Rc101 Day 2 Jennings 10

532 views
406 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
532
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Rc101 Day 2 Jennings 10

  1. 1. Stream Classification<br />Why Classify Streams?<br /><ul><li>Communication Tool
  2. 2. Describe Existing Conditions & Trends
  3. 3. Describe Restoration Goals
  4. 4. Research Tool</li></li></ul><li>Morphologic Stream Classification Systems<br />Schumm (1977)<br />Alluvial channels<br />Meandering, straight, braided<br />Type related to channel stability & sediment transport<br />Montgomery & Buffington (1993)<br />Alluvial, colluvial, bedrock channels<br />Channel response related to sediment inputs<br />6 classes of alluvial channels: cascade, step-pool, plane-bed, riffle-pool, regime, and braided<br />Rosgen (1994)<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  5. 5. Rosgen Classification of Natural Rivers<br />Based on physical characteristics (empirical)<br />Requires field measurements<br />Requires bankfull dimensions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  6. 6. What factors affect stream morphology?<br /><ul><li>Width
  7. 7. Depth
  8. 8. Slope
  9. 9. Velocity
  10. 10. Discharge
  11. 11. Flow resistance
  12. 12. Sediment size
  13. 13. Sediment load</li></ul>Leopold et al (1964)<br />
  14. 14. Rosgen Classification of Natural Rivers<br />Dimension (cross-section)<br />Pattern (plan form)<br />Profile (bed form)<br />Bed material (substrate)<br />
  15. 15. Level 1 Rosgen Classification<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  16. 16. Level 2 Rosgen Classification<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  17. 17. Riffle Dimensions<br />Wbkf<br />Bankfull<br />Abkf<br />dbkf<br />Measure Bankfull Width (Wbkf) and Bankfull Area (Abkf)<br />Mean Depth, dbkf = Abkf / Wbkf<br />Width to Depth Ratio, W/d = Wbkf / dbkf<br />
  18. 18. W/d = 9.3 / 1.5 = 6.2 <br />Wbkf<br />dbkf<br />Abkf<br />
  19. 19. Entrenchment Ratio<br />ER = Wfpa / Wbkf<br />Wfpa = Width of Flood Prone Area measured at the elevation twice bankfull max depth above thalweg<br />Wbkf = Width of Bankfull Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />2 x dmax<br />above thalweg<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />
  20. 20. ER = Wfpa / Wbkf = 63/ 15 = 4.2 <br />Wfpa<br />Wbkf<br />
  21. 21. Bed Material (Substrate)<br />Silt/Clay: < 0.062 mm<br />Sand: 0.062 – 2 mm<br />Gravel: 2 – 64 mm<br />Cobble: 64 – 256 mm<br />Boulder: 256 – 2048 mm<br />
  22. 22. Substrate CharacterizationWolman Pebble Count<br />
  23. 23. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  24. 24. Valley Types: (www.epa.gov/watertrain/stream_class)<br />Valley Type II Moderately steep, gentle sloping side slopes often in colluvial valleys<br />From EPA Watershed Academy: Fundamentals of the Rosgen Stream Classification System<br />
  25. 25. Valley Types: (www.epa.gov/watertrain/stream_class)<br />Valley Type VIII Wide, gentle valley slope with well-developed floodplain adjacent to river terraces<br />From EPA Watershed Academy: Fundamentals of the Rosgen Stream Classification System<br />
  26. 26. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  27. 27. A Streams<br />Incised, Narrow & Deep, Steep Slope<br />Colluvial Valley<br />
  28. 28. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  29. 29. A Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf < 12<br />S > 0.04 ft/ft<br />Wbkf<br />
  30. 30. A2 Western NC<br />
  31. 31. A2 Montana<br />
  32. 32. A3 Western NC<br />
  33. 33. Aa+ Streams<br />Very Steep<br />(>0.1 ft/ft)<br />A1a+ Western NC<br />
  34. 34. A1a+ Western NC<br />
  35. 35. A1a+ Tennessee<br />
  36. 36. B Streams<br />Moderately Incised, Wide & Shallow, Moderate Slope, Colluvial Valley<br />
  37. 37. B Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf = 1.4 – 2.2<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 12<br />S = 0.02 – 0.04 ft/ft<br />
  38. 38. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  39. 39. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  40. 40. B3 Western NC<br />
  41. 41. B3 Western NC<br />
  42. 42. B3 Western NC<br />
  43. 43. B4 Tennessee<br />
  44. 44. B3 Western NC<br />
  45. 45. B4 Western NC<br />
  46. 46. B4c Western NC<br />
  47. 47. C Streams<br />Not Incised, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />Alluvial Valley<br />
