Rc101 Day 2 Jennings 10
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    Rc101 Day 2 Jennings 10 Rc101 Day 2 Jennings 10 Presentation Transcript

    • Stream Classification
      Why Classify Streams?
      • Communication Tool
      • Describe Existing Conditions & Trends
      • Describe Restoration Goals
      • Research Tool
    • Morphologic Stream Classification Systems
      Schumm (1977)
      Alluvial channels
      Meandering, straight, braided
      Type related to channel stability & sediment transport
      Montgomery & Buffington (1993)
      Alluvial, colluvial, bedrock channels
      Channel response related to sediment inputs
      6 classes of alluvial channels: cascade, step-pool, plane-bed, riffle-pool, regime, and braided
      Rosgen (1994)
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • Rosgen Classification of Natural Rivers
      Based on physical characteristics (empirical)
      Requires field measurements
      Requires bankfull dimensions
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • What factors affect stream morphology?
      • Width
      • Depth
      • Slope
      • Velocity
      • Discharge
      • Flow resistance
      • Sediment size
      • Sediment load
      Leopold et al (1964)
    • Rosgen Classification of Natural Rivers
      Dimension (cross-section)
      Pattern (plan form)
      Profile (bed form)
      Bed material (substrate)
    • Level 1 Rosgen Classification
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • Level 2 Rosgen Classification
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • Riffle Dimensions
      Wbkf
      Bankfull
      Abkf
      dbkf
      Measure Bankfull Width (Wbkf) and Bankfull Area (Abkf)
      Mean Depth, dbkf = Abkf / Wbkf
      Width to Depth Ratio, W/d = Wbkf / dbkf
    • W/d = 9.3 / 1.5 = 6.2
      Wbkf
      dbkf
      Abkf
    • Entrenchment Ratio
      ER = Wfpa / Wbkf
      Wfpa = Width of Flood Prone Area measured at the elevation twice bankfull max depth above thalweg
      Wbkf = Width of Bankfull Channel
      Wfpa
      Bankfull
      2 x dmax
      above thalweg
      dmax
      Wbkf
    • ER = Wfpa / Wbkf = 63/ 15 = 4.2
      Wfpa
      Wbkf
    • Bed Material (Substrate)
      Silt/Clay: < 0.062 mm
      Sand: 0.062 – 2 mm
      Gravel: 2 – 64 mm
      Cobble: 64 – 256 mm
      Boulder: 256 – 2048 mm
    • Substrate CharacterizationWolman Pebble Count
    • www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • Valley Types: (www.epa.gov/watertrain/stream_class)
      Valley Type II Moderately steep, gentle sloping side slopes often in colluvial valleys
      From EPA Watershed Academy: Fundamentals of the Rosgen Stream Classification System
    • Valley Types: (www.epa.gov/watertrain/stream_class)
      Valley Type VIII Wide, gentle valley slope with well-developed floodplain adjacent to river terraces
      From EPA Watershed Academy: Fundamentals of the Rosgen Stream Classification System
    • Stream Types in Landscape Positions
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • A Streams
      Incised, Narrow & Deep, Steep Slope
      Colluvial Valley
    • www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • A Stream Channel
      Wfpa
      Bankfull
      dbkf
      dmax
      Single Thread Channel
      ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4
      W/d = Wbkf/dbkf < 12
      S > 0.04 ft/ft
      Wbkf
    • A2 Western NC
    • A2 Montana
    • A3 Western NC
    • Aa+ Streams
      Very Steep
      (>0.1 ft/ft)
      A1a+ Western NC
    • A1a+ Western NC
    • A1a+ Tennessee
    • B Streams
      Moderately Incised, Wide & Shallow, Moderate Slope, Colluvial Valley
    • B Stream Channel
      Wfpa
      Bankfull
      dbkf
      dmax
      Wbkf
      Single Thread Channel
      ER = Wfpa/Wbkf = 1.4 – 2.2
      W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 12
      S = 0.02 – 0.04 ft/ft
    • Stream Types in Landscape Positions
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • B3 Western NC
