
    • = 0.11 lb/sq ft
    Competence = ~30 mm
  • 111. Stream Corridor Longitudinal Profile
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 112. Sediment Transport
    Flowing water does work:
    http://www.uwsp.edu/gEo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/fluvial_systems/geologic_work_of_streams.html
  • 115. Erosion: Detachment of material from bed and banks
    95% of stream energy used to overcome friction
    Remaining energy used for Erosion Processes:
    • Flowing water dissolves materials
    • 116. Hydraulic action dislodges materials
    • 117. Abrasion of heavy materials rolling on bottom
    http://www.uwsp.edu/gEo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/fluvial_systems/geologic_work_of_streams.html
  • 118. Transportation: Movement of material by water
    Stream Load includes:
    dissolved + suspended + bed load
    Capacity: maximum load that can be transported for a given discharge (increases with velocity and turbulence)
    Competence: largest size material that can be transported for a given discharge
    http://www.uwsp.edu/gEo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/fluvial_systems/geologic_work_of_streams.html
  • 119. Bedload is related to Discharge for Each River
  • 120. Deposition:
    Aggradation: Raising the bed elevation
    Bars: Depositional areas that may change flow directions
    http://www.uwsp.edu/gEo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/fluvial_systems/geologic_work_of_streams.html
  • 121. Bed Material (Substrate)
    Silt/Clay: < 0.062 mm
    Sand: 0.062 – 2 mm
    Gravel: 2 – 64 mm
    Cobble: 64 – 256 mm
    Boulder: 256 – 2048 mm
  • 122. Substrate CharacterizationWolman Pebble Count
  • 123. High Slope Moderate Slope Low Slope
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 124. Velocity & Particle Size Determine Process
    V = 5 ft/s
    V = 1 ft/s
    http://www.uwsp.edu/gEo/faculty/ritter/geog101/textbook/fluvial_systems/geologic_work_of_streams.html
  • 125. Shear Stress: fluid force per unit area acting on the streambed
     = Rs = Shear Stress (lb/ft2)
     = Unit Weight of Water = 62.4 lb/ft3
    R = Hydraulic Radius (ft) = A / P
    S = Average Water Surface Slope (ft/ft)
    A = Riffle Cross-Section Area (ft2)
    P = Wetted Perimeter (ft)
    P = Wbkf +2*Dbkf (approx)
  • 126. Stream Competence (www.epa.gov/WARSSS)
  • 127. A = 40 sq ft
    W = 22 ft
    R = 1.7 ft
    S = 0.010 ft/ft
    • = 1.0 lb/sq ft
    Competence = ~250 mm
    A = 220 sq ft
    W = 55 ft
    R = 3.5 ft
    S = 0.004 ft/ft
    • = 0.8 lb/sq ft
    Competence = ~200 mm
  • 128. A = 64 sqft
    W = 32 ft
    D = 2.0 ft
    R = 1.8 ft
    S = 0.012 ft/ft
    n = 0.040
    V = 5.7 ft/s
    Q = 370 cfs
    • =1.2 lb/sq ft
    Competence = 100-300 mm
  • 129. Sediment Deposition:
  • Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 134. Point Bars:
    Inside meander bends
  • 135. Lateral Bars:
    Formed in straight channels
  • 136. Lateral Bars:
    Formed in straight channels
  • 137. Mid-channel Bars:
    Formed in over-wide channels
  • 138. Transverse Bars:
    Formed in straight channels
  • 139. Meandering Stream: Alluvial Forms
    Flow Downstream
    Floodplain
    Scarp
    Bankfull Stage
    Point Bar
    Pool
    Left Bank
    Right Bank
    Riffle
    Thalweg
  • 140. Bankfull Stage
    “corresponds to the discharge at which channel maintenance is the most effective, that is, the discharge at which moving sediment, forming or removing bars, forming or changing bends and meanders, and generally doing work results in the average morphologic characteristics” (Dunne and Leopold,1978)
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 141. Bankfull
  • 142. Channel Evolution
    (Succession)
    Response to incising forces
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 143. Terrace
    Bankfull
  • 144. Incised System: Floodplain Creation
    Terrace
    Floodplain
  • 145. Stream Morphology:size and shape of channel & floodplain (dimension, pattern, profile)
  • 146.