  48. 48. C Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 12<br />S < 0.02 ft/ft<br />
  49. 49. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  50. 50. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  51. 51. C4 Western NC<br />
  52. 52. C4 Western NC<br />
  53. 53. C4 Washington<br />
  54. 54. C4 New Zealand<br />
  55. 55. C4 Western NC<br />
  56. 56. C5 Alabama<br />
  57. 57. C4 Utah<br />
  58. 58. C4 Western NC<br />
  59. 59. E Streams<br />Not Incised, Narrow & Deep, Low Slope<br />Alluvial Valley<br />
  60. 60. E Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf < 12<br />S < 0.02 ft/ft<br />Wbkf<br />
  61. 61. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  62. 62. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  63. 63. E4 Western NC<br />
  64. 64. E4 Central NC<br />
  65. 65. E4 Central NC<br />
  66. 66. E4 Western NC<br />
  67. 67. E4 Western NC<br />
  68. 68. E4b Western NC<br />
  69. 69. E4 Western NC<br />
  70. 70. E5 Central NC<br />
  71. 71. E4 Central NC<br />
  72. 72. E4 Western NC<br />
  73. 73. E4 Western NC<br />
  74. 74. E5 -> G5c AL<br />
  75. 75. G Streams<br />Incised<br />Narrow & Deep<br />Moderate Slope<br />
  76. 76. G Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf < 12<br />S = 0.02 – 0.04 ft/ft<br />Wbkf<br />
  77. 77. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  78. 78. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  79. 79. G4 Western NC<br />
  80. 80. G4 Eastern NC<br />
  81. 81. G5 Headcut Georgia<br />
  82. 82. G5 Headcut Georgia<br />
  83. 83. G4c Central NC<br />
  84. 84. G4c Alabama<br />
  85. 85. G4c Alabama<br />
  86. 86. G5c Eastern NC<br />
  87. 87. G5c Alabama<br />
  88. 88. G5c Florida<br />
  89. 89. G4<br />
  90. 90. 2000<br />2001<br />2003<br />2003<br />
  91. 91. F Streams<br />Incised, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />
  92. 92. F Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Single Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 12<br />S < 0.02 ft/ft<br />
  93. 93. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  94. 94. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  95. 95. F1 Asheville<br />
  96. 96. F2 New Zealand<br />
  97. 97. F2 New Zealand<br />
  98. 98. F3 New Zealand<br />
  99. 99. F4 Western NC<br />
  100. 100. F4 Texas<br />
  101. 101. F4 Texas<br />
  102. 102. F4 Alabama<br />
  103. 103. F5 Georgia<br />
  104. 104. F5 South Carolina<br />
  105. 105. Ugg Texas<br />
  106. 106. D & DA Streams<br />Multiple Channels, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope<br />D4 Virginia<br />
  107. 107. D Stream Channel<br />Wfpa<br />Bankfull<br />dbkf<br />dmax<br />Wbkf<br />Multiple Thread Channel<br />ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2<br />W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 40<br />
  108. 108. Stream Types in Landscape Positions<br />www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  109. 109. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  110. 110. D4 Georgia<br />
  111. 111. D4 New Zealand<br />
  112. 112. D4 Oregon<br />
  113. 113. D4 Pennsylvania<br />
  114. 114. C4 -> D4 Western NC<br />
  115. 115. C4 -> D4 Western NC<br />
  116. 116. DA5 Florida<br />
  117. 117. www.wildlandhydrology.com<br />
  118. 118. ER=11; W/d=16; S=0.004; D50=1 mm<br />
  119. 119. ER=1.3; W/d=7; S=0.007; D50=1.5 mm<br />
  120. 120. ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.024; D50=75 mm<br />
  121. 121. ER=1.5; W/d=10; S=0.009; D50=2 mm<br />
  122. 122. ER=4.5; W/d=14; S=0.033; D50=75 mm<br />
  123. 123. ER=3.4; W/d=13.2; S=0.012; D50=15 mm<br />
  124. 124. ER=6.5; W/d=10.5; S=0.008; D50=1.5 mm<br />
  125. 125. ER=10; W/d=9.5; S=0.005; D50=0.5 mm<br />
  126. 126. ER=1.5; W/d=10; S=0.009; D50=2 mm<br />
  127. 127. ER=1.4; W/d=10; S=0.050; D50=50 mm<br />
  128. 128. ER=1.3; W/d=15; S=0.002; D50=0.5 mm<br />
  129. 129. ER=1.3; W/d=7; S=0.007; D50=1.5 mm<br />
  130. 130. ER=5.5; W/d=29; S=0.009; D50=15 mm<br />
  131. 131. DA5 Florida<br />ER=18; W/d=45; S=0.0002; D50=0.1 mm<br />
  132. 132. ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.035; D50=110 mm<br />
  133. 133. ER=5.5; W/d=8.2; S=0.025; D50=12 mm<br />
  134. 134. ER=2.1; W/d=15; S=0.065; D50=120 mm<br />
  135. 135. ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.024; D50=75 mm<br />

×