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Replication & protein synthesis
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Replication & protein synthesis



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  • 2. 1. Before a cell divides, the bonds between the complementary bases break in short sections of the double-stranded DNA molecules, and the complementary strands separate from one another (UNWINDING/ UNZIPPING)
  • 3. • Each split in the molecule is called a REPLICATION FORK 2. At the forks, each separated strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new complementary strand
  • 4. 3. In a process directed by enzymes, free nucleotide units that are present in the nucleus link to complementary bases on each of the DNA strands
  • 5. The sugars and phosphates of the new nucleotides bond together to form the backbones of both new strands 4.
  • 6. • The process of DNA replication begins with one doublestranded DNA molecule and ends with 2 double stranded DNA molecules
  • 7. • Each double strand contains one strand from the parent molecule + a new complementary strand assembled from free nucleotides
  • 8. • Each of the new double stranded molecules is identical to the other and is also identical to the original parent molecule
  • 11. 1.Protein synthesis begins once the double-stranded DNA molecule unzips 2.Double helix uncoils
  • 12. 3. Nucleotides from the mRNA find the appropriate pair by using the single stranded DNA as blueprint * Soon mRNA nucleotides are joined into a long chain
  • 13. 4. Once the chain has been fused, the mRNA molecule moves away from the parent DNA strand * The 2 strands of the original DNA rejoins
  • 14. • THE PROCESS OF TRANSCRIPTION IS COMPLETE • ss mRNA molecule moves through the nuclear membrane & carries the nitrogen base code to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm
  • 16. 1. mRNA attaches itself to the ribosome much like a ribbon 2. An initiator codon turns on the protein synthesis
  • 17. tRNA picks up amino acids that are circulating within the cytoplasm and shuttles them to the mRNA 3.
  • 18. 4. The amino acid is held in place against one end of the clover-leafshaped molecule * The other end of the tRNA molecule has a plug-shaped structure with 3 nitrogen bases exposed (ANTICODON)
  • 19. • Each kind of tRNA molecule has a specific anticodon 5. The mRNA moves along the ribosome much like a typewriter ribbon
  • 20. 6. A new codon of mRNA is then exposed for fitting with another tRNA anticodon 7. The amino acid carried by the tRNA molecules are fused into longchain proteins on the ribosome
  • 21. 8. The sequencing of the amino acid is determined by the message carried from the nucleus by the mRNA molecule
  • 22. 9. Once the protein molecule has been built, a terminator codon turns the synthesis off and the process of translation is complete