  • 147. Valley type affects stream morphology
    Colluvium is loose sediment transported by gravity and deposited at the bottom of a slope.
    Alluvium is sediment deposited by a river in the channel or floodplain
    Alluvial valleys occur where sediment particles are dropped by slow-moving water.
  • 148. Valley Types: (www.epa.gov/watertrain/stream_class)
    Valley Type II Moderately steep, gentle sloping side slopes often in colluvial valleys
    From EPA Watershed Academy: Fundamentals of the Rosgen Stream Classification System
  • 149. Valley Types: (www.epa.gov/watertrain/stream_class)
    Valley Type VIII Wide, gentle valley slope with well-developed floodplain adjacent to river terraces
    From EPA Watershed Academy: Fundamentals of the Rosgen Stream Classification System
  • 150. Stream Corridor Lateral Profile
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 151. Floodplains: Critical Stream Components
  • 152. Floodplain Functions
  • 159. Terrace
    Floodplain
    Left Bank
    Right Bank
    Thalweg
    Streambed
    Downstream
  • 160. Terrace
    Floodplain
    Right Bank
    Left Bank
    Thalweg
    Streambed
    Downstream
  • 161. Pool Cross-Section (Meandering Stream)
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 162. Natural Stream Channel Stability
    (from Leopold)
    River has a stable dimension, pattern and profile
    Maintains channel features (riffles, pools, steps)
    Does not aggrade (fills) or degrade (erodes)
  • 163. Dimension (cross-section)
  • Bankfull Stage: “incipient flooding”
    “corresponds to the discharge at which channel maintenance is the most effective, that is, the discharge at which moving sediment, forming or removing bars, forming or changing bends and meanders, and generally doing work results in the average morphologic characteristics” (Dunne &Leopold,1978)
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 169. Terrace
    Bankfull
  • 170. Dimension: Cross-Section
  • 171. Riffle Dimensions
    Wbkf
    Bankfull
    Abkf
    dbkf
    Measure Bankfull Width (Wbkf) and Bankfull Area (Abkf)
    Mean Depth, dbkf = Abkf / Wbkf
    Width to Depth Ratio, W/d = Wbkf / dbkf
  • 172. Bankfull Width, Wbkf = 9.3 ft; Bankfull Area, Abkf = 13.9 ft2
    Mean Depth, dbkf= Abkf / Wbkf= 13.9 / 9.3 = 1.5 ft
    Width to Depth Ratio, W/d = Wbkf / dbkf = 9.3/ 1.5 = 6.2
    Wbkf
    dbkf
    Abkf
  • 173. Bankfull Width, Wbkf = 36 ft; Bankfull Area, Abkf = 112 ft2
    Mean Depth, dbkf= Abkf / Wbkf= 112 / 36 = 3.1 ft
    Width to Depth Ratio, W/d = Wbkf / dbkf = 36/ 3.1 = 11.5
    Wbkf
    Abkf
    dbkf
  • 174. Entrenchment Ratio
    ER = Wfpa / Wbkf
    Wfpa= Width of Flood Prone Area measured at the elevation twice bankfull max depth above thalweg
    Wbkf= Width of Bankfull Channel
    Wfpa
    Bankfull
    2 x dmbkf
    above thalweg
    dmbkf
    Wbkf
  • 175. ER = Wfpa / Wbkf = 75/ 15 = 5.0
    Wfpa
    Wbkf
  • 176. Rocky Branch Phase II Reach 2:
    Priority 2 (floodplain excavation, C channel)
    Entrenchment Ratio = Wfpa / Wbkf = 90/20 = 4.5
    Wfpa
    Wbkf
    Flood water flows onto floodplain several times each year
  • 177. Rocky Branch Phase II Reach 1:
    Priority 3 (floodplain excavation, Bc channel)
    Entrenchment Ratio = Wfpa / Wbkf = 40/20 = 2
    Wfpa
    Wbkf
  • 178. Bank Height Ratio
    BHR = LBH / dmbkf
    LBH= Low Bank Height (Max Depth to thalweg)
    dmbkf= Max Depth from bankfull stage to thalweg
    Bankfull
    LBH
    dmbkf
  • 179. BHR = 5.3 / 2.5 = 2.1
    Top of Bank
    Bankfull
    dmax tob
    dmax
  • 180.