    • B3 Western NC
    • B3 Western NC
    • B4 Tennessee
    • B3 Western NC
    • B4 Western NC
    • B4c Western NC
    • C Streams
      Not Incised, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope
      Alluvial Valley
    • C Stream Channel
      Wfpa
      Bankfull
      dbkf
      dmax
      Wbkf
      Single Thread Channel
      ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2
      W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 12
      S < 0.02 ft/ft
    • Stream Types in Landscape Positions
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • C4 Western NC
    • C4 Western NC
    • C4 Washington
    • C4 New Zealand
    • C4 Western NC
    • C5 Alabama
    • C4 Utah
    • C4 Western NC
    • E Streams
      Not Incised, Narrow & Deep, Low Slope
      Alluvial Valley
    • E Stream Channel
      Wfpa
      Bankfull
      dbkf
      dmax
      Single Thread Channel
      ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2
      W/d = Wbkf/dbkf < 12
      S < 0.02 ft/ft
      Wbkf
    • Stream Types in Landscape Positions
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • E4 Western NC
    • E4 Central NC
    • E4 Central NC
    • E4 Western NC
    • E4 Western NC
    • E4b Western NC
    • E4 Western NC
    • E5 Central NC
    • E4 Central NC
    • E4 Western NC
    • E4 Western NC
    • E5 -> G5c AL
    • G Streams
      Incised
      Narrow & Deep
      Moderate Slope
    • G Stream Channel
      Wfpa
      Bankfull
      dbkf
      dmax
      Single Thread Channel
      ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4
      W/d = Wbkf/dbkf < 12
      S = 0.02 – 0.04 ft/ft
      Wbkf
    • Stream Types in Landscape Positions
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • G4 Western NC
    • G4 Eastern NC
    • G5 Headcut Georgia
    • G5 Headcut Georgia
    • G4c Central NC
    • G4c Alabama
    • G4c Alabama
    • G5c Eastern NC
    • G5c Alabama
    • G5c Florida
    • G4
    • 2000
      2001
      2003
      2003
    • F Streams
      Incised, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope
    • F Stream Channel
      Wfpa
      Bankfull
      dbkf
      dmax
      Wbkf
      Single Thread Channel
      ER = Wfpa/Wbkf < 1.4
      W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 12
      S < 0.02 ft/ft
    • Stream Types in Landscape Positions
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • F1 Asheville
    • F2 New Zealand
    • F2 New Zealand
    • F3 New Zealand
    • F4 Western NC
    • F4 Texas
    • F4 Texas
    • F4 Alabama
    • F5 Georgia
    • F5 South Carolina
    • Ugg Texas
    • D & DA Streams
      Multiple Channels, Wide & Shallow, Low Slope
      D4 Virginia
    • D Stream Channel
      Wfpa
      Bankfull
      dbkf
      dmax
      Wbkf
      Multiple Thread Channel
      ER = Wfpa/Wbkf > 2.2
      W/d = Wbkf/dbkf > 40
    • Stream Types in Landscape Positions
      www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • D4 Georgia
    • D4 New Zealand
    • D4 Oregon
    • D4 Pennsylvania
    • C4 -> D4 Western NC
    • C4 -> D4 Western NC
    • DA5 Florida
    • www.wildlandhydrology.com
    • ER=11; W/d=16; S=0.004; D50=1 mm
    • ER=1.3; W/d=7; S=0.007; D50=1.5 mm
    • ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.024; D50=75 mm
    • ER=1.5; W/d=10; S=0.009; D50=2 mm
    • ER=4.5; W/d=14; S=0.033; D50=75 mm
    • ER=3.4; W/d=13.2; S=0.012; D50=15 mm
    • ER=6.5; W/d=10.5; S=0.008; D50=1.5 mm
    • ER=10; W/d=9.5; S=0.005; D50=0.5 mm
    • ER=1.5; W/d=10; S=0.009; D50=2 mm
    • ER=1.4; W/d=10; S=0.050; D50=50 mm
    • ER=1.3; W/d=15; S=0.002; D50=0.5 mm
    • ER=1.3; W/d=7; S=0.007; D50=1.5 mm
    • ER=5.5; W/d=29; S=0.009; D50=15 mm
    • DA5 Florida
      ER=18; W/d=45; S=0.0002; D50=0.1 mm
    • ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.035; D50=110 mm
    • ER=5.5; W/d=8.2; S=0.025; D50=12 mm
    • ER=2.1; W/d=15; S=0.065; D50=120 mm
    • ER=2.2; W/d=14; S=0.024; D50=75 mm