  • 181.
  • 182. Pattern (plan form)
    Alluvial (low-gradient) streams naturally meander across a valley with a somewhat predictable pattern
  • 183. Meandering Stream: Alluvial Forms
    Riffle
    Point Bar (deposition)
    Run
    Glide
    Pool
  • 184. Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 185. Oxbow Formation in Meandering Streams
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 186. Chute cutoff across tight meander bend
  • 187. Oxbows
  • 188. Oxbows
  • 189. Sinuosity = stream length / valley length
    K = 1850 / 980 = 1.9
    Valley Length
  • 190. Plan Form Relationships
  • 191. Meander Length Ratio = meander length / width = 78/15 = 5.2
    Meander Width Ratio = belt width / width = 57/15 = 3.8
    Radius of Curvature Ratio = radius / width = 23/15 = 1.5
    Belt Width
    Meander Length
  • 192. Profile (bedform)
    Water Surface
    Riffle Slope
    Run Slope
    Glide Slope
    Pool Slope
    Thalweg
    Pool Spacing, Lp-p
    Riffle Slope Ratio, Srif / Sav
    Pool Slope Ratio, Spool/ Sav
    Pool-to-Pool Spacing Ratio, Lp-p/ Wbkf
  • 193. Stream Bedform Variability:Slope Substrate size Velocity OxygenationShear stress Habitats
  • 194. Riffles
  • Importance of Riffles
    Areas of oxygenation
    Highly diverse substrate and habitat
    Diverse macroinvertebrate population
  • 199. Pools
  • Importance of Pools
    Refuge for fish during low flow, drought periods
    Rest stop and food area for fish
    Predator refuge for young fish
  • 204. River Dimensions
  • 205. Velocities:Low flow and Flood flow
    Little Garvin Creek, Clemson, SC
  • 206. Channel dimensions in a meandering stream
    www.uwsp.edu/gEo/faculty/lemke/geomorphology/lecture_outlines/04_fluvial_landforms.html
  • 207. Profile is related to Pattern
  • 208. Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 209. Step Pool Streams
    (high gradient)
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 210. Grade Controls
    Nickpoints
  • 211. Flow diversity improves habitat:
  • Natural Stream Channel Stability
    (from Leopold)
    River has a stable dimension, pattern and profile
    Maintains channel features (riffles, pools, steps)
    Does not aggrade (fills) or degrade (erodes)
  • 214. Equilibrium Controlling Variables
    Leopold et al (1964)
  • 222. Channel Forming Discharges
    and Regional Curves
  • 223. Channel-forming (dominant) discharge
    Estimated using:
    • Effective discharge
    • 224. Bankfull discharge
    • 225. Discharge associated with recurrence interval (typically 1 to 2 year)
  • Effective Discharge
    Transports the most sediment over a long time
  • 226. Bankfull Discharge
    Flow fills active channel and spreads onto floodplain
    Represents break between channel & floodplain processes
    For channel in equilibrium, assumed to equal the effective discharge
    Return Period typically 1 to 2 years
  • 227. Bankfull Stage
    “corresponds to the discharge at which channel maintenance is the most effective, that is, the discharge at which moving sediment, forming or removing bars, forming or changing bends and meanders, and generally doing work results in the average morphologic characteristics” (Dunne and Leopold,1978)
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 228. Bankfull
  • 229. Bankfull Indicators
    • Top of streambank (floodplain)
    • 230. Break in slope on streambank
    • 231. Top of point bar
    Bankfull
    Bankfull
  • 232. Bankfull
  • 233. Bankfull
  • 234. Bankfull
  • 235. Bankfull
  • 236. Channel Evolution
    (Succession)
    Response to incising forces
    Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. 1998. Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group.
  • 237. Terrace
    Bankfull
  • 238. Bankfull
  • 239.
  • 240. Bankfull
  • 241. Bankfull